Abstract

The mechanism of hologram formation in dichromated gelatin is studied from all aspects with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is indicated that the Cr 2p 3/2 XPS spectrum of chromium used for hologram formation shows the property of exhibiting a continuous spectrum during the process of dichromated-gelatin hologram formation. By means of curve fitting and drawing a comparison between the obtained spectra and those of some standard substances, it is found that during the process of hologram formation the valence of chromium used for hologram formation changes from Cr6+ to a quasi-trivalent state to Cr4+, and finally to Cr3+. Accordingly, the corresponding compound experiences a change from (NH4)2Cr2O7 to the transient state close to the feature of Cr(OH)3 to CrO2, and finally to Cr3+, cross linking with the gelatin. The essence of the chemical change at different stages of the process of hologram formation was found, and so the present mechanism, which is determined with comparatively abundant proof, should replace previously reported mechanisms, which were too simple, varied, and sometimes even mutually contradictory. According to the experimental results and the fact that a solid-film reaction, which differs from that of the liquid-phase reaction, was studied, possible chemical-reaction equations of the process of hologram formation are established. This becomes the basis for explaining previous findings and expanding further research.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. A. Shankoff, “Phase holograms in dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101–2105 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. A. Vinogradov, S. B. Katenin, G. A. Shagisultanova, M. I. Brodzeli, and I. A. Eligulashvili, “Formation of latent image centers with exposure of dichromated gelatin layers,” Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) 61(4), 888–890 (1988).
  3. V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).
  4. S. M. Maloletov, V. V. Kalinkin, A. N. Malov, and V. P. Sherstyuk, “Development of self-developing materials with high diffraction efficiency,” Zh. Nauchn. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (Russia) 36(3), 245–249 (1991).
  5. T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, and K. Honda, “Hologram formation with red light in methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556–558 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated gelatin and the mechanism of hologram formation,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 112–118 (1981).
  7. S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated gelatin and light sensitivity,” J. Imag. Sci. 30(4), 151–154 (1986).
  8. M. Mazakova, P. Sharlandzhiev, M. Pancheva, and G. Spassov, “Electron donors and heat treatment: their effect on the diffraction efficiency of dichromated gelatin reflection holograms,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2156–2160 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, and G. E. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Physical Electronics Division, Minnesota, 1978).
  10. I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. D. Baker and D. Betteridge, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Pergamon, New York, 1972).
  12. J. Wang, W. Wu, and D. Feng, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (National Defence Industry Press, Beijing, China, 1992), Chap. 8.
  13. Editorial Office for Inorganic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry (People Education Press, Beijing, China, 1978), Chap. 16.

1991 (1)

S. M. Maloletov, V. V. Kalinkin, A. N. Malov, and V. P. Sherstyuk, “Development of self-developing materials with high diffraction efficiency,” Zh. Nauchn. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (Russia) 36(3), 245–249 (1991).

1988 (1)

S. A. Vinogradov, S. B. Katenin, G. A. Shagisultanova, M. I. Brodzeli, and I. A. Eligulashvili, “Formation of latent image centers with exposure of dichromated gelatin layers,” Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) 61(4), 888–890 (1988).

1986 (1)

S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated gelatin and light sensitivity,” J. Imag. Sci. 30(4), 151–154 (1986).

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).

1981 (1)

S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated gelatin and the mechanism of hologram formation,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 112–118 (1981).

1976 (2)

I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, and K. Honda, “Hologram formation with red light in methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556–558 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

Baker, A. D.

A. D. Baker and D. Betteridge, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Pergamon, New York, 1972).

Bazhenov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).

Betteridge, D.

A. D. Baker and D. Betteridge, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Pergamon, New York, 1972).

Brodzeli, M. I.

S. A. Vinogradov, S. B. Katenin, G. A. Shagisultanova, M. I. Brodzeli, and I. A. Eligulashvili, “Formation of latent image centers with exposure of dichromated gelatin layers,” Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) 61(4), 888–890 (1988).

Burykin, N. M.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).

Davis, L. E.

C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, and G. E. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Physical Electronics Division, Minnesota, 1978).

Eligulashvili, I. A.

S. A. Vinogradov, S. B. Katenin, G. A. Shagisultanova, M. I. Brodzeli, and I. A. Eligulashvili, “Formation of latent image centers with exposure of dichromated gelatin layers,” Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) 61(4), 888–890 (1988).

Feng, D.

J. Wang, W. Wu, and D. Feng, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (National Defence Industry Press, Beijing, China, 1992), Chap. 8.

Franco, M. A. A.

I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Honda, K.

Ikemoto, I.

I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kalinkin, V. V.

S. M. Maloletov, V. V. Kalinkin, A. N. Malov, and V. P. Sherstyuk, “Development of self-developing materials with high diffraction efficiency,” Zh. Nauchn. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (Russia) 36(3), 245–249 (1991).

Katenin, S. B.

S. A. Vinogradov, S. B. Katenin, G. A. Shagisultanova, M. I. Brodzeli, and I. A. Eligulashvili, “Formation of latent image centers with exposure of dichromated gelatin layers,” Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) 61(4), 888–890 (1988).

Kinoshita, S.

I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, T.

Kuroda, H.

I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Maloletov, S. M.

S. M. Maloletov, V. V. Kalinkin, A. N. Malov, and V. P. Sherstyuk, “Development of self-developing materials with high diffraction efficiency,” Zh. Nauchn. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (Russia) 36(3), 245–249 (1991).

Malov, A. N.

S. M. Maloletov, V. V. Kalinkin, A. N. Malov, and V. P. Sherstyuk, “Development of self-developing materials with high diffraction efficiency,” Zh. Nauchn. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (Russia) 36(3), 245–249 (1991).

Mazakova, M.

Moulder, J. F.

C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, and G. E. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Physical Electronics Division, Minnesota, 1978).

Muilenberg, G. E.

C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, and G. E. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Physical Electronics Division, Minnesota, 1978).

Ose, T.

Pancheva, M.

Riggs, W. M.

C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, and G. E. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Physical Electronics Division, Minnesota, 1978).

Sasaki, M.

Shagisultanova, G. A.

S. A. Vinogradov, S. B. Katenin, G. A. Shagisultanova, M. I. Brodzeli, and I. A. Eligulashvili, “Formation of latent image centers with exposure of dichromated gelatin layers,” Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) 61(4), 888–890 (1988).

Shankoff, T. A.

Sharlandzhiev, P.

Sherstyuk, V. P.

S. M. Maloletov, V. V. Kalinkin, A. N. Malov, and V. P. Sherstyuk, “Development of self-developing materials with high diffraction efficiency,” Zh. Nauchn. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (Russia) 36(3), 245–249 (1991).

Sjolinder, S.

S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated gelatin and light sensitivity,” J. Imag. Sci. 30(4), 151–154 (1986).

S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated gelatin and the mechanism of hologram formation,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 112–118 (1981).

Soskin, M. S.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).

Spassov, G.

Taranenko, V. B.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).

Thomas, J. M.

I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).

Vinogradov, S. A.

S. A. Vinogradov, S. B. Katenin, G. A. Shagisultanova, M. I. Brodzeli, and I. A. Eligulashvili, “Formation of latent image centers with exposure of dichromated gelatin layers,” Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) 61(4), 888–890 (1988).

Volkov, S. V.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).

Wagner, C. D.

C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, and G. E. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Physical Electronics Division, Minnesota, 1978).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, W. Wu, and D. Feng, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (National Defence Industry Press, Beijing, China, 1992), Chap. 8.

Wu, W.

J. Wang, W. Wu, and D. Feng, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (National Defence Industry Press, Beijing, China, 1992), Chap. 8.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Imag. Sci. (1)

S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated gelatin and light sensitivity,” J. Imag. Sci. 30(4), 151–154 (1986).

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

I. Ikemoto, K. Ishii, S. Kinoshita, H. Kuroda, M. A. A. Franco, and J. M. Thomas, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of CrO2 and some related chromium compounds,” J. Solid State Chem. 17(4), 425–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Photogr. Sci. Eng. (1)

S. Sjolinder, “Dichromated gelatin and the mechanism of hologram formation,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 112–118 (1981).

Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) (1)

V. Yu. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. V. Vasnetsov, S. V. Volkov, M. S. Soskin, and V. B. Taranenko, “Study of the formation of volumetric phase holograms in dichromated gelatin films,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.) 27(1), 30–36 (1982).

Zh. Nauchn. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (Russia) (1)

S. M. Maloletov, V. V. Kalinkin, A. N. Malov, and V. P. Sherstyuk, “Development of self-developing materials with high diffraction efficiency,” Zh. Nauchn. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (Russia) 36(3), 245–249 (1991).

Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) (1)

S. A. Vinogradov, S. B. Katenin, G. A. Shagisultanova, M. I. Brodzeli, and I. A. Eligulashvili, “Formation of latent image centers with exposure of dichromated gelatin layers,” Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad) 61(4), 888–890 (1988).

Other (4)

C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, and G. E. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Physical Electronics Division, Minnesota, 1978).

A. D. Baker and D. Betteridge, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Pergamon, New York, 1972).

J. Wang, W. Wu, and D. Feng, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (National Defence Industry Press, Beijing, China, 1992), Chap. 8.

Editorial Office for Inorganic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry (People Education Press, Beijing, China, 1978), Chap. 16.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XPS spectra of some samples: (a) (NH4)2Cr2O7. (b) Unexposed DCG. (c) Exposed DCG. (d) Developed DCG.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 XPS Measuring Data and Some Corresponding Inferences of Each Sample

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cr 2p3/2 Binding Energy Eb of Some Chromium Compounds

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Cr VI     Cr V     Cr IV     Cr ( III ) .
Cr VI h ν Cr III .
Cr 6 +   h ν Cr 4 + ,
Cr 4 + + Cr 6 + 2 Cr 5 + ,
3 Cr 5 + H 2 O 2 Cr 6 + + Cr 3 + .
Cr 2 O 7 2 - + 14 H + + 6 e     2 Cr 3 + + 7 H 2 O ,   E A 0 = 1.33   V ,
CrO 4 2 - + 4 H 2 O + 3 e     Cr OH 3 + 5 OH - ,   E A 0 = - 0.13   V .
Cr 2 O 7 2 - + H 2 O     2 CrO 4 2 - + 2 H + ,   K = 8.33 × 10 - 15 ,
CrO 4 2 - + H +     HCrO 4 - ,     K = 3.13 × 10 6 ,

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