Abstract

An interferometric technique is described to detect and locate perturbations along an optical fiber. This distributed sensor has a position-dependent response to time-varying disturbances such as strain or temperature. A modified Sagnac interferometer configuration that incorporates an additional coupler and a mirror allows separation of the Sagnac and the Mach–Zehnder signals. Operation of the new configuration was verified experimentally with a 100-m-long sensing fiber. The discrepancy between actual and measured locations of disturbances applied to the fiber did not exceed 0.6 m.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. J. Rogers, “Distributed optical fibre sensors,” J. Phys. D 19, 2237–2255 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Dakin, ed., The Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing Handbook (IFS, UK, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 3–20, 45–53.
  3. J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Gusmeroli, “High-performance serial array of coherence multiplexed interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1681–1686 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Bao, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors based upon Brillouin scattering,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, V, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE2507, 175–185 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Garus, K. Krebber, R. Hereth, “Distributed fiber optical sensors using Brillouin backscattering,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, XIII, R. P. DePaula, J. W. Berthold, eds., Proc. SPIE2510, 172–183 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Udd, Fiber Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 390–393.
  8. J. P. Dakin, D. A. Pearce, C. A. Wade, A. Strong, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensor concepts,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Rønnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” in Proceedings of the 9th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (National Research Council of Italy, Florence, Italy, 1993), postdeadline paper PD7.
  11. X. Fang, “Fiber optic distributed sensing by two-loop Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 444–446 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Fang, “A variable-loop Sagnac interferometer for distributed impact sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2250–2254 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Udd, “Distributed fiber optic strain sensor based on the Sagnac and Michelson interferometers,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways, L. K. Matthews, ed., Proc. SPIE2719, 210–212 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. J. Spammer, P. L. Swart, A. Booysen, “Interferometric distributed optical fiber sensor,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4522–4525 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, “Dual wavelength Sagnac–Michelson distributed optical fiber sensor,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, VI, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2838, 301–307 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y.-J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. I. Baskakov, Radio Circuits and Signals (Wisshaja Shkola, Moscow, 1988), pp. 96–104.
  19. W. K. Burns, A. D. Kersey, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with depolarized light,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 992–999 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Lefèvre, Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993), pp. 73–91.

1996 (4)

X. Fang, “Fiber optic distributed sensing by two-loop Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 444–446 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Fang, “A variable-loop Sagnac interferometer for distributed impact sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2250–2254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Spammer, P. L. Swart, A. Booysen, “Interferometric distributed optical fiber sensor,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4522–4525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

V. Gusmeroli, “High-performance serial array of coherence multiplexed interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1681–1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. K. Burns, A. D. Kersey, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with depolarized light,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 992–999 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. J. Rogers, “Distributed optical fibre sensors,” J. Phys. D 19, 2237–2255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors based upon Brillouin scattering,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, V, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE2507, 175–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baskakov, S. I.

S. I. Baskakov, Radio Circuits and Signals (Wisshaja Shkola, Moscow, 1988), pp. 96–104.

Blotekjaer, K.

E. Rønnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” in Proceedings of the 9th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (National Research Council of Italy, Florence, Italy, 1993), postdeadline paper PD7.

Booysen, A.

Brooks, J. L.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, A. D. Kersey, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with depolarized light,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 992–999 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chtcherbakov, A. A.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, “Dual wavelength Sagnac–Michelson distributed optical fiber sensor,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, VI, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2838, 301–307 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. Pearce, C. A. Wade, A. Strong, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, “Fiber optic distributed sensing by two-loop Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 444–446 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Fang, “A variable-loop Sagnac interferometer for distributed impact sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2250–2254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garus, D.

D. Garus, K. Krebber, R. Hereth, “Distributed fiber optical sensors using Brillouin backscattering,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, XIII, R. P. DePaula, J. W. Berthold, eds., Proc. SPIE2510, 172–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gusmeroli, V.

V. Gusmeroli, “High-performance serial array of coherence multiplexed interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1681–1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hereth, R.

D. Garus, K. Krebber, R. Hereth, “Distributed fiber optical sensors using Brillouin backscattering,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, XIII, R. P. DePaula, J. W. Berthold, eds., Proc. SPIE2510, 172–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

Y.-J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors based upon Brillouin scattering,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, V, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE2507, 175–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

W. K. Burns, A. D. Kersey, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with depolarized light,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 992–999 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Krakenes, K.

E. Rønnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” in Proceedings of the 9th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (National Research Council of Italy, Florence, Italy, 1993), postdeadline paper PD7.

Krebber, K.

D. Garus, K. Krebber, R. Hereth, “Distributed fiber optical sensors using Brillouin backscattering,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, XIII, R. P. DePaula, J. W. Berthold, eds., Proc. SPIE2510, 172–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre, H.

H. Lefèvre, Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993), pp. 73–91.

Mortimore, D. B.

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, D. A.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. Pearce, C. A. Wade, A. Strong, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, A. J.

A. J. Rogers, “Distributed optical fibre sensors,” J. Phys. D 19, 2237–2255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rønnekleiv, E.

E. Rønnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” in Proceedings of the 9th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (National Research Council of Italy, Florence, Italy, 1993), postdeadline paper PD7.

Shaw, H. J.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Spammer, S. J.

S. J. Spammer, P. L. Swart, A. Booysen, “Interferometric distributed optical fiber sensor,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4522–4525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, “Dual wavelength Sagnac–Michelson distributed optical fiber sensor,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, VI, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2838, 301–307 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strong, A.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. Pearce, C. A. Wade, A. Strong, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

S. J. Spammer, P. L. Swart, A. Booysen, “Interferometric distributed optical fiber sensor,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4522–4525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, “Dual wavelength Sagnac–Michelson distributed optical fiber sensor,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, VI, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2838, 301–307 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Udd, E.

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 390–393.

E. Udd, “Distributed fiber optic strain sensor based on the Sagnac and Michelson interferometers,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways, L. K. Matthews, ed., Proc. SPIE2719, 210–212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensor concepts,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wade, C. A.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. Pearce, C. A. Wade, A. Strong, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors based upon Brillouin scattering,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, V, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE2507, 175–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wentworth, R. H.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Youngquist, R. C.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

X. Fang, “A variable-loop Sagnac interferometer for distributed impact sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2250–2254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1062–1070 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. Gusmeroli, “High-performance serial array of coherence multiplexed interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1681–1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, A. D. Kersey, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with depolarized light,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 992–999 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

A. J. Rogers, “Distributed optical fibre sensors,” J. Phys. D 19, 2237–2255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y.-J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (11)

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, “Dual wavelength Sagnac–Michelson distributed optical fiber sensor,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, VI, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2838, 301–307 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dakin, ed., The Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing Handbook (IFS, UK, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 3–20, 45–53.

E. Udd, “Distributed fiber optic strain sensor based on the Sagnac and Michelson interferometers,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways, L. K. Matthews, ed., Proc. SPIE2719, 210–212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors based upon Brillouin scattering,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, V, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE2507, 175–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Garus, K. Krebber, R. Hereth, “Distributed fiber optical sensors using Brillouin backscattering,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, XIII, R. P. DePaula, J. W. Berthold, eds., Proc. SPIE2510, 172–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 390–393.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. Pearce, C. A. Wade, A. Strong, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensor concepts,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Rønnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” in Proceedings of the 9th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (National Research Council of Italy, Florence, Italy, 1993), postdeadline paper PD7.

H. Lefèvre, Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993), pp. 73–91.

S. I. Baskakov, Radio Circuits and Signals (Wisshaja Shkola, Moscow, 1988), pp. 96–104.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber-optic disturbance-location sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lightwave paths in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lightwave paths in the modified Sagnac interferometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sagnac interferometer output signal (1) and excitation voltage (2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Device used to apply stress to the fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output signal of (a) Mach–Zehnder and (b) Sagnac interferometers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output signal of (a) Mach–Zehnder and (b) Sagnac interferometers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured disturbance location versus actual disturbance location.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Difference between measured and expected disturbance locations.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ Ψ = 2 π n λ L 1 + L 4 - L 2 + L 3 ,
I MZ = I o 8 1 + cos Δ Ψ ,
t 1 = t m - n c   L X ,
t 2 = t m - n c L 2 + L 1 + 2 L 5 - L X .
Δ Φ = Φ t t n c L 2 + L 1 + 2 L 5 - 2 L X .
I S = I o 8 1 - cos Φ t n c L 1 + L 2 + 2 L 5 - 2 L X .
I S m = I o 8 1 - cos Δ Φ + m   sin 2 π f m t ,
I S m ac = I o 8 k = - +   J k m cos 2 k π f m t + Δ Φ .
I S m ac 1 = I o 8   J 1 m cos 2 π f m t - Δ Φ ,
I S m ac - 1 = I o 8   J - 1 m cos 2 π f m t - Δ Φ = - I o 8   J 1 m cos 2 π f m t - Δ Φ .
I S F out = I o 8   J 1 m sin Δ Φ .
I S F out     Δ Φ = Φ t t n c L 1 + L 2 + 2 L 5 - 2 L X .
L X = L 1 + L 2 + 2 L 5 2 - c   η 2 n   I S F out T MZ ,
X = 1 N i = 1 N   V Sav i T MZ i ,

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