Abstract

We propose free-space optical interconnections for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch. Thousands of arrayed optical beams, each having a rate of a few gigabits per second, propagate vertically to printed circuit boards, passing through some boards, and are connected to arbitrary transmitters and receivers on boards by polarization controllers and prism arrays. We describe a preliminary experiment using a 1-mm-pitch 2 × 2 beam-collimator array that uses vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes. These optical interconnections can be made quite stable in terms of mechanical shock and temperature fluctuation by the attachment of reinforcing frames to the boards and use of an autoalignment system.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gbit/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 30 (4), 348–352 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Hino, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, S. Urushidani, K. Yamasaki, “High-performance ATM switching fabric implementation,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium 1995, Berlin, Germany, April 1995, paper IS-02-04.
  6. S. Hino, K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, “A compact terabit-class ATM switching fabric using a 20-Gb/s subnetwork LSI and free space optical interconnections,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium (ISS ’97), Toronto, Canada, 21–26 September 1997, paper IS-02-4.
  7. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections with liquid-crystal microprism arrays,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2571–2580 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
    [Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (4)

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections with liquid-crystal microprism arrays,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2571–2580 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gbit/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 30 (4), 348–352 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Akahori, Y.

J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Arai, Y.

J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Endo, K.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Genda, K.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hino, S.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gbit/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 30 (4), 348–352 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Hino, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, S. Urushidani, K. Yamasaki, “High-performance ATM switching fabric implementation,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium 1995, Berlin, Germany, April 1995, paper IS-02-04.

S. Hino, K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, “A compact terabit-class ATM switching fabric using a 20-Gb/s subnetwork LSI and free space optical interconnections,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium (ISS ’97), Toronto, Canada, 21–26 September 1997, paper IS-02-4.

Hirabayashi, K.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections with liquid-crystal microprism arrays,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2571–2580 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Hino, K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, “A compact terabit-class ATM switching fabric using a 20-Gb/s subnetwork LSI and free space optical interconnections,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium (ISS ’97), Toronto, Canada, 21–26 September 1997, paper IS-02-4.

Kishimoto, T.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kohama, Y.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nishikido, J.

J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ohtomo, Y.

S. Hino, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, S. Urushidani, K. Yamasaki, “High-performance ATM switching fabric implementation,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium 1995, Berlin, Germany, April 1995, paper IS-02-04.

S. Hino, K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, “A compact terabit-class ATM switching fabric using a 20-Gb/s subnetwork LSI and free space optical interconnections,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium (ISS ’97), Toronto, Canada, 21–26 September 1997, paper IS-02-4.

Sasaki, S.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tateno, K.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[Crossref]

Togashi, M.

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gbit/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 30 (4), 348–352 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Urushidani, S.

S. Hino, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, S. Urushidani, K. Yamasaki, “High-performance ATM switching fabric implementation,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium 1995, Berlin, Germany, April 1995, paper IS-02-04.

Yamaguchi, M.

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Hino, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, S. Urushidani, K. Yamasaki, “High-performance ATM switching fabric implementation,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium 1995, Berlin, Germany, April 1995, paper IS-02-04.

Yamamoto, T.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections with liquid-crystal microprism arrays,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2571–2580 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Hino, K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, “A compact terabit-class ATM switching fabric using a 20-Gb/s subnetwork LSI and free space optical interconnections,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium (ISS ’97), Toronto, Canada, 21–26 September 1997, paper IS-02-4.

Yamanaka, N.

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yamasaki, K.

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gbit/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 30 (4), 348–352 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Hino, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, S. Urushidani, K. Yamasaki, “High-performance ATM switching fabric implementation,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium 1995, Berlin, Germany, April 1995, paper IS-02-04.

Yasuda, S.

S. Hino, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, S. Urushidani, K. Yamasaki, “High-performance ATM switching fabric implementation,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium 1995, Berlin, Germany, April 1995, paper IS-02-04.

S. Hino, K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, “A compact terabit-class ATM switching fabric using a 20-Gb/s subnetwork LSI and free space optical interconnections,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium (ISS ’97), Toronto, Canada, 21–26 September 1997, paper IS-02-4.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Nishikido, S. Fujita, Y. Arai, Y. Akahori, S. Hino, K. Yamasaki, “Multigigabit multichannel optical interconnection module for broadband switching system,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13 (6), 1104–1110 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid State Circuits (1)

S. Hino, M. Togashi, K. Yamasaki, “Asynchronous transfer mode switching LSI chips with 10-Gbit/s serial I/O ports,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 30 (4), 348–352 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B (1)

N. Yamanaka, K. Endo, K. Genda, H. Fukuda, T. Kishimoto, S. Sasaki “320-Gbit/s high-speed ATM switching system hardware technologies based on copper-polyimide MCM,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Pack. Manufact. Technol. Part B 18 (1), 83–91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

S. Hino, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, S. Urushidani, K. Yamasaki, “High-performance ATM switching fabric implementation,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium 1995, Berlin, Germany, April 1995, paper IS-02-04.

S. Hino, K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ohtomo, S. Yasuda, “A compact terabit-class ATM switching fabric using a 20-Gb/s subnetwork LSI and free space optical interconnections,” paper presented at the International Switching Symposium (ISS ’97), Toronto, Canada, 21–26 September 1997, paper IS-02-4.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) ATM-switch network of size (M × N) × (M × N), where (N × N) LSI switches on PCB’s are arranged M by L. (b) Board-to-board interconnections necessary for the switching network shown in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of our proposed board-to-board interconnections for the bookshelf-assembled PCB’s, in which optical beams pass through the windows of some PCB’s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of our proposed board-to-board interconnections of bookshelf-assembled PCB’s, in which optical beams pass through the windows of some PCB’s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of (a) a crossed pair of LC prism arrays and (b) a TN-LC cell array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Front view of our proposed free-space interconnection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relation between the minimum pitch of the array and the maximum propagation distance for free-space optical beam interconnections.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Beam-propagation performance and (b) beam profile of a 1-mm-pitch, 2 × 2 optical beam array with VCSEL’s and a lens array at a point 45 cm away from the board.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) PMMA prism array generating 10 × 10 and 50 × 50 optical interconnection patterns. (b) Experimental results for optical spot images captured by a CCD camera and the beam profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Performance of the LC prism array with an apex angle of 1.5°: (a) Deflection angle versus the applied voltage. (b) Response.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photograph of the bookshelf-assembled PCB’s consisting of the windows, PBS’s, prism mirrors, TN-LC cells, and LC prism arrays that constitute the proposed system.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Eye diagram (1.25 Gbits/s) of the optical beam that traveled 40 cm from the VCSEL through the TN-LC cell, the LC prism cell, and the PBS.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Optical beam fluctuations at a point 40 cm away from the board (a) without and (b) with a glass–epoxy reinforcement frame.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dependence of the coupling efficiencies of beams from a four-beam collimator array to four detectors, with windows that are 0.7 mm in diameter, on the number of heat cycles when a PCB containing the four-beam collimator array is repeatedly inserted and extracted (a) with and (b) without a glass–epoxy reinforcing frame.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Heat-cycle test of the coupling efficiencies from the transmitters to the receivers when the ambient temperature was increased from RT to 75 °C (a) with and (b) without the autoactive alignment system.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Beam Fluctuations at a Point 40 cm Away from the Board During the Heat-Cycle Test: RT to 75 °C

Equations (1)

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p = λ π L .

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