Abstract

Airborne laser-induced (and water Raman-normalized) spectral fluorescence emissions from oceanic chlorophyll were obtained during variable downwelling irradiance conditions induced by diurnal variability and patchy clouds. Chlorophyll fluorescence profiles along geographically repeated inbound and outbound flight track lines, separated in time by ∼3–6 h and subject to overlying cloud movement, were found to be identical after corrections made with concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements. The corrections were accomplished by a mathematical model containing an exponential of the ratio of the instantaneous-to-average downwelling irradiance. Concurrent laser-induced phycoerythrin fluorescence and chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence were found to be invariant to downwelling irradiance and thus, along with sea-surface temperature, established the near constancy of the oceanic surface layer during the experiment and validated the need for chlorophyll fluorescence quenching corrections over wide areas of the ocean.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1995

P. G. Falkowski, Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world’s oceans,” Aust. J. Physiol. 22, 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentration in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Distinct fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: a comparison with contiguous naturally-occurring patches,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 75, 134 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “A bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins November 3, 1993: Airborne chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and DOM fluorescence, upwelled radiance, downwelling irradiance, SST, and AXBT profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophy. Union 75, 150 (1994).

1993

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 779–22, 787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

1985

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Marine Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

M. Abbott, P. J. Richardson, T. M. Powell, “In situ response of phytoplankton fluorescence to rapid variations in light,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 218–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

Abbott, M.

M. Abbott, P. J. Richardson, T. M. Powell, “In situ response of phytoplankton fluorescence to rapid variations in light,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 218–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

Barber, R. T.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berry, R. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Distinct fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: a comparison with contiguous naturally-occurring patches,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 75, 134 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “A bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins November 3, 1993: Airborne chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and DOM fluorescence, upwelled radiance, downwelling irradiance, SST, and AXBT profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophy. Union 75, 150 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986);F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bidigare, R.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blough, N. V.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentration in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, M.

Brown, O. B.

Buck, K.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bundy, D.

Campbell, J. W.

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Marine Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, S. W.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coale, K. H.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coley, T. L.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Elrod, V. A.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Marine Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

Falkowski, P.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P. G.

P. G. Falkowski, Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world’s oceans,” Aust. J. Physiol. 22, 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic Photosynthesis (Blackwell Science, Malden, Mass., 1997).

Fitzwater, S. E.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Friederich, G.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Furtek, F.

Gordon, R. M.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greene, R.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. P.

K. P. Guenther, “Photoinhibition of chlorophyll a fluorescence and its influence to remote sensing techniques,” in Proceedings of International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Systems 1986 SymposiumESA SP-254 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1986), pp. 1603–1607.

K. P. Guenther, “A quantitative description of the chlorophyll a fluorescence reduction due to global irradiation in the surface layer,” in Marine Interfaces Ecohydrodynamics, J. C. J. Nihoul, ed., Elsevier Oceanogr. Ser.42, 603–617 (1986).

Hatton, A.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentration in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Distinct fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: a comparison with contiguous naturally-occurring patches,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 75, 134 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “A bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins November 3, 1993: Airborne chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and DOM fluorescence, upwelled radiance, downwelling irradiance, SST, and AXBT profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophy. Union 75, 150 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 779–22, 787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986);F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne mapping of laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, ed., Advances in Chemistry Series No. 209 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper 18, pp. 353–372.

Hovis, W. A.

Hunter, C. N.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. S.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, John S.

Kolber, Z.

P. G. Falkowski, Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world’s oceans,” Aust. J. Physiol. 22, 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Latasa, M.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. S.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liddicoat, M. I.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lindley, S.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ling, R.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liss, P.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. H.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Millero, F. J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, R.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Distinct fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: a comparison with contiguous naturally-occurring patches,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 75, 134 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “A bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins November 3, 1993: Airborne chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and DOM fluorescence, upwelled radiance, downwelling irradiance, SST, and AXBT profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophy. Union 75, 150 (1994).

Nielsen, D.

Nightingale, P.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nowicki, J. L.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ondrusek, M.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peltzer, E. T.

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentration in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pietrafesa, L. J.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Powell, T. M.

M. Abbott, P. J. Richardson, T. M. Powell, “In situ response of phytoplankton fluorescence to rapid variations in light,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 218–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Raven, J. A.

P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic Photosynthesis (Blackwell Science, Malden, Mass., 1997).

Richardson, P. J.

M. Abbott, P. J. Richardson, T. M. Powell, “In situ response of phytoplankton fluorescence to rapid variations in light,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 218–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, C.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Stanton, T.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stockel, J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentration in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Distinct fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: a comparison with contiguous naturally-occurring patches,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 75, 134 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “A bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins November 3, 1993: Airborne chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and DOM fluorescence, upwelled radiance, downwelling irradiance, SST, and AXBT profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophy. Union 75, 150 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 779–22, 787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986);F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne mapping of laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, ed., Advances in Chemistry Series No. 209 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper 18, pp. 353–372.

Tanner, S. J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tindale, N. W.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turner, S.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van Scoy, K.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vodacek, A.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentration in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 779–22, 787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. J.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Watson, A. J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whitledge, T. E.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wirick, C. D.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C. W.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “A bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins November 3, 1993: Airborne chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and DOM fluorescence, upwelled radiance, downwelling irradiance, SST, and AXBT profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophy. Union 75, 150 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Distinct fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: a comparison with contiguous naturally-occurring patches,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 75, 134 (1994).

Yao, W.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. K.

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentration in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Distinct fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: a comparison with contiguous naturally-occurring patches,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 75, 134 (1994).

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “A bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins November 3, 1993: Airborne chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and DOM fluorescence, upwelled radiance, downwelling irradiance, SST, and AXBT profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophy. Union 75, 150 (1994).

Yungel, J. Y.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 779–22, 787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Z.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, F. Furtek, “Use of water Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, John S. Knoll, “Characteristics of an internally illuminated calibration sphere,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4004–4007 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986);F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aust. J. Physiol.

P. G. Falkowski, Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world’s oceans,” Aust. J. Physiol. 22, 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Shelf Res.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 779–22, 787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Marine Res.

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Marine Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

M. Abbott, P. J. Richardson, T. M. Powell, “In situ response of phytoplankton fluorescence to rapid variations in light,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 218–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentration in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Geophy. Union

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “A bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins November 3, 1993: Airborne chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and DOM fluorescence, upwelled radiance, downwelling irradiance, SST, and AXBT profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophy. Union 75, 150 (1994).

Trans. Am. Geophys. Union

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Distinct fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: a comparison with contiguous naturally-occurring patches,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 75, 134 (1994).

Other

P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic Photosynthesis (Blackwell Science, Malden, Mass., 1997).

K. P. Guenther, “A quantitative description of the chlorophyll a fluorescence reduction due to global irradiation in the surface layer,” in Marine Interfaces Ecohydrodynamics, J. C. J. Nihoul, ed., Elsevier Oceanogr. Ser.42, 603–617 (1986).

K. P. Guenther, “Photoinhibition of chlorophyll a fluorescence and its influence to remote sensing techniques,” in Proceedings of International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Systems 1986 SymposiumESA SP-254 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1986), pp. 1603–1607.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne mapping of laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, ed., Advances in Chemistry Series No. 209 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper 18, pp. 353–372.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Location of the outbound and inbound airborne flight lines from Ecuador. The flight was conducted at 150 m altitude, and the aircraft was at all times beneath the bases of the low-lying cumulus–nimbus clouds. The flight lines were not geographically repeated over their entire length and can be seen to depart considerably (∼25 km) toward the western end.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Corresponding outbound and inbound flight track profiles uncorrected for downwelling irradiance. (a) Inbound laser-induced and water Raman-normalized chlorophyll fluorescence profile exhibits a significant increase as the incident irradiance [see Fig. 3(a)] declines. Sizeable disagreement is found where, after ∼6 h, the irradiance is lowest, e.g., at -82°. (b) Phycoerythrin fluorescence, (c) CDOM fluorescence, and (d) SST show good agreement over the 3–6 h. period separating the observations. The latter three profiles indicate that the oceanographic conditions of the surface layer were essentially unchanged from 1600 to 2200 Greenwich Mean Time and that these parameters were essentially unaffected by downwelling irradiance changes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Corresponding inbound and outbound flight track profiles of downwelling irradiance from zenith-viewing wide-bandwidth visible radiometer. On both outbound and inbound track lines, irradiance exhibits gradual diurnal changes modulated with high-frequency cloud-induced variations. The inbound track line was traversed from 2030 to 2200 and declines toward shore. (b) Airborne laser-induced and water Raman-normalized chlorophyll fluorescence show excellent agreement after correction for downwelling irradiance [compare with the uncorrected fluorescence Fig. 2(a)].

Equations (1)

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F corrected = F uncorrected 1 + exp E d / E d , avg - 1 ,

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