Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge the first theoretical and experimental estimation of the thermal characteristics of a composite Nd:YAG rod with an Al2O3 (sapphire) end in diode-end-pumped geometry. The peak temperature rise in the active segment is calculated to be reduced to 66% and the focal length of the thermal lens was measured to be reduced by 20% compared with a noncomposite Nd:YAG rod. By using a composite rod we successfully demonstrated the improvement of high-power performance that is due to reduction of thermally induced birefringence, which has not been observed in a composite rod with an undoped YAG end.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549–3551 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Tsunekane, M. Ihara, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “Improvement of thermal conduction by composite structure of Nd:YAG crystals,” No. 3 of Extended Abstracts presented at the 56th Autumn Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics in Kanazawa, Japan, 26–29 September 1995 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), paper 27a-D-3, in Japanese.
  3. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High power operation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using composite rod with undoped end,” Electron. Lett. 32, 40–41 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Bibeau, R. Beach, C. Ebbers, M. Emanuel, J. Skidmore, “CW and Q-switched performance of a diode end-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 276–279.
  5. E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.
  6. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Page, R. A. Bartels, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, L. H. Furu, J. E. LaSala, “1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 214–216.
  8. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High-power, efficient, low-noise, continuous-wave all-solid-state Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1912–1914 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992), Chap. 7.
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High-power, efficient, low-noise, continuous-wave all-solid-state Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1912–1914 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High power operation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using composite rod with undoped end,” Electron. Lett. 32, 40–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

R. H. Page, R. A. Bartels, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, L. H. Furu, J. E. LaSala, “1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 214–216.

Beach, R.

C. Bibeau, R. Beach, C. Ebbers, M. Emanuel, J. Skidmore, “CW and Q-switched performance of a diode end-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 276–279.

Beach, R. J.

R. H. Page, R. A. Bartels, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, L. H. Furu, J. E. LaSala, “1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 214–216.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Bibeau, C.

C. Bibeau, R. Beach, C. Ebbers, M. Emanuel, J. Skidmore, “CW and Q-switched performance of a diode end-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 276–279.

Ebbers, C.

C. Bibeau, R. Beach, C. Ebbers, M. Emanuel, J. Skidmore, “CW and Q-switched performance of a diode end-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 276–279.

Emanuel, M.

C. Bibeau, R. Beach, C. Ebbers, M. Emanuel, J. Skidmore, “CW and Q-switched performance of a diode end-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 276–279.

Emanuel, M. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Furu, L. H.

R. H. Page, R. A. Bartels, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, L. H. Furu, J. E. LaSala, “1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 214–216.

Hanson, F.

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Honea, E. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Ihara, M.

M. Tsunekane, M. Ihara, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “Improvement of thermal conduction by composite structure of Nd:YAG crystals,” No. 3 of Extended Abstracts presented at the 56th Autumn Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics in Kanazawa, Japan, 26–29 September 1995 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), paper 27a-D-3, in Japanese.

Inaba, H.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High-power, efficient, low-noise, continuous-wave all-solid-state Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1912–1914 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High power operation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using composite rod with undoped end,” Electron. Lett. 32, 40–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, M. Ihara, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “Improvement of thermal conduction by composite structure of Nd:YAG crystals,” No. 3 of Extended Abstracts presented at the 56th Autumn Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics in Kanazawa, Japan, 26–29 September 1995 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), paper 27a-D-3, in Japanese.

Kasamatsu, T.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

LaSala, J. E.

R. H. Page, R. A. Bartels, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, L. H. Furu, J. E. LaSala, “1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 214–216.

Mitchell, S. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Page, R. H.

R. H. Page, R. A. Bartels, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, L. H. Furu, J. E. LaSala, “1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 214–216.

Payne, S. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Skidmore, J.

C. Bibeau, R. Beach, C. Ebbers, M. Emanuel, J. Skidmore, “CW and Q-switched performance of a diode end-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 276–279.

Skidmore, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Speth, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

Sutton, S. B.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

R. H. Page, R. A. Bartels, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, L. H. Furu, J. E. LaSala, “1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 214–216.

Taguchi, N.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High-power, efficient, low-noise, continuous-wave all-solid-state Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1912–1914 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High power operation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using composite rod with undoped end,” Electron. Lett. 32, 40–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, M. Ihara, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “Improvement of thermal conduction by composite structure of Nd:YAG crystals,” No. 3 of Extended Abstracts presented at the 56th Autumn Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics in Kanazawa, Japan, 26–29 September 1995 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), paper 27a-D-3, in Japanese.

Tsunekane, M.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High-power, efficient, low-noise, continuous-wave all-solid-state Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1912–1914 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High power operation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using composite rod with undoped end,” Electron. Lett. 32, 40–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, M. Ihara, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “Improvement of thermal conduction by composite structure of Nd:YAG crystals,” No. 3 of Extended Abstracts presented at the 56th Autumn Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics in Kanazawa, Japan, 26–29 September 1995 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), paper 27a-D-3, in Japanese.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “High power operation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using composite rod with undoped end,” Electron. Lett. 32, 40–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

R. H. Page, R. A. Bartels, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, L. H. Furu, J. E. LaSala, “1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 214–216.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

C. Bibeau, R. Beach, C. Ebbers, M. Emanuel, J. Skidmore, “CW and Q-switched performance of a diode end-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 276–279.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115 W Tm:YAG CW diode-pumped solid-state laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock, W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 307–309.

M. Tsunekane, M. Ihara, N. Taguchi, H. Inaba, “Improvement of thermal conduction by composite structure of Nd:YAG crystals,” No. 3 of Extended Abstracts presented at the 56th Autumn Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics in Kanazawa, Japan, 26–29 September 1995 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), paper 27a-D-3, in Japanese.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated temperature rise in half of the axial cross section of diode-end-pumped rods of (a) composite sapphire–Nd:YAG, (b) composite YAG–Nd:YAG, (c) noncomposite Nd:YAG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated optical path differences for end-pumped sapphire–Nd:YAG, YAG–Nd:YAG, and Nd:YAG rods. The abscissa indicates the radial position from the rod center. The input pump power is assumed to be 10-W cw.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Input–output characteristics of the sapphire–Nd:YAG and the Nd:YAG rods without an intracavity Brewster plate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured beam quality (M 2 value) as a function of input diode pump power is based on the experiment shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured focal length of the thermal lens in the sapphire–Nd:YAG and the Nd:YAG rods as a function of input diode pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental comparison of thermally induced birefringence in (a) sapphire–Nd:YAG and (b) Nd:YAG rods observed by use of a linearly polarized He–Ne laser at 632.8 nm. The input pump power was 5-W cw.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Input–output characteristics of the sapphire–Nd:YAG and the Nd:YAG rods with an intracavity Brewster plate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured beam quality (M 2 value) as a function of input diode pump power based on the experiment shown in Fig. 7.

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