Abstract

A simple method of measuring the phase-modulation properties of liquid-crystal televisions (LCTV’s) that vary with the driving gray-scale level is presented. The theoretical derivation of the method is described. Compared with previous methods of measuring the phase shifts of LCTV’s, this technique is noninterferometric and very simple. The experimental results of a LCTV are shown.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. R. Weeks, H. R. Myler, J. D. Emery, “Implementation of a hybrid optical filter using a liquid crystal television as a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1986–1989 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ogiwara, J. Ohtsubo, “LCTV based optical correlator for binary phase specklegram,” Opt. Commun. 93, 234–244 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Sheng, G. Paul-Hus, “Optical on-axis imperfect phase-only correlator using liquid-crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5782–5785 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Tanone, Z. Zhang, C.-M. Uang, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Phase modulation depth for a real-time kinoform using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 517–521 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matusda, N. Ooyama, “Phase-only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4845–4852 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. M. Marom, D. Mendlovic, “Compact all-optical bypass-exchange switch,” Appl. Opt. 35, 248–253 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Paul-Hus, Y. Sheng, “Optical phase-dominant correlator using liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2165–2174 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Closed-loop adaptive optics system with a liquid-crystal television as phase retardation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1583–1585 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. G. Fogle, T. H. Barnes, T. G. Haskell, “Holographic phase shifting interferometry using liquid crystal television,” Optik 100, 75–82 (1995).
  10. M. A. Vorontsov, J. C. Ricklin, G. W. Carhart, “Optical simulation of phase-distorted imaging systems: nonlinear and adaptive optics approach,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3229–3238 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Simple technique for measuring the phase property of a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 35, 808–812 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Gonçalves Neto, D. Roberge, Y. Sheng, “Programmable optical phase-mostly holograms with coupled-mode modulation liquid-crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1944–1950 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M. W. Thie, B. K. Jones, “Modulation characteristics of the Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, “Measurement of the complex transmittance of Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. D. Boreman, E. R. Raudenbush, “Characterization of a liquid crystal television display as a spatial light modulator for optical processing,” in Optical Information Processing II, D. R. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE639, 41–46 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Phase-only modulation of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal TV by use of the eigenpolarization states,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1567–1569 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Soutar, K. Lu, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, “Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Eng. 29, 240–246 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. A. Yocky, T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, N. Ooyama, K. Matsuda, “Simple measurement of the phase modulation capability of liquid crystal phase-only light modulators,” Optik 84, 140–144 (1990).
  20. D. A. Gregory, J. C. Kirsck, E. C. Tam, “Full complex modulation using liquid-crystal televisions,” Appl. Opt. 31, 163–165 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Konforti, E. Marom, S.-T. Wu, “Phase-only modulation with twisted nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 251–253 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Berreman, “Dynamics of liquid-crystal twist cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 12–15 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 5, pp. 132–145.

1996 (2)

D. M. Marom, D. Mendlovic, “Compact all-optical bypass-exchange switch,” Appl. Opt. 35, 248–253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Simple technique for measuring the phase property of a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 35, 808–812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

L. Gonçalves Neto, D. Roberge, Y. Sheng, “Programmable optical phase-mostly holograms with coupled-mode modulation liquid-crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1944–1950 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Closed-loop adaptive optics system with a liquid-crystal television as phase retardation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1583–1585 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Fogle, T. H. Barnes, T. G. Haskell, “Holographic phase shifting interferometry using liquid crystal television,” Optik 100, 75–82 (1995).

M. A. Vorontsov, J. C. Ricklin, G. W. Carhart, “Optical simulation of phase-distorted imaging systems: nonlinear and adaptive optics approach,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3229–3238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Soutar, K. Lu, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Phase-only modulation of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal TV by use of the eigenpolarization states,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1567–1569 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Paul-Hus, Y. Sheng, “Optical phase-dominant correlator using liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2165–2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sheng, G. Paul-Hus, “Optical on-axis imperfect phase-only correlator using liquid-crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5782–5785 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tanone, Z. Zhang, C.-M. Uang, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Phase modulation depth for a real-time kinoform using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 517–521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

A. R. Weeks, H. R. Myler, J. D. Emery, “Implementation of a hybrid optical filter using a liquid crystal television as a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1986–1989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, J. Ohtsubo, “LCTV based optical correlator for binary phase specklegram,” Opt. Commun. 93, 234–244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M. W. Thie, B. K. Jones, “Modulation characteristics of the Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, “Measurement of the complex transmittance of Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Gregory, J. C. Kirsck, E. C. Tam, “Full complex modulation using liquid-crystal televisions,” Appl. Opt. 31, 163–165 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

K. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, “Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Eng. 29, 240–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Yocky, T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, N. Ooyama, K. Matsuda, “Simple measurement of the phase modulation capability of liquid crystal phase-only light modulators,” Optik 84, 140–144 (1990).

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1975 (1)

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. Berreman, “Dynamics of liquid-crystal twist cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 12–15 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, T. H.

P. G. Fogle, T. H. Barnes, T. G. Haskell, “Holographic phase shifting interferometry using liquid crystal television,” Optik 100, 75–82 (1995).

D. A. Yocky, T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, N. Ooyama, K. Matsuda, “Simple measurement of the phase modulation capability of liquid crystal phase-only light modulators,” Optik 84, 140–144 (1990).

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matusda, N. Ooyama, “Phase-only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4845–4852 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berreman, W.

W. Berreman, “Dynamics of liquid-crystal twist cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 12–15 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bleha, W. P.

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

G. D. Boreman, E. R. Raudenbush, “Characterization of a liquid crystal television display as a spatial light modulator for optical processing,” in Optical Information Processing II, D. R. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE639, 41–46 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bosweld, D.

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Carhart, G. W.

M. A. Vorontsov, J. C. Ricklin, G. W. Carhart, “Optical simulation of phase-distorted imaging systems: nonlinear and adaptive optics approach,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3229–3238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

Dou, R.

R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Simple technique for measuring the phase property of a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 35, 808–812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Closed-loop adaptive optics system with a liquid-crystal television as phase retardation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1583–1585 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eiju, T.

Emery, J. D.

A. R. Weeks, H. R. Myler, J. D. Emery, “Implementation of a hybrid optical filter using a liquid crystal television as a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1986–1989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fogle, P. G.

P. G. Fogle, T. H. Barnes, T. G. Haskell, “Holographic phase shifting interferometry using liquid crystal television,” Optik 100, 75–82 (1995).

Fraas, L. M.

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Giles, M. K.

R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Simple technique for measuring the phase property of a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 35, 808–812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Closed-loop adaptive optics system with a liquid-crystal television as phase retardation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1583–1585 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonçalves Neto, L.

Gregory, D. A.

A. Tanone, Z. Zhang, C.-M. Uang, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Phase modulation depth for a real-time kinoform using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 517–521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M. W. Thie, B. K. Jones, “Modulation characteristics of the Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Gregory, J. C. Kirsck, E. C. Tam, “Full complex modulation using liquid-crystal televisions,” Appl. Opt. 31, 163–165 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinberg, J.

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, T. G.

P. G. Fogle, T. H. Barnes, T. G. Haskell, “Holographic phase shifting interferometry using liquid crystal television,” Optik 100, 75–82 (1995).

Jacobson, A. D.

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jones, B. K.

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M. W. Thie, B. K. Jones, “Modulation characteristics of the Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, J. C.

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M. W. Thie, B. K. Jones, “Modulation characteristics of the Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kirsck, J. C.

Knopp, J.

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, “Measurement of the complex transmittance of Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Konforti, N.

Lu, K.

C. Soutar, K. Lu, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, “Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Eng. 29, 240–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marom, D. M.

Marom, E.

Matsuda, K.

D. A. Yocky, T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, N. Ooyama, K. Matsuda, “Simple measurement of the phase modulation capability of liquid crystal phase-only light modulators,” Optik 84, 140–144 (1990).

Matsumoto, K.

D. A. Yocky, T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, N. Ooyama, K. Matsuda, “Simple measurement of the phase modulation capability of liquid crystal phase-only light modulators,” Optik 84, 140–144 (1990).

Matusda, K.

Mendlovic, D.

Mileer, Leroy

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, S. E.

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, “Measurement of the complex transmittance of Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Myer, G.

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Myler, H. R.

A. R. Weeks, H. R. Myler, J. D. Emery, “Implementation of a hybrid optical filter using a liquid crystal television as a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1986–1989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ogiwara, A.

A. Ogiwara, J. Ohtsubo, “LCTV based optical correlator for binary phase specklegram,” Opt. Commun. 93, 234–244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsubo, J.

A. Ogiwara, J. Ohtsubo, “LCTV based optical correlator for binary phase specklegram,” Opt. Commun. 93, 234–244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ooyama, N.

D. A. Yocky, T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, N. Ooyama, K. Matsuda, “Simple measurement of the phase modulation capability of liquid crystal phase-only light modulators,” Optik 84, 140–144 (1990).

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matusda, N. Ooyama, “Phase-only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4845–4852 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul-Hus, G.

G. Paul-Hus, Y. Sheng, “Optical phase-dominant correlator using liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2165–2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sheng, G. Paul-Hus, “Optical on-axis imperfect phase-only correlator using liquid-crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5782–5785 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

Raudenbush, E. R.

G. D. Boreman, E. R. Raudenbush, “Characterization of a liquid crystal television display as a spatial light modulator for optical processing,” in Optical Information Processing II, D. R. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE639, 41–46 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ricklin, J. C.

M. A. Vorontsov, J. C. Ricklin, G. W. Carhart, “Optical simulation of phase-distorted imaging systems: nonlinear and adaptive optics approach,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3229–3238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roberge, D.

Saleh, B. E. A.

K. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, “Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Eng. 29, 240–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y.

Soutar, C.

C. Soutar, K. Lu, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, “Measurement of the complex transmittance of Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tam, E. C.

Tanone, A.

A. Tanone, Z. Zhang, C.-M. Uang, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Phase modulation depth for a real-time kinoform using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 517–521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thie, M. W.

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M. W. Thie, B. K. Jones, “Modulation characteristics of the Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Uang, C.-M.

A. Tanone, Z. Zhang, C.-M. Uang, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Phase modulation depth for a real-time kinoform using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 517–521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vorontsov, M. A.

M. A. Vorontsov, J. C. Ricklin, G. W. Carhart, “Optical simulation of phase-distorted imaging systems: nonlinear and adaptive optics approach,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3229–3238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, A. R.

A. R. Weeks, H. R. Myler, J. D. Emery, “Implementation of a hybrid optical filter using a liquid crystal television as a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1986–1989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 5, pp. 132–145.

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 5, pp. 132–145.

Yocky, D. A.

D. A. Yocky, T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, N. Ooyama, K. Matsuda, “Simple measurement of the phase modulation capability of liquid crystal phase-only light modulators,” Optik 84, 140–144 (1990).

Yu, F. T. S.

A. Tanone, Z. Zhang, C.-M. Uang, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Phase modulation depth for a real-time kinoform using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 517–521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

A. Tanone, Z. Zhang, C.-M. Uang, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Phase modulation depth for a real-time kinoform using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 517–521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Berreman, “Dynamics of liquid-crystal twist cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 12–15 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Ogiwara, J. Ohtsubo, “LCTV based optical correlator for binary phase specklegram,” Opt. Commun. 93, 234–244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (10)

A. R. Weeks, H. R. Myler, J. D. Emery, “Implementation of a hybrid optical filter using a liquid crystal television as a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1986–1989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Tanone, Z. Zhang, C.-M. Uang, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Phase modulation depth for a real-time kinoform using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 517–521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Paul-Hus, Y. Sheng, “Optical phase-dominant correlator using liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2165–2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M. W. Thie, B. K. Jones, “Modulation characteristics of the Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, “Measurement of the complex transmittance of Epson liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 31, 963–970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov, J. C. Ricklin, G. W. Carhart, “Optical simulation of phase-distorted imaging systems: nonlinear and adaptive optics approach,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3229–3238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Dou, M. K. Giles, “Simple technique for measuring the phase property of a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng. 35, 808–812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Soutar, K. Lu, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, “Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Eng. 29, 240–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Grinberg, A. D. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, Leroy Mileer, L. M. Fraas, D. Bosweld, G. Myer, “A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter—the hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Eng. 14, 217–225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (2)

P. G. Fogle, T. H. Barnes, T. G. Haskell, “Holographic phase shifting interferometry using liquid crystal television,” Optik 100, 75–82 (1995).

D. A. Yocky, T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, N. Ooyama, K. Matsuda, “Simple measurement of the phase modulation capability of liquid crystal phase-only light modulators,” Optik 84, 140–144 (1990).

Other (2)

G. D. Boreman, E. R. Raudenbush, “Characterization of a liquid crystal television display as a spatial light modulator for optical processing,” in Optical Information Processing II, D. R. Pape, ed., Proc. SPIE639, 41–46 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 5, pp. 132–145.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental arrangement for determining the physical properties of LCTV’s. (b) Diagram showing the relation between the angles used in the model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental configuration used to measure the phase modulation of LCTV’s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase retardation β as it varies with the GSL when the brightness control is set to (a) the minimum, (b) the midpoint, and (c) the maximum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative phase shift versus the GSL when the brightness control is set to (a) the minimum, (b) the midpoint, and (c) the maximum, under the conditions of θ = ϕ1 = ϕ2 = ϕ D = 0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mach–Zehnder interferometer for measuring the relative phase shifts of the LCTV versus the GSL’s. BS1 and BS2, beam splitters, M1 and M2, mirrors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interferograms with GSL’s for the bar set to (a) 255, (b) 240, (c) 150, and (d) 90, with the brightness control set to the minimum under the conditions of θ = ϕ1 = ϕ2 = ϕ D = 0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Interferograms with GSL’s for the bar set to (a) 255, (b) 240, (c) 150, and (d) 90, with the brightness control set to the midpoint of the available range under the conditions of θ = ϕ1 = ϕ2 = ϕ D = 0.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative phase shift versus the GSL measured with the Mach–Zehnder interferometric technique when the brightness control is set to (a) the minimum and (b) the midpoint, under the conditions of θ = ϕ1 = ϕ2 = ϕ D = 0. (c) Relative phase shift for the conditions of θ = ϕ1 = ϕ D = 0 and ϕ2 = π/2.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E out = P 0 R ϕ 2 R - α M β R ϕ 1 E in ,
M β = R ϑ cos   X - j β   sin   X X α   sin   X X - α   sin   X X cos   X + j β   sin   X X ,
β = π λ n e - n 0 d , X 2 = α 2 + β 2 .
I β = cos ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 - α cos   X - α   sin   X X × sin ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 - α 2 + β   sin   X X cos ϕ 1 - ϕ 2 + α 2 ,
δ β = β - tan - 1 β   sin   X X cos ϕ 1 - ϕ 2 + α cos ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 - α cos   X - α   sin   X X sin ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 - α ,
E out = P 0 R - π 2 M β E in .
I p = A α X 2 sin 2   X , δ p = β ± m π ,     m = 0 ,   1 ,   2 , ,
I c = A 1 - α X 2 sin 2   X , δ c = β - tan - 1 β X tan   X ,
sin   X X 2 = 1 α 2 I p I p + I c .

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