Abstract

A fully automatic, four-axis gonioreflectometer is described. It has an angular accuracy of 0.3° and a range of 90° in both the θi and the θr zenith angles. The gonioreflectometer is simpler than previous designs because of its use of rotating arms rather than moving carriages to mount the optical components. Where possible, commercial components have been used to reduce the cost. A novel off-axis angular encoding scheme is also described.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. G. Burnell, J. V. Nicholas, D. R. White, “Scattering model for rough oxidised metal surfaces applicable to radiation thermometry of reformer furnaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1749–1755 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarmetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. T. Beecroft, J. T. Neu, J. Jafolla, “Bidirectional reflectance data to support paint development and signature calculations,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 304–316 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Ward, “Measuring and modelling anisotropic reflection,” Comput. Graph. 26, 265–272 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. D. P. DeWitt, G. D. Nutter, eds., Theory and Practice of Radiation Thermometry (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 64.
  8. American Society for Testing and Materials Publication E259-93, “Standard practice for preparation of pressed powder white reflectance factor transfer standards for hemispherical geometry,” in 1997 Annual Book of ASTM Standards (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pa., 1997), pp. 659–662.
  9. V. R. Weidner, J. J. Hsia, “Reflection properties of pressed polytetrafluoroethylene powder,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 856–861 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, D. H. Nettleton, “Absolute spectral radiation thermometry at the National Physical Laboratory,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 41–45.

1995

J. G. Burnell, J. V. Nicholas, D. R. White, “Scattering model for rough oxidised metal surfaces applicable to radiation thermometry of reformer furnaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1749–1755 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

G. J. Ward, “Measuring and modelling anisotropic reflection,” Comput. Graph. 26, 265–272 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

1981

Beecroft, M. T.

M. T. Beecroft, J. T. Neu, J. Jafolla, “Bidirectional reflectance data to support paint development and signature calculations,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 304–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bernabeu, E.

Bjork, D. R.

T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarmetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burnell, J. G.

J. G. Burnell, J. V. Nicholas, D. R. White, “Scattering model for rough oxidised metal surfaces applicable to radiation thermometry of reformer furnaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1749–1755 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, D. H. Nettleton, “Absolute spectral radiation thermometry at the National Physical Laboratory,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 41–45.

Hsia, J. J.

Jafolla, J.

M. T. Beecroft, J. T. Neu, J. Jafolla, “Bidirectional reflectance data to support paint development and signature calculations,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 304–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. E.

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, D. H. Nettleton, “Absolute spectral radiation thermometry at the National Physical Laboratory,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 41–45.

Martinez-Anton, J. C.

Mendez, E. R.

Nettleton, D. H.

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, D. H. Nettleton, “Absolute spectral radiation thermometry at the National Physical Laboratory,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 41–45.

Neu, J. T.

M. T. Beecroft, J. T. Neu, J. Jafolla, “Bidirectional reflectance data to support paint development and signature calculations,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 304–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nicholas, J. V.

J. G. Burnell, J. V. Nicholas, D. R. White, “Scattering model for rough oxidised metal surfaces applicable to radiation thermometry of reformer furnaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1749–1755 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, K. A.

Schiff, T. F.

T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarmetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Southwood, M. E.

T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarmetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stover, J. C.

T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarmetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Swimley, B. D.

T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarmetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ward, G. J.

G. J. Ward, “Measuring and modelling anisotropic reflection,” Comput. Graph. 26, 265–272 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weidner, V. R.

White, D. R.

J. G. Burnell, J. V. Nicholas, D. R. White, “Scattering model for rough oxidised metal surfaces applicable to radiation thermometry of reformer furnaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1749–1755 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. J.

T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarmetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Comput. Graph.

G. J. Ward, “Measuring and modelling anisotropic reflection,” Comput. Graph. 26, 265–272 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

J. G. Burnell, J. V. Nicholas, D. R. White, “Scattering model for rough oxidised metal surfaces applicable to radiation thermometry of reformer furnaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1749–1755 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarmetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Beecroft, J. T. Neu, J. Jafolla, “Bidirectional reflectance data to support paint development and signature calculations,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 304–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. P. DeWitt, G. D. Nutter, eds., Theory and Practice of Radiation Thermometry (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 64.

American Society for Testing and Materials Publication E259-93, “Standard practice for preparation of pressed powder white reflectance factor transfer standards for hemispherical geometry,” in 1997 Annual Book of ASTM Standards (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pa., 1997), pp. 659–662.

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, D. H. Nettleton, “Absolute spectral radiation thermometry at the National Physical Laboratory,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 41–45.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coordinate system for defining the BRDF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gonioreflectometer showing details of the mechanical construction. The scale can be judged from the large ring bearing, which is approximately 900 mm in diameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tripod used to position the sample correctly.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BRDF for a reformer tube sample, obtained when the sample turntable was rotated through 360°, with θ i = 30°, θ r = 45°, and ϕ r = 180° + ϕ i .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BRDF for a reformer tube sample, obtained when the detector arm was rotated through 180°, with θ i = 45°, ϕ i = -15°, and ϕ r = 180°.

Equations (2)

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f r θ i ,   ϕ i ;   θ r ,   ϕ r = dL r L i cos   θ i d ω i ,
θ i = 360   R 1 - R 2 4096 32 × 33 501 + θ 0 ,     for   R 1 R 2 , θ i = 360   R 1 + 4096 - R 2 4096 32 × 33 501 + θ 0 ,   for   R 1 < R 2 ,

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