Abstract

An integrated array illuminator can be used not only as an optical power distributor for an array of guided-wave optic devices but also as a key element for guided-wave optical interconnections. We present a new design for an integrated-optic array illuminator with focusing waveguide diffractive doublet arrays. This integrated array illuminator allows independent optimizations of efficient and uniform optical power distribution and focusing performance. Furthermore, the device can be fabricated with all-optical lithographic technology and hence has the advantages of mass production with low cost.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. S. Tocci, H. J. Caufield, Optical Interconnection: Foundations and Applications (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).
  2. L. J. Camp, R. Sharma, M. R. Feldman, “Guided-wave and free-space optical interconnects for parallel processing systems: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6168–6180 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Kubota, M. Takeda, “Array illuminator using grating couplers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 651–652 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Nakaya, Y. Katoh, T. Kubota, M. Takeda, “Diffraction efficiency of a grating coupler for array illuminator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3891–3898 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. M. Miller, N. De Beaucoudrey, P. Chavel, J. Turunen, E. Cambril, “Design and fabrication of binary slanted surface-relief gratings for a planar optical interconnection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5717–5727 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. C. Brazas, L. Li, A. L. McKeon, “High-efficiency input coupling into optical waveguides using grating with double-surface corrugation,” Appl. Opt. 34, 604–609 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142–1148 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

J. M. Miller, N. De Beaucoudrey, P. Chavel, J. Turunen, E. Cambril, “Design and fabrication of binary slanted surface-relief gratings for a planar optical interconnection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5717–5727 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142–1148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I. A.

Bates, K. A.

Brazas, J. C.

Burke, J. J.

Cambril, E.

Camp, L. J.

Caufield, H. J.

C. S. Tocci, H. J. Caufield, Optical Interconnection: Foundations and Applications (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Chavel, P.

Collins, J.

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

Cooper, K.

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

De Beaucoudrey, N.

Feldman, M. R.

Fiddyment, P.

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

Grann, E. B.

Jones, C.

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

Katoh, Y.

Koyama, J.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, T.

Lealman, I.

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

Lee, E. H.

Li, L.

Li, M.

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142–1148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, S. J. Sheard, “Waveguide couplers using parallelogramic-shaped blazed gratings,” Opt. Commun. 109, 239–245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liao, T. D.

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, “Radiation characteristics of waveguide diffractive doublets,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1776–1783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142–1148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Sheard, T. D. Liao, G. Yang, P. R. Prewett, J. G. Zhu, “Focusing waveguide grating coupler using diffractive doublet,” Appl. Opt.36, 4349–4353 (1997);Diffractive Optics and Micro Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 360–363.

McKeon, A. L.

Miller, J. M.

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, J. E.

Nakaya, T.

Nield, M.

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

Nishihara, H.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

Peng, S. T.

T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Prewett, P.

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142–1148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prewett, P. R.

S. J. Sheard, T. D. Liao, G. Yang, P. R. Prewett, J. G. Zhu, “Focusing waveguide grating coupler using diffractive doublet,” Appl. Opt.36, 4349–4353 (1997);Diffractive Optics and Micro Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 360–363.

Roncone, R. L.

Rush, J.

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

Sharma, R.

Sheard, S. J.

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, “Radiation characteristics of waveguide diffractive doublets,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1776–1783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142–1148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, S. J. Sheard, “Waveguide couplers using parallelogramic-shaped blazed gratings,” Opt. Commun. 109, 239–245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Sheard, T. D. Liao, G. Yang, P. R. Prewett, J. G. Zhu, “Focusing waveguide grating coupler using diffractive doublet,” Appl. Opt.36, 4349–4353 (1997);Diffractive Optics and Micro Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 360–363.

Song, S. H.

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Svakhin, A. S.

Sychugov, V. A.

Takeda, M.

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tocci, C. S.

C. S. Tocci, H. J. Caufield, Optical Interconnection: Foundations and Applications (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Turunen, J.

Ura, S.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Waller, R.

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

Weisenbach, L.

Welch, W. H.

Yang, G.

S. J. Sheard, T. D. Liao, G. Yang, P. R. Prewett, J. G. Zhu, “Focusing waveguide grating coupler using diffractive doublet,” Appl. Opt.36, 4349–4353 (1997);Diffractive Optics and Micro Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 360–363.

Zelinski, B. J. J.

Zhu, J.

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142–1148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. G.

S. J. Sheard, T. D. Liao, G. Yang, P. R. Prewett, J. G. Zhu, “Focusing waveguide grating coupler using diffractive doublet,” Appl. Opt.36, 4349–4353 (1997);Diffractive Optics and Micro Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 360–363.

Appl. Opt. (8)

M. Takeda, T. Kubota, “Integrated optic array illuminator: a design for efficient and uniform power distribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1090–1096 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Roncone, L. Li, K. A. Bates, J. J. Burke, L. Weisenbach, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Design and fabrication of a single leakage-channel grating coupler,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4522–4528 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Camp, R. Sharma, M. R. Feldman, “Guided-wave and free-space optical interconnects for parallel processing systems: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6168–6180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, “Radiation characteristics of waveguide diffractive doublets,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1776–1783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Song, E. H. Lee, “Focusing-grating-coupler arrays for uniform and efficient signal distribution in a backboard optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5913–5919 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Brazas, L. Li, A. L. McKeon, “High-efficiency input coupling into optical waveguides using grating with double-surface corrugation,” Appl. Opt. 34, 604–609 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakaya, Y. Katoh, T. Kubota, M. Takeda, “Diffraction efficiency of a grating coupler for array illuminator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3891–3898 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Miller, N. De Beaucoudrey, P. Chavel, J. Turunen, E. Cambril, “Design and fabrication of binary slanted surface-relief gratings for a planar optical interconnection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5717–5727 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Liao, S. J. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142–1148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Li, S. J. Sheard, “Waveguide couplers using parallelogramic-shaped blazed gratings,” Opt. Commun. 109, 239–245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

S. J. Sheard, T. D. Liao, G. Yang, P. R. Prewett, J. G. Zhu, “Focusing waveguide grating coupler using diffractive doublet,” Appl. Opt.36, 4349–4353 (1997);Diffractive Optics and Micro Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 360–363.

C. S. Tocci, H. J. Caufield, Optical Interconnection: Foundations and Applications (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

C. Jones, K. Cooper, M. Nield, R. Waller, J. Rush, J. Collins, P. Fiddyment, I. Lealman, “Hybrid integration using silica-on-silicon optical motherboards,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 6, 1996OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 604–607.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Integrated-optic array illuminator with focusing waveguide diffractive doublet arrays.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Integrated-optic array illuminator with focusing waveguide diffractive doublet arrays. (a) side view and (b) bottom view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Focusing waveguide diffractive doublet consisting of a grating coupler and a diffractive lens for an integrated-optic array illuminator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radiation decay factors as a function of (a) grating thickness for fixed duty cycles, solid curve, duty cycle = 50%; dotted–dashed curve, duty cycle = 40%; and dashed curve, duty cycle = 30% and of (b) grating duty cycle for fixed depths, solid curve, g = 0.4 μm; dotted–dashed curve, g = 0.3 μm; and dashed curve, g = 0.2 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vertical chip-to-chip optical interconnects with the new integrated-optic array illuminator.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Integrated-Optic Array Illuminator with a Focusing Diffractive Doublet Array: Design A

Tables Icon

Table 2 Integrated-Optic Array Illuminator with a Focusing Diffractive Doublet Array: Design B

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I n = η n 1 - η n - 1 η n - 1   I n - 1 .
η n = η 1 1 - n - 1 η 1 .
η 1 = 1 / N ,
η n = 1 N - n + 1 .
η = N η N 1 + N - 1 η N ,
t c = t c min + d opt ,
d opt = λ / 2 n c - n a .
λ N e + n c < Λ < 2 λ N e + n b ,
n c k   sin   θ c = kN e + 2 m π / Λ ,
η n = η n c 1 - exp - α n L n .
α n L n = - Log e 1 - η 1 1 - n - 1 η 1 η n c ,

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