Abstract

The problem of retrieving minor concentrations of constituents by ground-based Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy is addressed by means of the concept of differential optical emission spectroscopy in analogy to the concept of differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Using the prominent ν 3 ozone feature at 1043 cm-1, we show that the strength of the spectral signature depends not only on the amount of ozone but also on the atmospheric thermal structure. This dependence can be described by a rather accurate approximation, which was used to construct a simple diagram to estimate the amount of column ozone between the instrument site and a cloud deck as well as to determine the detection limit. The detection limit is shown to depend on cloud base height. For a given thermal lapse rate it was found that the lower the detection limit, the higher the cloud base altitude. However, as shown in a case study with variable cloud base height, the concept fails for semitransparent clouds. Multiple scattering of the emitted radiation within the clouds yielded a path enhancement that simulated an enhanced amount of constituent. The path enhancement was estimated to be 2.4–4 km at 1000 cm-1 for low-level clouds, equivalent to an enhancement factor of 6–21. The multiple scattering effect has considerable consequences for ground-based as well as for nadir satellite retrieval techniques in cloudy skies.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1996

E. Puckrin, W. F. J. Evans, T. A. B. Adamson, “Measurement of tropospheric ozone by thermal emission spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 30, 563–568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Spänkuch, W. Döhler, J. Güldner, A. Keens, “Ground-based passive atmospheric remote sounding by FTIR emission spectroscopy—first results with EISAR,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 69, 97–111 (1996).

S. J. Reid, G. Vaughan, A. R. W. Marsh, H. G. J. Smit, “Accuracy of ozonesonde measurements in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 215–226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “On the influence of tropospheric clouds on zenith-scattered-light measurements of stratospheric species,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2725–2728 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Trainer, B. A. Ridley, M. P. Buhr, G. Kok, J. Walega, G. Hübler, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Regional ozone and urban plumes in the southeastern United States: Birmingham, a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18,823–18,834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Komhyr, R. A. Barnes, G. B. Brothers, J. A. Lathrop, D. P. Oppermann, “Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9231–9244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Tarasick, D. I. Wardle, J. B. Kerr, J. J. Bellefleur, J. Davies, “Tropospheric ozone trends over Canada: 1980–1993,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 409–412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Hudson, J.-H. Kim, A. M. Thompson, “On the derivation of tropospheric column ozone from radiances measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,137–11,145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. A. Logan, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone: An analysis of ozonesonde data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,553–25,585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ancellet, M. Beekmann, A. Papayannis, “Impact of a cut off low development on downward transport of ozone in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3451–3468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Balsley, J. W. Birks, M. L. Jensen, H. G. Knapp, J. B. Williams, G. W. Tyrell, “Ozone profiling using kites,” Nature (London) 369, 23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. K. Kobayashi, “IMG, inteferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. E. Jonson, I. S. A. Isaksen, “Tropospheric ozone chemistry: the impact of cloud chemistry,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 99–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. P. Ayers, S. A. Penkett, R. W. Gillett, B. Bandy, I. E. Galbally, C. P. Meyer, C. M. Elsworth, S. T. Bentley, B. W. Forgan, “Evidence for photochemical control of ozone concentrations in unpolluted marine air,” Nature (London) 360, 446–449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Ebel, H. Hass, H. J. Jakobs, M. Laube, M. Memmesheimer, A. Oberreuter, H. Geiss, Y.-H. Kuo, “Simulation of ozone intrusion caused by a tropopause fold and cut-off low,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2131–2144 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 343, 227–233 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, F. W. Koenig, D. D. La Porte, S. Silverman, L. A. Sromovsky, H. M. Woolf, “GHIS—The GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “The distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. J. Curran, “NASA’s plans to observe the earth’s atmosphere with lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 154–163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

E. F. Danielsen, R. S. Hipskind, S. E. Gaines, G. W. Sachse, G. L. Gregory, G. F. Hill, “Three-dimensional analysis of potential vorticity associated with tropopause folds and observed variations of ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2103–2111 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Fishman, P. Minuis, H. G. Reichle, “Use of satellite data to study tropospheric ozone in the tropics,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,451–14,465 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

I. Colbeck, R. M. Harrison, “Dry deposition of ozone: some measurements of deposition velocity and of vertical profiles to 100 meters,” Atmos. Environ. 19, 1807–1818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. T. Shipley, “Ultraviolet DIAL measurements of O3 profiles in regions of spatially inhomogeneous aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2827–2836 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

I. E. Galbally, C. R. Roy, “Destruction of ozone at the earth’s surface,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 599–620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Garland, A. W. Elzerman, S. A. Penkett, “The mechanism for dry deposition of ozone to seawater surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7488–7492 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Shapiro, “Turbulent mixing within tropopause folds as a mechanism for the exchange of chemical constituents between the stratosphere and troposphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 994–1004 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Fishman, S. Solomon, P. J. Crutzen, “Observational and theoretical evidence in support of a significant in-situ photochemical source of tropospheric ozone,” Tellus 31, 432–446 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

G. H. Ruppersberg, R. Schellhase, H. Schuster, “Calculation about transmittance window of clouds and fog at about 10.5 μm wavelength,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 723–730 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. E. Hunt, “Radiative properties of the terrestrial clouds at visible and infra-red thermal window wavelengths,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 19, 346–369 (1973).

W. Chameides, J. C. G. Walker, “A photochemical theory of tropospheric ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8751–8760 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970

G. Yamamoto, T. Masayuki, A. Shoji, “Radiative transfer in water clouds in the infrared region,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 282–292 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Grassl, “Bestimmung der Grössenverteilung von Wolkenelementen aus spektralen Transmissionsmesssungen,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 255–284 (1970).

1962

C. E. Junge, “Global ozone budget and exchange between stratosphere and troposphere,” Tellus 14, 363–377 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD3-Spectral simulation,” in IRS’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Adamson, T. A. B.

E. Puckrin, W. F. J. Evans, T. A. B. Adamson, “Measurement of tropospheric ozone by thermal emission spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 30, 563–568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G. M.

G. M. Ancellet, M. Beekmann, A. Papayannis, “Impact of a cut off low development on downward transport of ozone in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3451–3468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD3-Spectral simulation,” in IRS’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Ayers, G. P.

G. P. Ayers, S. A. Penkett, R. W. Gillett, B. Bandy, I. E. Galbally, C. P. Meyer, C. M. Elsworth, S. T. Bentley, B. W. Forgan, “Evidence for photochemical control of ozone concentrations in unpolluted marine air,” Nature (London) 360, 446–449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Balsley, B. B.

B. B. Balsley, J. W. Birks, M. L. Jensen, H. G. Knapp, J. B. Williams, G. W. Tyrell, “Ozone profiling using kites,” Nature (London) 369, 23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bandy, B.

G. P. Ayers, S. A. Penkett, R. W. Gillett, B. Bandy, I. E. Galbally, C. P. Meyer, C. M. Elsworth, S. T. Bentley, B. W. Forgan, “Evidence for photochemical control of ozone concentrations in unpolluted marine air,” Nature (London) 360, 446–449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baran, A. J.

A. J. Baran, P. D. Watts, “Radiative properties of water and ice clouds at wavelengths appropriate to the HIRS instrument channels,” Meteorological Office Bracknell, Short Range Forecasting Division, scientific paper 5 (H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1992).

Barnes, R. A.

W. D. Komhyr, R. A. Barnes, G. B. Brothers, J. A. Lathrop, D. P. Oppermann, “Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9231–9244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beekmann, M.

G. M. Ancellet, M. Beekmann, A. Papayannis, “Impact of a cut off low development on downward transport of ozone in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3451–3468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bellefleur, J. J.

D. W. Tarasick, D. I. Wardle, J. B. Kerr, J. J. Bellefleur, J. Davies, “Tropospheric ozone trends over Canada: 1980–1993,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 409–412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, S. T.

G. P. Ayers, S. A. Penkett, R. W. Gillett, B. Bandy, I. E. Galbally, C. P. Meyer, C. M. Elsworth, S. T. Bentley, B. W. Forgan, “Evidence for photochemical control of ozone concentrations in unpolluted marine air,” Nature (London) 360, 446–449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Best, F. A.

H. E. Revercomb, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, “Advanced sounding systems: the polar orbiting ITS and the ground-based AERI,” in Technical Proceedings of the Seventh International TOVS Study Conference, J. Eyre, ed. (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK, 1993), pp. 404–415.

Birks, J. W.

B. B. Balsley, J. W. Birks, M. L. Jensen, H. G. Knapp, J. B. Williams, G. W. Tyrell, “Ozone profiling using kites,” Nature (London) 369, 23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brothers, G. B.

W. D. Komhyr, R. A. Barnes, G. B. Brothers, J. A. Lathrop, D. P. Oppermann, “Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9231–9244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Buhr, M. P.

M. Trainer, B. A. Ridley, M. P. Buhr, G. Kok, J. Walega, G. Hübler, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Regional ozone and urban plumes in the southeastern United States: Birmingham, a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18,823–18,834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buijs, H.

Chameides, W.

W. Chameides, J. C. G. Walker, “A photochemical theory of tropospheric ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8751–8760 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chedin, A.

M. Perrone, P. Ingmann, A. Chedin, J. Eyre, R. Rizzi, W. L. Smith, D. Spänkuch, J. Svensson, “Requirements for an operational interferometer thermal sounder,” EUMETSAT Sounder Science Working Group, EUM/ESSWG/REP91/1 (European Organization for Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt, Germany, 1991).

Chetwynd, J. H.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD3-Spectral simulation,” in IRS’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Claude, H.

H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, “Ozone and temperature changes in the long Hohenpeissenberg time series,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds., Air Pollution Research Rep. 56, (European Commission, Luxembourg, 1996), pp. 502–505.

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD3-Spectral simulation,” in IRS’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Colbeck, I.

I. Colbeck, R. M. Harrison, “Dry deposition of ozone: some measurements of deposition velocity and of vertical profiles to 100 meters,” Atmos. Environ. 19, 1807–1818 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 343, 227–233 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Atmospheric monitoring by differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” in Environmental Sciences, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 223–262.

Platt, U.

F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “On the influence of tropospheric clouds on zenith-scattered-light measurements of stratospheric species,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2725–2728 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, T. Senne, F. Erle, C. Otten, J. Stutz, K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Determination of cloud properties and cloud type from DOAS measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone Dynamics: Observations in the Mediterranean Region, C. Varotsos, ed., Vol. I58 of NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 327–336.
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 27–84.

Puckrin, E.

E. Puckrin, W. F. J. Evans, T. A. B. Adamson, “Measurement of tropospheric ozone by thermal emission spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 30, 563–568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reichle, H. G.

J. Fishman, P. Minuis, H. G. Reichle, “Use of satellite data to study tropospheric ozone in the tropics,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,451–14,465 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Reid, S. J.

S. J. Reid, G. Vaughan, A. R. W. Marsh, H. G. J. Smit, “Accuracy of ozonesonde measurements in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 215–226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, F. W. Koenig, D. D. La Porte, S. Silverman, L. A. Sromovsky, H. M. Woolf, “GHIS—The GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. La Porte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Revercomb, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, “Advanced sounding systems: the polar orbiting ITS and the ground-based AERI,” in Technical Proceedings of the Seventh International TOVS Study Conference, J. Eyre, ed. (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK, 1993), pp. 404–415.

Ridley, B. A.

M. Trainer, B. A. Ridley, M. P. Buhr, G. Kok, J. Walega, G. Hübler, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Regional ozone and urban plumes in the southeastern United States: Birmingham, a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18,823–18,834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rizzi, R.

M. Perrone, P. Ingmann, A. Chedin, J. Eyre, R. Rizzi, W. L. Smith, D. Spänkuch, J. Svensson, “Requirements for an operational interferometer thermal sounder,” EUMETSAT Sounder Science Working Group, EUM/ESSWG/REP91/1 (European Organization for Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt, Germany, 1991).

Rodgers, C. D.

J. T. Houghton, F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, Remote Sounding of Atmospheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1984).

Roy, C. R.

I. E. Galbally, C. R. Roy, “Destruction of ozone at the earth’s surface,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 599–620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ruppersberg, G. H.

G. H. Ruppersberg, R. Schellhase, H. Schuster, “Calculation about transmittance window of clouds and fog at about 10.5 μm wavelength,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 723–730 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

E. F. Danielsen, R. S. Hipskind, S. E. Gaines, G. W. Sachse, G. L. Gregory, G. F. Hill, “Three-dimensional analysis of potential vorticity associated with tropopause folds and observed variations of ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2103–2111 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schellhase, R.

G. H. Ruppersberg, R. Schellhase, H. Schuster, “Calculation about transmittance window of clouds and fog at about 10.5 μm wavelength,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 723–730 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, H.

G. H. Ruppersberg, R. Schellhase, H. Schuster, “Calculation about transmittance window of clouds and fog at about 10.5 μm wavelength,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 723–730 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, J. S. Garing, F. E. Volz, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” AFCRL-70-0527 environ. res. paper 331 (U.S. Air Force, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1970).

Senne, T.

T. Wagner, T. Senne, F. Erle, C. Otten, J. Stutz, K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Determination of cloud properties and cloud type from DOAS measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone Dynamics: Observations in the Mediterranean Region, C. Varotsos, ed., Vol. I58 of NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 327–336.
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, M. A.

M. A. Shapiro, “Turbulent mixing within tropopause folds as a mechanism for the exchange of chemical constituents between the stratosphere and troposphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 994–1004 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD3-Spectral simulation,” in IRS’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Shimoda, H.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. K. Kobayashi, “IMG, inteferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, S. T.

Shoji, A.

G. Yamamoto, T. Masayuki, A. Shoji, “Radiative transfer in water clouds in the infrared region,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 282–292 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, S.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, F. W. Koenig, D. D. La Porte, S. Silverman, L. A. Sromovsky, H. M. Woolf, “GHIS—The GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smit, H. G. J.

S. J. Reid, G. Vaughan, A. R. W. Marsh, H. G. J. Smit, “Accuracy of ozonesonde measurements in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 215–226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N.

J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Atmospheric monitoring by differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” in Environmental Sciences, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 223–262.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, F. W. Koenig, D. D. La Porte, S. Silverman, L. A. Sromovsky, H. M. Woolf, “GHIS—The GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. La Porte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Perrone, P. Ingmann, A. Chedin, J. Eyre, R. Rizzi, W. L. Smith, D. Spänkuch, J. Svensson, “Requirements for an operational interferometer thermal sounder,” EUMETSAT Sounder Science Working Group, EUM/ESSWG/REP91/1 (European Organization for Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt, Germany, 1991).

H. E. Revercomb, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, “Advanced sounding systems: the polar orbiting ITS and the ground-based AERI,” in Technical Proceedings of the Seventh International TOVS Study Conference, J. Eyre, ed. (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK, 1993), pp. 404–415.

Solomon, S.

J. Fishman, S. Solomon, P. J. Crutzen, “Observational and theoretical evidence in support of a significant in-situ photochemical source of tropospheric ozone,” Tellus 31, 432–446 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Spänkuch, D.

D. Spänkuch, W. Döhler, J. Güldner, A. Keens, “Ground-based passive atmospheric remote sounding by FTIR emission spectroscopy—first results with EISAR,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 69, 97–111 (1996).

M. Perrone, P. Ingmann, A. Chedin, J. Eyre, R. Rizzi, W. L. Smith, D. Spänkuch, J. Svensson, “Requirements for an operational interferometer thermal sounder,” EUMETSAT Sounder Science Working Group, EUM/ESSWG/REP91/1 (European Organization for Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt, Germany, 1991).

D. Spänkuch, W. Döhler, J. Güldner, A. Keens, “FTIR downwelling radiance measurements at Potsdam with the EISAR system for different meteorological conditions and viewings: first results,” in Third International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies (Max-Planck-Institüt für Meteorologie, Hamburg, 1994), pp. 436–438.

Sromovsky, L. A.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, F. W. Koenig, D. D. La Porte, S. Silverman, L. A. Sromovsky, H. M. Woolf, “GHIS—The GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. La Porte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrecht, W.

H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, “Ozone and temperature changes in the long Hohenpeissenberg time series,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds., Air Pollution Research Rep. 56, (European Commission, Luxembourg, 1996), pp. 502–505.

Stutz, J.

T. Wagner, T. Senne, F. Erle, C. Otten, J. Stutz, K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Determination of cloud properties and cloud type from DOAS measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone Dynamics: Observations in the Mediterranean Region, C. Varotsos, ed., Vol. I58 of NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 327–336.
[CrossRef]

Svensson, J.

M. Perrone, P. Ingmann, A. Chedin, J. Eyre, R. Rizzi, W. L. Smith, D. Spänkuch, J. Svensson, “Requirements for an operational interferometer thermal sounder,” EUMETSAT Sounder Science Working Group, EUM/ESSWG/REP91/1 (European Organization for Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt, Germany, 1991).

Tarasick, D. W.

D. W. Tarasick, D. I. Wardle, J. B. Kerr, J. J. Bellefleur, J. Davies, “Tropospheric ozone trends over Canada: 1980–1993,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 409–412 (1995).
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Taylor, F. W.

J. T. Houghton, F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, Remote Sounding of Atmospheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1984).

Thompson, A. M.

R. D. Hudson, J.-H. Kim, A. M. Thompson, “On the derivation of tropospheric column ozone from radiances measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,137–11,145 (1995).
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Timofeyev, Yu. M.

K. Ya. Kondratyev, Yu. M. Timofeyev, Thermal Sounding of the Atmosphere from Satellites (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1970), in Russian.

Trainer, M.

M. Trainer, B. A. Ridley, M. P. Buhr, G. Kok, J. Walega, G. Hübler, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Regional ozone and urban plumes in the southeastern United States: Birmingham, a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18,823–18,834 (1995).
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Tyrell, G. W.

B. B. Balsley, J. W. Birks, M. L. Jensen, H. G. Knapp, J. B. Williams, G. W. Tyrell, “Ozone profiling using kites,” Nature (London) 369, 23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

S. J. Reid, G. Vaughan, A. R. W. Marsh, H. G. J. Smit, “Accuracy of ozonesonde measurements in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 215–226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, J. S. Garing, F. E. Volz, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” AFCRL-70-0527 environ. res. paper 331 (U.S. Air Force, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1970).

Wagner, T.

T. Wagner, T. Senne, F. Erle, C. Otten, J. Stutz, K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Determination of cloud properties and cloud type from DOAS measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone Dynamics: Observations in the Mediterranean Region, C. Varotsos, ed., Vol. I58 of NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 327–336.
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Walega, J.

M. Trainer, B. A. Ridley, M. P. Buhr, G. Kok, J. Walega, G. Hübler, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Regional ozone and urban plumes in the southeastern United States: Birmingham, a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18,823–18,834 (1995).
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Walker, J. C. G.

W. Chameides, J. C. G. Walker, “A photochemical theory of tropospheric ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8751–8760 (1973).
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Wardle, D. I.

D. W. Tarasick, D. I. Wardle, J. B. Kerr, J. J. Bellefleur, J. Davies, “Tropospheric ozone trends over Canada: 1980–1993,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 409–412 (1995).
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Watson, C. E.

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “The distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
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A. J. Baran, P. D. Watts, “Radiative properties of water and ice clouds at wavelengths appropriate to the HIRS instrument channels,” Meteorological Office Bracknell, Short Range Forecasting Division, scientific paper 5 (H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1992).

Williams, J. B.

B. B. Balsley, J. W. Birks, M. L. Jensen, H. G. Knapp, J. B. Williams, G. W. Tyrell, “Ozone profiling using kites,” Nature (London) 369, 23 (1994).
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Woolf, H. M.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, F. W. Koenig, D. D. La Porte, S. Silverman, L. A. Sromovsky, H. M. Woolf, “GHIS—The GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
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Worsham, R. D.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD3-Spectral simulation,” in IRS’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Yamamoto, G.

G. Yamamoto, T. Masayuki, A. Shoji, “Radiative transfer in water clouds in the infrared region,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 282–292 (1970).
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Adv. Space Res.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, R. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. K. Kobayashi, “IMG, inteferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
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Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Environ.

G. H. Ruppersberg, R. Schellhase, H. Schuster, “Calculation about transmittance window of clouds and fog at about 10.5 μm wavelength,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 723–730 (1975).
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E. Puckrin, W. F. J. Evans, T. A. B. Adamson, “Measurement of tropospheric ozone by thermal emission spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 30, 563–568 (1996).
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I. Colbeck, R. M. Harrison, “Dry deposition of ozone: some measurements of deposition velocity and of vertical profiles to 100 meters,” Atmos. Environ. 19, 1807–1818 (1985).
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A. Ebel, H. Hass, H. J. Jakobs, M. Laube, M. Memmesheimer, A. Oberreuter, H. Geiss, Y.-H. Kuo, “Simulation of ozone intrusion caused by a tropopause fold and cut-off low,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2131–2144 (1991).
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Beitr. Phys. Atmos.

D. Spänkuch, W. Döhler, J. Güldner, A. Keens, “Ground-based passive atmospheric remote sounding by FTIR emission spectroscopy—first results with EISAR,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 69, 97–111 (1996).

H. Grassl, “Bestimmung der Grössenverteilung von Wolkenelementen aus spektralen Transmissionsmesssungen,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 255–284 (1970).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “On the influence of tropospheric clouds on zenith-scattered-light measurements of stratospheric species,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2725–2728 (1995).
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D. W. Tarasick, D. I. Wardle, J. B. Kerr, J. J. Bellefleur, J. Davies, “Tropospheric ozone trends over Canada: 1980–1993,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 409–412 (1995).
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IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

R. J. Curran, “NASA’s plans to observe the earth’s atmosphere with lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 154–163 (1989).
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J. Appl. Meteorol.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H.-L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, F. W. Koenig, D. D. La Porte, S. Silverman, L. A. Sromovsky, H. M. Woolf, “GHIS—The GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1990).
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J. Atmos. Chem.

J. E. Jonson, I. S. A. Isaksen, “Tropospheric ozone chemistry: the impact of cloud chemistry,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 99–122 (1993).
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S. J. Reid, G. Vaughan, A. R. W. Marsh, H. G. J. Smit, “Accuracy of ozonesonde measurements in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 215–226 (1996).
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J. Atmos. Sci.

G. Yamamoto, T. Masayuki, A. Shoji, “Radiative transfer in water clouds in the infrared region,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 282–292 (1970).
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M. A. Shapiro, “Turbulent mixing within tropopause folds as a mechanism for the exchange of chemical constituents between the stratosphere and troposphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 994–1004 (1980).
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J. Geophys. Res.

J. A. Garland, A. W. Elzerman, S. A. Penkett, “The mechanism for dry deposition of ozone to seawater surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7488–7492 (1980).
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J. Fishman, P. Minuis, H. G. Reichle, “Use of satellite data to study tropospheric ozone in the tropics,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,451–14,465 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Logan, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone: An analysis of ozonesonde data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,553–25,585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Chameides, J. C. G. Walker, “A photochemical theory of tropospheric ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8751–8760 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ancellet, M. Beekmann, A. Papayannis, “Impact of a cut off low development on downward transport of ozone in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3451–3468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Danielsen, R. S. Hipskind, S. E. Gaines, G. W. Sachse, G. L. Gregory, G. F. Hill, “Three-dimensional analysis of potential vorticity associated with tropopause folds and observed variations of ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2103–2111 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “The distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Hudson, J.-H. Kim, A. M. Thompson, “On the derivation of tropospheric column ozone from radiances measured by the total ozone mapping spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,137–11,145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Trainer, B. A. Ridley, M. P. Buhr, G. Kok, J. Walega, G. Hübler, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Regional ozone and urban plumes in the southeastern United States: Birmingham, a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18,823–18,834 (1995).
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W. D. Komhyr, R. A. Barnes, G. B. Brothers, J. A. Lathrop, D. P. Oppermann, “Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9231–9244 (1995).
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Nature (London)

B. B. Balsley, J. W. Birks, M. L. Jensen, H. G. Knapp, J. B. Williams, G. W. Tyrell, “Ozone profiling using kites,” Nature (London) 369, 23 (1994).
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J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 343, 227–233 (1990).
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G. P. Ayers, S. A. Penkett, R. W. Gillett, B. Bandy, I. E. Galbally, C. P. Meyer, C. M. Elsworth, S. T. Bentley, B. W. Forgan, “Evidence for photochemical control of ozone concentrations in unpolluted marine air,” Nature (London) 360, 446–449 (1992).
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Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

I. E. Galbally, C. R. Roy, “Destruction of ozone at the earth’s surface,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 599–620 (1980).
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G. E. Hunt, “Radiative properties of the terrestrial clouds at visible and infra-red thermal window wavelengths,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 19, 346–369 (1973).

Tellus

J. Fishman, S. Solomon, P. J. Crutzen, “Observational and theoretical evidence in support of a significant in-situ photochemical source of tropospheric ozone,” Tellus 31, 432–446 (1979).
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C. E. Junge, “Global ozone budget and exchange between stratosphere and troposphere,” Tellus 14, 363–377 (1962).
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Other

H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, “Ozone and temperature changes in the long Hohenpeissenberg time series,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds., Air Pollution Research Rep. 56, (European Commission, Luxembourg, 1996), pp. 502–505.

J. Fishman, “Tropospheric ozone from satellite total ozone measurements,” in Tropospheric Ozone, I. S. A. Isaksen, ed. (Reidel, Norwell, Mass., 1988), pp. 111–123.
[CrossRef]

M. Perrone, P. Ingmann, A. Chedin, J. Eyre, R. Rizzi, W. L. Smith, D. Spänkuch, J. Svensson, “Requirements for an operational interferometer thermal sounder,” EUMETSAT Sounder Science Working Group, EUM/ESSWG/REP91/1 (European Organization for Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt, Germany, 1991).

H. E. Revercomb, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, “Advanced sounding systems: the polar orbiting ITS and the ground-based AERI,” in Technical Proceedings of the Seventh International TOVS Study Conference, J. Eyre, ed. (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK, 1993), pp. 404–415.

J. T. Houghton, F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, Remote Sounding of Atmospheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1984).

D. Spänkuch, W. Döhler, J. Güldner, A. Keens, “FTIR downwelling radiance measurements at Potsdam with the EISAR system for different meteorological conditions and viewings: first results,” in Third International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies (Max-Planck-Institüt für Meteorologie, Hamburg, 1994), pp. 436–438.

U. Platt, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 27–84.

J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Atmospheric monitoring by differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” in Environmental Sciences, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 223–262.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD3-Spectral simulation,” in IRS’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, J. S. Garing, F. E. Volz, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” AFCRL-70-0527 environ. res. paper 331 (U.S. Air Force, L. G. Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass., 1970).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radiance spectra from a cloudless sky measured 5 January 1995 in Potsdam (3–5 UTC) and with stratocumulus clouds within the field of view (2 UTC). Viewing at 1,2 zenith and at 3,4, 70° zenith angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral radiances of cloudless zenith around the O3 bands at 1047 cm-1 calculated with the mid-latidude winter ozone profile. (a) Δν = 1.5 cm-1; (b) Δν = 0.5 cm-1. Squares, triangles, and crosses, calculations with all absorbers, with ozone only, and with all atmospheric constituents except ozone, respectively. In (a) the radiance spectrum caused solely by ozone is shifted upward by 2.6 mW/(m2 sr cm-1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Brightness temperature spectra of top curve, 0.5-cm-1 and bottom curve, 1.5-cm-1 spectral resolution, shifted by +1 K and -1 K, respectively, at 70° zenith angle calculated for a reference atmosphere with a temperature lapse rate of 6 K/km and a cloud base of 2 km. Indicated are the reference wave numbers used for the retrieval technique.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the spectral contrast ΔT b on ozone amount Ω and thermal structure of the atmosphere at cloud base 2 km. The scatter of the points is due to viewing from zenith to a 10° elevation angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the spectral contrast ΔT b on amount of ozone for the mid-latitude winter atmosphere and cloud base heights of 2, 4, and 6 km. Circled, cloud emittance of 0.9.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Quick-look diagram for estimating tropospheric ozone in the case of a cloudy field of view. ΔT b and ΔT w , brightness temperature differences T ν p - T ν b and T ν c - T ν w , respectively. ν c can be any wave number in the opaquest parts of the spectrum. T ν c is equivalent to the air temperature at the instrument site. The numbers at the lines are the integral ozone amounts in the atmospheric path (in DU). (b), (c) Sections of (a) the total diagram. Note the different scales for ΔT b and ΔT w .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of ozone path amounts from Electrochemical Concentration Cell ozonesonde and DOES measurements. Dots, zenith measurements; triangles, measurements at 70° and 80° zenith distances normalized to the vertical path amount. For details see Tables 1, 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Zenith radiance spectra of four clouds for top, 800–1200 cm-1 and bottom, 2300–2700 cm-1. For details see Table 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Zenith radiative temperature spectra equivalent to Fig. 8.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Overview of the Measurements on 19 June 1996

Tables Icon

Table 2 Overview of the Cases of Figs. 8 and 9

Equations (2)

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Ω = exp a + b Δ T b + c   ln   Δ T b - d Δ T w e ,
partial   pressure   p O 3   nbar = volume   mixing   ratio   r O 3   v   ppbv , partial   pressure   p O 3   nbar = Δ Ω DU / 0.789   Δ   ln   p   hPa , volume   mixing   ratio   r O 3 v   ppbv = 0.55   Δ Ω   DU / Δ   log 10 p   hPa , mass   concentration   ρ O 3   μ g / m 3 = 577.3   p O 3   nbar / T ¯   K , mass   mixing   ratio   r O 3 m   ppbm = 1.657   r O 3 v   ppbv / p   hPa .

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