Abstract

Polishing abrasives that have been bound in a solid matrix can offer several potential advantages over loose-abrasive processes with pitch or polyurethane laps for finishing of optics. These advantages include polishing efficiency, temperature stability, cost of consumables, and compatibility with computer numerically controlled generating machines. Unfortunately, little has been published on bound-abrasive polishers, and very few commercially available products exist. We have developed several compositions and manufacturing techniques that show promise for polishing a variety of optical glasses. We establish the various criteria for a successful bound-abrasive polisher. The numerous variables to be considered in designing these polishers are identified, and the results of screening experiments are used to find successful compositions. Polishing experiments with bound abrasives in arrays of pellets, as ring tools, and as full-contact laps are described.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. C. Lambropoulos, T. Fang, P. D. Funkenbusch, S. D. Jacobs, M. J. Cumbo, D. Golini, “Surface microroughness of optical glasses under deterministic microgrinding,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4448–4462 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Gillman, F. Yang, J. Ruckman, “Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses,” in Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Review 73, DOE/SF/19460-212 (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.), pp. 45–49.
  3. D. Golini, W. Czajkowski, “Microgrinding makes ultrasmooth optics fast,” Laser Focus World 28, 146–152 (1992).
  4. Our vendors include Scomac, Inc., 8629 Buffalo Road, Bergen, N.Y. 14416, and H & C Tool Supply, 235 Mt. Read Boulevard, Rochester, N.Y. 14611, a distributor for Norton Superabrasives.
  5. T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 4, p. 91.
  6. M. J. Cumbo, D. Fairhurst, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Puchebner, “Slurry particle size evolution during the polishing of optical glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3743–3755 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. H. Karow, Fabrication Methods for Precision Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993), Chap. 5, p. 463.
  8. L. Cook, “Chemical processes in glass polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 155–171 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. W. Fynn, W. J. A. Powell, Cutting and Polishing Optical and Electronic Materials, 2nd ed. (Hilger, Bristol, 1988), Chap. 3, p. 83.
  10. N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing pitch,” Rep. UCRL-80301 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1977).
  11. M. Ando, M. Negishi, M. Takimoto, A. Deguchi, N. Nakamura, “Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces,” Nanotechnology 6, 111–120 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. P. Bogdanov, V. A. Dushkin, L. N. Mikhailova, A. A. Kuz’min, “Ion-beam shaping of high-precision optical surfaces by a small-diameter, program-positioned ion beam,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 474–477 (1994).
  13. T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Golini, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, “Precision optics fabrication using magnetorheological finishing,” in Advanced Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, R. A. Paquin, T. B. Parsonage, eds., Vol. CR67 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 251–274.
  15. A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .
  16. V. V. Rogov, Yu. D. Filatov, A. P. Denisenko, N. D. Rublev, V. V. Guzhov, “Efficiency of tools having a bound abrasive for the polishing of glass,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 56, 33–35 (1989).
  17. V. V. Rogov, “Tribochemical mechanism of the glass polishing process by the ‘Akvapol’ tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 366–369 (1991).
  18. Aquapol product literature, Institute for Superhard Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Ukranian SSR, 2 Avtozavodskaja str., 254074, Kiev, Ukraine.
  19. V. M. Al’tshuller, S. A. Gerasimov, V. P. Pushechnikov, “Mechanical finishing of optical components without using free abrasive,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 470–471 (1994).
  20. S. I. Zakharov, O. V. Tapinskaya, “Unique features of polishing with an annular tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 519–521 (1992).
  21. N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Physical, chemical and technological properties of commercially produced polirit,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 347–350 (1978).
  22. N. L. Kudryavtseva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Polisher compositions based on compounds of rare-earth elements,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 50, 378–381 (1983).
  23. M. Yu. Konyukhov, I. M. Medvedeva, N. A. Nechaeva, “Study of the physicochemical and technological parameters of domestically produced polishing powders,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 798–800 (1992).
  24. Transelco CeRite 415K, CeRite 4251, and Rhone Poulenc Cerox 1663 distributed by Universal Photonics, Inc., 495 West John Street, Hicksville, N.Y. 11801.
  25. W. Ng, B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Evaluation of bound abrasive media for fabrication of ring tool polishers,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 114–116.
  26. Epo-Tek B9131-2, two-component power laser adhesive, Epoxy Technology Inc., 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821.
  27. Plasma Alumina, low-density, microporous, hollow aluminum oxide spheres, 6-μm diameter, P.Q. Corp., Cedar Grove Road, Conshohocken, Pa. 19428.
  28. Ohara Corp., 50 Columbia Street, Somerville, N.J. 08876-3519.
  29. Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., 400 York Avenue, Durea, Pa. 18642.
  30. Hoya Optics, Inc., 3400 Edison Way, Fremont, Calif. 94538.
  31. Fused Silica Code 7940, Corning Inc., Corning N.Y. 14831.
  32. Schott Optical Glass Catalog, Edition 1989, Hoya Optical Glass Catalog, Edition 1989, and Corning Fused Silica Product Literature, 1997.
  33. R. Strasbaugh (Model 6DE-DC-1), 426 Main Street North, Woodbury, Conn. 06798.
  34. Opticam® SX (renamed OptiPro 150), OptiPro Systems Inc., 369 Route 104, Ontario, N.Y. 14519.
  35. Dow Corning RTV 3110, distributed by Wolcott-Park, 1700 Hudson Avenue, Rochester, N.Y. 14617.
  36. Catalog number 21008-089, VWR Scientific Products, 1310 Goshen Parkway, West Chester, Pa. 19380.
  37. Buehler Isomet low-speed saw, Buehler Ltd., 41 Waukegan Road, Lake Bluff, Ill. 60044.
  38. Dow Corning RTV 3110, distributed by Wolcott-Park, 1700 Hudson Avenue, Rochester, N.Y. 14617.
  39. ReleasaGen, paintable ester mold release spray, IMS Inc., 10373 Stafford Road, Chagrin Falls, Ohio 44023.
  40. MX0485-7 Menthanol GR (anhydrous), EM Science, Cherry Hill, Gibbstown, N.J. 08027.
  41. B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Development of new bound abrasive polishers for final finishing of optical glasses,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Doherty, H. P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 256–264 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  42. N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, G. S. Khodakov, “Factors that reduce the polishing ability of a polirit suspension,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 46, 478–480 (1979).
  43. Universal Photonics Product Catalog, 495 West John Street, Hicksville, N.Y. 11801.
  44. Measurements performed on a Horiba LA 900 Laser Scattering Particle Analyzer, Horiba Instruments, Inc., 17671 Armstrong Avenue, Irvine, Calif. 92714.
  45. B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  46. Microgrit Abrasives Corp., 720 Southampton Road, Westfield, Mass. 01086.
  47. NewView 100 white-light interferometer, 0.25 mm × 0.35 mm, areal, 20× Mirau, Zygo Corp., Laurel Brook Road, P.O. Box 448, Middlefield, Conn. 06455. Each roughness measurement reported is an average of measurements made at three sites over part surface, avoiding center and edges.
  48. LOH K-40 Coolant, LOH Optical Machinery, Inc., N116W1811 Morse Drive, Germantown, Wis. 53022.
  49. Mark IV xp Phase Shifting Interferometer, Zygo Corp., Laurel Brook Road, P.O. Box 448, Middlefield, CT 06455. Using a high-pass, fast Fourier transform filter, the software options allow a line scan to be taken around the part at a fixed radius from the part center (14 mm), defined as a radial scan.
  50. Moore Tool Co., 800 Union Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 06607.
  51. Model, Inc./Integrated Endoscopy, 10 Hammond Drive, Irvine, Calif. 92618.

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

M. J. Cumbo, D. Fairhurst, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Puchebner, “Slurry particle size evolution during the polishing of optical glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3743–3755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ando, M. Negishi, M. Takimoto, A. Deguchi, N. Nakamura, “Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces,” Nanotechnology 6, 111–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. P. Bogdanov, V. A. Dushkin, L. N. Mikhailova, A. A. Kuz’min, “Ion-beam shaping of high-precision optical surfaces by a small-diameter, program-positioned ion beam,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 474–477 (1994).

V. M. Al’tshuller, S. A. Gerasimov, V. P. Pushechnikov, “Mechanical finishing of optical components without using free abrasive,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 470–471 (1994).

1992 (3)

S. I. Zakharov, O. V. Tapinskaya, “Unique features of polishing with an annular tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 519–521 (1992).

M. Yu. Konyukhov, I. M. Medvedeva, N. A. Nechaeva, “Study of the physicochemical and technological parameters of domestically produced polishing powders,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 798–800 (1992).

D. Golini, W. Czajkowski, “Microgrinding makes ultrasmooth optics fast,” Laser Focus World 28, 146–152 (1992).

1991 (1)

V. V. Rogov, “Tribochemical mechanism of the glass polishing process by the ‘Akvapol’ tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 366–369 (1991).

1990 (1)

L. Cook, “Chemical processes in glass polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 155–171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

V. V. Rogov, Yu. D. Filatov, A. P. Denisenko, N. D. Rublev, V. V. Guzhov, “Efficiency of tools having a bound abrasive for the polishing of glass,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 56, 33–35 (1989).

1983 (1)

N. L. Kudryavtseva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Polisher compositions based on compounds of rare-earth elements,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 50, 378–381 (1983).

1979 (1)

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, G. S. Khodakov, “Factors that reduce the polishing ability of a polirit suspension,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 46, 478–480 (1979).

1978 (1)

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Physical, chemical and technological properties of commercially produced polirit,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 347–350 (1978).

Al’tshuller, V. M.

V. M. Al’tshuller, S. A. Gerasimov, V. P. Pushechnikov, “Mechanical finishing of optical components without using free abrasive,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 470–471 (1994).

Ando, M.

M. Ando, M. Negishi, M. Takimoto, A. Deguchi, N. Nakamura, “Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces,” Nanotechnology 6, 111–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atwood, M. A.

B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, A. P.

A. P. Bogdanov, V. A. Dushkin, L. N. Mikhailova, A. A. Kuz’min, “Ion-beam shaping of high-precision optical surfaces by a small-diameter, program-positioned ion beam,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 474–477 (1994).

Brown, N. J.

N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing pitch,” Rep. UCRL-80301 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1977).

Chalyi, V. T.

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Cherednik, V. C.

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Cook, L.

L. Cook, “Chemical processes in glass polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 155–171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cumbo, M. J.

J. C. Lambropoulos, T. Fang, P. D. Funkenbusch, S. D. Jacobs, M. J. Cumbo, D. Golini, “Surface microroughness of optical glasses under deterministic microgrinding,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4448–4462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cumbo, D. Fairhurst, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Puchebner, “Slurry particle size evolution during the polishing of optical glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3743–3755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czajkowski, W.

D. Golini, W. Czajkowski, “Microgrinding makes ultrasmooth optics fast,” Laser Focus World 28, 146–152 (1992).

Deguchi, A.

M. Ando, M. Negishi, M. Takimoto, A. Deguchi, N. Nakamura, “Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces,” Nanotechnology 6, 111–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Denisenko, A. P.

V. V. Rogov, Yu. D. Filatov, A. P. Denisenko, N. D. Rublev, V. V. Guzhov, “Efficiency of tools having a bound abrasive for the polishing of glass,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 56, 33–35 (1989).

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Drueding, T. W.

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, P.

D. Golini, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, “Precision optics fabrication using magnetorheological finishing,” in Advanced Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, R. A. Paquin, T. B. Parsonage, eds., Vol. CR67 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 251–274.

Dushkin, V. A.

A. P. Bogdanov, V. A. Dushkin, L. N. Mikhailova, A. A. Kuz’min, “Ion-beam shaping of high-precision optical surfaces by a small-diameter, program-positioned ion beam,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 474–477 (1994).

Fairhurst, D.

M. J. Cumbo, D. Fairhurst, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Puchebner, “Slurry particle size evolution during the polishing of optical glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3743–3755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, T.

Fawcett, S. C.

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Filatov, Yu. D.

V. V. Rogov, Yu. D. Filatov, A. P. Denisenko, N. D. Rublev, V. V. Guzhov, “Efficiency of tools having a bound abrasive for the polishing of glass,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 56, 33–35 (1989).

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Funkenbusch, P. D.

Fynn, G. W.

G. W. Fynn, W. J. A. Powell, Cutting and Polishing Optical and Electronic Materials, 2nd ed. (Hilger, Bristol, 1988), Chap. 3, p. 83.

Gerasimov, S. A.

V. M. Al’tshuller, S. A. Gerasimov, V. P. Pushechnikov, “Mechanical finishing of optical components without using free abrasive,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 470–471 (1994).

Gillman, B. E.

B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golini, D.

J. C. Lambropoulos, T. Fang, P. D. Funkenbusch, S. D. Jacobs, M. J. Cumbo, D. Golini, “Surface microroughness of optical glasses under deterministic microgrinding,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4448–4462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golini, W. Czajkowski, “Microgrinding makes ultrasmooth optics fast,” Laser Focus World 28, 146–152 (1992).

D. Golini, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, “Precision optics fabrication using magnetorheological finishing,” in Advanced Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, R. A. Paquin, T. B. Parsonage, eds., Vol. CR67 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 251–274.

Guzhov, V. V.

V. V. Rogov, Yu. D. Filatov, A. P. Denisenko, N. D. Rublev, V. V. Guzhov, “Efficiency of tools having a bound abrasive for the polishing of glass,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 56, 33–35 (1989).

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Izumitani, T. S.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 4, p. 91.

Jacobs, S. D.

J. C. Lambropoulos, T. Fang, P. D. Funkenbusch, S. D. Jacobs, M. J. Cumbo, D. Golini, “Surface microroughness of optical glasses under deterministic microgrinding,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4448–4462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cumbo, D. Fairhurst, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Puchebner, “Slurry particle size evolution during the polishing of optical glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3743–3755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ng, B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Evaluation of bound abrasive media for fabrication of ring tool polishers,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 114–116.

D. Golini, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, “Precision optics fabrication using magnetorheological finishing,” in Advanced Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, R. A. Paquin, T. B. Parsonage, eds., Vol. CR67 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 251–274.

B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Development of new bound abrasive polishers for final finishing of optical glasses,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Doherty, H. P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 256–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karow, H. H.

H. H. Karow, Fabrication Methods for Precision Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993), Chap. 5, p. 463.

Khar’kov, N. E.

N. L. Kudryavtseva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Polisher compositions based on compounds of rare-earth elements,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 50, 378–381 (1983).

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Physical, chemical and technological properties of commercially produced polirit,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 347–350 (1978).

Khodakov, G. S.

N. L. Kudryavtseva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Polisher compositions based on compounds of rare-earth elements,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 50, 378–381 (1983).

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, G. S. Khodakov, “Factors that reduce the polishing ability of a polirit suspension,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 46, 478–480 (1979).

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Physical, chemical and technological properties of commercially produced polirit,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 347–350 (1978).

Konyukhov, M. Yu.

M. Yu. Konyukhov, I. M. Medvedeva, N. A. Nechaeva, “Study of the physicochemical and technological parameters of domestically produced polishing powders,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 798–800 (1992).

Kordonski, W. I.

D. Golini, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, “Precision optics fabrication using magnetorheological finishing,” in Advanced Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, R. A. Paquin, T. B. Parsonage, eds., Vol. CR67 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 251–274.

Kudryavtseva, N. L.

N. L. Kudryavtseva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Polisher compositions based on compounds of rare-earth elements,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 50, 378–381 (1983).

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, G. S. Khodakov, “Factors that reduce the polishing ability of a polirit suspension,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 46, 478–480 (1979).

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Physical, chemical and technological properties of commercially produced polirit,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 347–350 (1978).

Kuz’min, A. A.

A. P. Bogdanov, V. A. Dushkin, L. N. Mikhailova, A. A. Kuz’min, “Ion-beam shaping of high-precision optical surfaces by a small-diameter, program-positioned ion beam,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 474–477 (1994).

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Malofeeva, L. G.

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, G. S. Khodakov, “Factors that reduce the polishing ability of a polirit suspension,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 46, 478–480 (1979).

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Physical, chemical and technological properties of commercially produced polirit,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 347–350 (1978).

Medvedeva, I. M.

M. Yu. Konyukhov, I. M. Medvedeva, N. A. Nechaeva, “Study of the physicochemical and technological parameters of domestically produced polishing powders,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 798–800 (1992).

Mel’nik, V. I.

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Melent’eva, G. G.

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, G. S. Khodakov, “Factors that reduce the polishing ability of a polirit suspension,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 46, 478–480 (1979).

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Physical, chemical and technological properties of commercially produced polirit,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 347–350 (1978).

Mikhailova, L. N.

A. P. Bogdanov, V. A. Dushkin, L. N. Mikhailova, A. A. Kuz’min, “Ion-beam shaping of high-precision optical surfaces by a small-diameter, program-positioned ion beam,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 474–477 (1994).

Muzyira, O. D.

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Nakamura, N.

M. Ando, M. Negishi, M. Takimoto, A. Deguchi, N. Nakamura, “Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces,” Nanotechnology 6, 111–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nechaeva, N. A.

M. Yu. Konyukhov, I. M. Medvedeva, N. A. Nechaeva, “Study of the physicochemical and technological parameters of domestically produced polishing powders,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 798–800 (1992).

Negishi, M.

M. Ando, M. Negishi, M. Takimoto, A. Deguchi, N. Nakamura, “Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces,” Nanotechnology 6, 111–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

W. Ng, B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Evaluation of bound abrasive media for fabrication of ring tool polishers,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 114–116.

Ochinero, T. T.

B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Powell, W. J. A.

G. W. Fynn, W. J. A. Powell, Cutting and Polishing Optical and Electronic Materials, 2nd ed. (Hilger, Bristol, 1988), Chap. 3, p. 83.

Puchebner, B. E.

M. J. Cumbo, D. Fairhurst, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Puchebner, “Slurry particle size evolution during the polishing of optical glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3743–3755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ng, B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Evaluation of bound abrasive media for fabrication of ring tool polishers,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 114–116.

B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Development of new bound abrasive polishers for final finishing of optical glasses,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Doherty, H. P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 256–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pushechnikov, V. P.

V. M. Al’tshuller, S. A. Gerasimov, V. P. Pushechnikov, “Mechanical finishing of optical components without using free abrasive,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 470–471 (1994).

Pyatak, E. F.

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Quesnel, D. J.

B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reed, B. M.

B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rogov, V. V.

V. V. Rogov, “Tribochemical mechanism of the glass polishing process by the ‘Akvapol’ tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 366–369 (1991).

V. V. Rogov, Yu. D. Filatov, A. P. Denisenko, N. D. Rublev, V. V. Guzhov, “Efficiency of tools having a bound abrasive for the polishing of glass,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 56, 33–35 (1989).

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Rublev, N. D.

V. V. Rogov, Yu. D. Filatov, A. P. Denisenko, N. D. Rublev, V. V. Guzhov, “Efficiency of tools having a bound abrasive for the polishing of glass,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 56, 33–35 (1989).

Ruckman, J. L.

B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shtilvaser, G. I.

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

Takimoto, M.

M. Ando, M. Negishi, M. Takimoto, A. Deguchi, N. Nakamura, “Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces,” Nanotechnology 6, 111–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tapinskaya, O. V.

S. I. Zakharov, O. V. Tapinskaya, “Unique features of polishing with an annular tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 519–521 (1992).

Wilson, S. R.

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, S. I.

S. I. Zakharov, O. V. Tapinskaya, “Unique features of polishing with an annular tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 519–521 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (1)

M. J. Cumbo, D. Fairhurst, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Puchebner, “Slurry particle size evolution during the polishing of optical glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3743–3755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

V. M. Al’tshuller, S. A. Gerasimov, V. P. Pushechnikov, “Mechanical finishing of optical components without using free abrasive,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 470–471 (1994).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. Cook, “Chemical processes in glass polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 155–171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

A. P. Bogdanov, V. A. Dushkin, L. N. Mikhailova, A. A. Kuz’min, “Ion-beam shaping of high-precision optical surfaces by a small-diameter, program-positioned ion beam,” J. Opt. Technol. 61, 474–477 (1994).

Laser Focus World (1)

D. Golini, W. Czajkowski, “Microgrinding makes ultrasmooth optics fast,” Laser Focus World 28, 146–152 (1992).

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Ando, M. Negishi, M. Takimoto, A. Deguchi, N. Nakamura, “Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces,” Nanotechnology 6, 111–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

V. V. Rogov, Yu. D. Filatov, A. P. Denisenko, N. D. Rublev, V. V. Guzhov, “Efficiency of tools having a bound abrasive for the polishing of glass,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 56, 33–35 (1989).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (2)

N. L. Kudryavtseva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Polisher compositions based on compounds of rare-earth elements,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 50, 378–381 (1983).

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, G. S. Khodakov, “Factors that reduce the polishing ability of a polirit suspension,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 46, 478–480 (1979).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

S. I. Zakharov, O. V. Tapinskaya, “Unique features of polishing with an annular tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 519–521 (1992).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (3)

N. L. Kudryavtseva, L. G. Malofeeva, G. G. Melent’eva, N. E. Khar’kov, G. S. Khodakov, “Physical, chemical and technological properties of commercially produced polirit,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 347–350 (1978).

V. V. Rogov, “Tribochemical mechanism of the glass polishing process by the ‘Akvapol’ tool,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 366–369 (1991).

M. Yu. Konyukhov, I. M. Medvedeva, N. A. Nechaeva, “Study of the physicochemical and technological parameters of domestically produced polishing powders,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 798–800 (1992).

Other (36)

Transelco CeRite 415K, CeRite 4251, and Rhone Poulenc Cerox 1663 distributed by Universal Photonics, Inc., 495 West John Street, Hicksville, N.Y. 11801.

W. Ng, B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Evaluation of bound abrasive media for fabrication of ring tool polishers,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 114–116.

Epo-Tek B9131-2, two-component power laser adhesive, Epoxy Technology Inc., 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821.

Plasma Alumina, low-density, microporous, hollow aluminum oxide spheres, 6-μm diameter, P.Q. Corp., Cedar Grove Road, Conshohocken, Pa. 19428.

Ohara Corp., 50 Columbia Street, Somerville, N.J. 08876-3519.

Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., 400 York Avenue, Durea, Pa. 18642.

Hoya Optics, Inc., 3400 Edison Way, Fremont, Calif. 94538.

Fused Silica Code 7940, Corning Inc., Corning N.Y. 14831.

Schott Optical Glass Catalog, Edition 1989, Hoya Optical Glass Catalog, Edition 1989, and Corning Fused Silica Product Literature, 1997.

R. Strasbaugh (Model 6DE-DC-1), 426 Main Street North, Woodbury, Conn. 06798.

Opticam® SX (renamed OptiPro 150), OptiPro Systems Inc., 369 Route 104, Ontario, N.Y. 14519.

Dow Corning RTV 3110, distributed by Wolcott-Park, 1700 Hudson Avenue, Rochester, N.Y. 14617.

Catalog number 21008-089, VWR Scientific Products, 1310 Goshen Parkway, West Chester, Pa. 19380.

Buehler Isomet low-speed saw, Buehler Ltd., 41 Waukegan Road, Lake Bluff, Ill. 60044.

Dow Corning RTV 3110, distributed by Wolcott-Park, 1700 Hudson Avenue, Rochester, N.Y. 14617.

ReleasaGen, paintable ester mold release spray, IMS Inc., 10373 Stafford Road, Chagrin Falls, Ohio 44023.

MX0485-7 Menthanol GR (anhydrous), EM Science, Cherry Hill, Gibbstown, N.J. 08027.

B. E. Puchebner, S. D. Jacobs, “Development of new bound abrasive polishers for final finishing of optical glasses,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Doherty, H. P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 256–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aquapol product literature, Institute for Superhard Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Ukranian SSR, 2 Avtozavodskaja str., 254074, Kiev, Ukraine.

D. Golini, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, “Precision optics fabrication using magnetorheological finishing,” in Advanced Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, R. A. Paquin, T. B. Parsonage, eds., Vol. CR67 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 251–274.

A. P. Denisenko, V. V. Rogov, V. V. Guzhov, Yu. D. Filatov, V. T. Chalyi, V. C. Cherednik, G. I. Shtilvaser, V. I. Mel’nik, E. F. Pyatak, O. D. Muzyira, “Mass for fabrication of polishing tools,” Russian patentSU 1263513 A1 (15October1986), .

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. E. Gillman, F. Yang, J. Ruckman, “Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses,” in Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Review 73, DOE/SF/19460-212 (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.), pp. 45–49.

G. W. Fynn, W. J. A. Powell, Cutting and Polishing Optical and Electronic Materials, 2nd ed. (Hilger, Bristol, 1988), Chap. 3, p. 83.

N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing pitch,” Rep. UCRL-80301 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1977).

Our vendors include Scomac, Inc., 8629 Buffalo Road, Bergen, N.Y. 14416, and H & C Tool Supply, 235 Mt. Read Boulevard, Rochester, N.Y. 14611, a distributor for Norton Superabrasives.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 4, p. 91.

H. H. Karow, Fabrication Methods for Precision Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993), Chap. 5, p. 463.

Universal Photonics Product Catalog, 495 West John Street, Hicksville, N.Y. 11801.

Measurements performed on a Horiba LA 900 Laser Scattering Particle Analyzer, Horiba Instruments, Inc., 17671 Armstrong Avenue, Irvine, Calif. 92714.

B. E. Gillman, B. M. Reed, M. A. Atwood, J. L. Ruckman, D. J. Quesnel, T. T. Ochinero, S. D. Jacobs, “Application of coolants in deterministic microgrinding of glass,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 198–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Microgrit Abrasives Corp., 720 Southampton Road, Westfield, Mass. 01086.

NewView 100 white-light interferometer, 0.25 mm × 0.35 mm, areal, 20× Mirau, Zygo Corp., Laurel Brook Road, P.O. Box 448, Middlefield, Conn. 06455. Each roughness measurement reported is an average of measurements made at three sites over part surface, avoiding center and edges.

LOH K-40 Coolant, LOH Optical Machinery, Inc., N116W1811 Morse Drive, Germantown, Wis. 53022.

Mark IV xp Phase Shifting Interferometer, Zygo Corp., Laurel Brook Road, P.O. Box 448, Middlefield, CT 06455. Using a high-pass, fast Fourier transform filter, the software options allow a line scan to be taken around the part at a fixed radius from the part center (14 mm), defined as a radial scan.

Moore Tool Co., 800 Union Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 06607.

Model, Inc./Integrated Endoscopy, 10 Hammond Drive, Irvine, Calif. 92618.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ammonium chloride and hollow alumina spheres help to promote erosion of the binder to expose fresh cerium oxide grains.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for pellet array polisher manufactured from single pellets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for molded pellet array polisher.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bound-abrasive ring tool polisher schematic.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial profile scan showing tool marks remaining on a part surface from the ring tool generating process.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Removal of tool marks by either pitch polishing or bound-abrasive ring tool polishing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Concept for bound-abrasive contour polishing.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Compositions and Physical Properties of Aquapol and Selected Experimental Polishers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Polishing Results for Bound-Abrasive Pellet Array Laps after 30 min

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results for Bound-Abrasive Ring Tool Polishing on the Opticam SX

Metrics