Abstract

We have developed a prototype optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for the imaging of hard and soft tissue in the oral cavity. High-resolution images of in vitro porcine periodontal tissues have been obtained with this system. The images clearly show the enamel–cementum and the gingiva–tooth interfaces, indicating OCT is a potentially useful technique for diagnosis of periodontal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first application of OCT for imaging biologic hard tissue.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izaat, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 543–545 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. L. Pihlstrom, “Measurement of attachment level in clinical trials—probing methods,” J. Periodontol. 63, 1072–1077 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using 4 different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 23, 76–82 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Aguero, J. J. Garnick, J. Keagle, D. E. Steflik, W. O. Thompson, “Histological location of a standardized periodontal probe in man,” J. Periodontol. 66, 184–190 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. G. Keagle, J. J. Garnick, J. R. Searle, G. E. King, P. K. Morse, “Gingival resistance to probing forces: determination of optimal probe diameter,” J. Periodontol. 60, 167–171 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. U. Van der Welden, “Errors in the assessment of pocket depth in vitro,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 5, 182–187 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. D. Fransdon, R. L. Spurgeon, Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, 5th ed. (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), Chap. 5.
  14. D. Fried, R. E. Glena, J. D. B. Featherstone, W. Seka, “Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1278–1285 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Nathel, J. H. Kinney, L. L. Otis, “Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging,” U.S. patent5570182 (29October1996).
  16. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

1995 (5)

D. Fried, R. E. Glena, J. D. B. Featherstone, W. Seka, “Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1278–1285 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguero, J. J. Garnick, J. Keagle, D. E. Steflik, W. O. Thompson, “Histological location of a standardized periodontal probe in man,” J. Periodontol. 66, 184–190 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izaat, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

B. L. Pihlstrom, “Measurement of attachment level in clinical trials—probing methods,” J. Periodontol. 63, 1072–1077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. G. Keagle, J. J. Garnick, J. R. Searle, G. E. King, P. K. Morse, “Gingival resistance to probing forces: determination of optimal probe diameter,” J. Periodontol. 60, 167–171 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

U. Van der Welden, “Errors in the assessment of pocket depth in vitro,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 5, 182–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aguero, A.

A. Aguero, J. J. Garnick, J. Keagle, D. E. Steflik, W. O. Thompson, “Histological location of a standardized periodontal probe in man,” J. Periodontol. 66, 184–190 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attstrom, R.

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using 4 different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 23, 76–82 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonner, R. F.

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bratthall, G.

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using 4 different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 23, 76–82 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christersson, L. A.

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Featherstone, J. D. B.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fransdon, R. D.

R. D. Fransdon, R. L. Spurgeon, Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, 5th ed. (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), Chap. 5.

Fried, D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izaat, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnick, J. J.

A. Aguero, J. J. Garnick, J. Keagle, D. E. Steflik, W. O. Thompson, “Histological location of a standardized periodontal probe in man,” J. Periodontol. 66, 184–190 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Keagle, J. J. Garnick, J. R. Searle, G. E. King, P. K. Morse, “Gingival resistance to probing forces: determination of optimal probe diameter,” J. Periodontol. 60, 167–171 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genco, R. J.

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glena, R. E.

Golubovic, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossi, S. G.

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausmann, E.

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izaat, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

Izaat, J. A.

Keagle, J.

A. Aguero, J. J. Garnick, J. Keagle, D. E. Steflik, W. O. Thompson, “Histological location of a standardized periodontal probe in man,” J. Periodontol. 66, 184–190 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keagle, J. G.

J. G. Keagle, J. J. Garnick, J. R. Searle, G. E. King, P. K. Morse, “Gingival resistance to probing forces: determination of optimal probe diameter,” J. Periodontol. 60, 167–171 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, G. E.

J. G. Keagle, J. J. Garnick, J. R. Searle, G. E. King, P. K. Morse, “Gingival resistance to probing forces: determination of optimal probe diameter,” J. Periodontol. 60, 167–171 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinney, J. H.

H. Nathel, J. H. Kinney, L. L. Otis, “Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging,” U.S. patent5570182 (29October1996).

Lin, C. P.

Machtei, E. E.

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayfield, L.

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using 4 different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 23, 76–82 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, P. K.

J. G. Keagle, J. J. Garnick, J. R. Searle, G. E. King, P. K. Morse, “Gingival resistance to probing forces: determination of optimal probe diameter,” J. Periodontol. 60, 167–171 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathel, H.

H. Nathel, J. H. Kinney, L. L. Otis, “Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging,” U.S. patent5570182 (29October1996).

Otis, L. L.

H. Nathel, J. H. Kinney, L. L. Otis, “Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging,” U.S. patent5570182 (29October1996).

Pihlstrom, B. L.

B. L. Pihlstrom, “Measurement of attachment level in clinical trials—probing methods,” J. Periodontol. 63, 1072–1077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izaat, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rutledge, B.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izaat, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Searle, J. R.

J. G. Keagle, J. J. Garnick, J. R. Searle, G. E. King, P. K. Morse, “Gingival resistance to probing forces: determination of optimal probe diameter,” J. Periodontol. 60, 167–171 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seka, W.

Shuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, R. L.

R. D. Fransdon, R. L. Spurgeon, Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, 5th ed. (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), Chap. 5.

Steflik, D. E.

A. Aguero, J. J. Garnick, J. Keagle, D. E. Steflik, W. O. Thompson, “Histological location of a standardized periodontal probe in man,” J. Periodontol. 66, 184–190 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunford, R.

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izaat, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Thompson, W. O.

A. Aguero, J. J. Garnick, J. Keagle, D. E. Steflik, W. O. Thompson, “Histological location of a standardized periodontal probe in man,” J. Periodontol. 66, 184–190 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van der Welden, U.

U. Van der Welden, “Errors in the assessment of pocket depth in vitro,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 5, 182–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zambon, J. J.

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Opthalmol. (1)

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, B. Rutledge, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opthalmol. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dermatology (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Periodontol. (3)

U. Van der Welden, “Errors in the assessment of pocket depth in vitro,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 5, 182–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Machtei, L. A. Christersson, J. J. Zambon, E. Hausmann, S. G. Grossi, R. Sunford, R. J. Genco, “Alternative methods for screening periodontal disease in adults,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 20, 81–87 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using 4 different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 23, 76–82 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Periodontol. (3)

A. Aguero, J. J. Garnick, J. Keagle, D. E. Steflik, W. O. Thompson, “Histological location of a standardized periodontal probe in man,” J. Periodontol. 66, 184–190 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Keagle, J. J. Garnick, J. R. Searle, G. E. King, P. K. Morse, “Gingival resistance to probing forces: determination of optimal probe diameter,” J. Periodontol. 60, 167–171 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Pihlstrom, “Measurement of attachment level in clinical trials—probing methods,” J. Periodontol. 63, 1072–1077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. D. Fransdon, R. L. Spurgeon, Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, 5th ed. (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), Chap. 5.

H. Nathel, J. H. Kinney, L. L. Otis, “Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging,” U.S. patent5570182 (29October1996).

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