Abstract

For free-space optical interconnections between optoelectronic chips to reach commercial realization, the technology must provide high-density optical channels in a simple, inexpensive, and easily aligned package. Although point-to-point connections with microlens pairs can provide densities of several thousand channels per square centimeter, the Gaussian nature of the beams limits the connection range to a few millimeters. We propose an arrangement of microlens pairs with an intermediate relay lens that significantly increases the connection distance. This basic setup can be tiled laterally across large chips to form extensible arrays. The optical design is constructed entirely with diffractive elements because of the low chromatic sensitivity over a range of approximately ±10% around the design wavelength. We derive the lateral positioning error at the image by using a simple ray trace, and we show the effect of Gaussian beams. We experimentally demonstrate the low chromatic sensitivity for a system with an interconnection distance of 64 mm. Finally, we demonstrate the interconnection of two linear arrays of multimode fibers with two adjacent channels operating at data rates of hundreds of megabits per second.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Streibl, R. Volkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
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  16. Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (3)

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwider, “Achromatic design of holographic optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 35, 826–831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Fan, B. Mansoorian, D. A. Van Blerkom, M. W. Hansen, V. H. Ozguz, S. C. Esener, G. C. Marsden, “Digital free-space optical interconnections: a comparison of transmitter technologies,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3103–3115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. M. Prince, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. B. McCormick, M. Derstine, S. Wakelin, “Implementation of a hybrid lens,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6471–6480 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

R. Kostuk, J. Yeh, M. Fink, “Distributed optical data bus for boardlevel interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5010–5021 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Streibl, R. Volkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, P. J.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Asom, M. T.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R.

R. Athale, K. Raj, “Foundry fabrication for diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 334.

Athale, R. A.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, J. Gieske, K. Hewitt, K. Raj, R. A. Athale, “The CO-OP DOE foundry process results,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 96–104 (1997).

Bacon, D. D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beckman, M. G.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Brandner, J. L.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Cox, J. A.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, J. Gieske, K. Hewitt, K. Raj, R. A. Athale, “The CO-OP DOE foundry process results,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 96–104 (1997).

Crisci, R. J.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Derstine, M.

Esener, S. C.

Fan, C.

Faudskar, C. C.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feldblum, A. Y.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

Fisteyn, M.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gates, J. V.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gieske, J.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, J. Gieske, K. Hewitt, K. Raj, R. A. Athale, “The CO-OP DOE foundry process results,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 96–104 (1997).

Goosen, K. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G. D.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Habel, P.

N. Streibl, R. Volkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. W.

Hewitt, K.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, J. Gieske, K. Hewitt, K. Raj, R. A. Athale, “The CO-OP DOE foundry process results,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 96–104 (1997).

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Hinton, H. S.

Hui, S. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Variations of the hybrid imaging concept for optical computing applications,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 183–185.

Jan, W. Y.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R.

Kuo, J.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Lindlein, N.

N. Streibl, R. Volkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Livescu, G.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mansoorian, B.

Marsden, G. C.

McCormick, F. B.

F. A. P. Tooley, S. M. Prince, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. B. McCormick, M. Derstine, S. Wakelin, “Implementation of a hybrid lens,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6471–6480 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Mersereau, K. O.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. A.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

R. L. Morrison, “An extensible, diffractive optic system for interconnecting opto-electronic device arrays,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 79–82.

Muehiner, D. J.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mullally, T.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Ozguz, V. H.

Parzygnat, W. J.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prince, S. M.

Raj, K.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, J. Gieske, K. Hewitt, K. Raj, R. A. Athale, “The CO-OP DOE foundry process results,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 96–104 (1997).

R. Athale, K. Raj, “Foundry fabrication for diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 334.

Reiley, D. J.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Richards, G. W.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical computing network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

Schwider, J.

J. Schwider, “Achromatic design of holographic optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 35, 826–831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, R. Volkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Variations of the hybrid imaging concept for optical computing applications,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 183–185.

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, R. Volkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” Lincoln Laboratory Tech. Rep. 914 (MIT, Lexington, Mass., 1991).

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. M. Prince, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. B. McCormick, M. Derstine, S. Wakelin, “Implementation of a hybrid lens,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6471–6480 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. J.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Blerkom, D. A.

Volkel, R.

N. Streibl, R. Volkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wakelin, S.

Walker, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

Werner, T. R.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, J. Gieske, K. Hewitt, K. Raj, R. A. Athale, “The CO-OP DOE foundry process results,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 96–104 (1997).

Wojcik, M. J.

Wong, Y. M.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J.

Zilko, J. L.

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. M. Wong, D. J. Muehiner, C. C. Faudskar, D. B. Buchholz, M. Fisteyn, J. L. Brandner, W. J. Parzygnat, R. A. Morgan, T. Mullally, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. D. Guth, J. L. Zilko, J. V. Gates, P. J. Anthony, “Technology development of a high density 32-channel 16 Gbps optical data link for optical interconnection applications for the Optoelectronic Technology Consortium (OETC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 995–1016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Streibl, R. Volkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Schwider, “Achromatic design of holographic optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 35, 826–831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Variations of the hybrid imaging concept for optical computing applications,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 183–185.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “ATM distribution network using an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 2–4.

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” Lincoln Laboratory Tech. Rep. 914 (MIT, Lexington, Mass., 1991).

R. Athale, K. Raj, “Foundry fabrication for diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 334.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, J. Gieske, K. Hewitt, K. Raj, R. A. Athale, “The CO-OP DOE foundry process results,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 96–104 (1997).

R. L. Morrison, “An extensible, diffractive optic system for interconnecting opto-electronic device arrays,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 79–82.

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