Abstract

An efficient system for retroreflective grating generation and analysis has been constructed to measure the derivative and the contour of specular surfaces. In this system, a new optical configuration has been provided to generate and capture a grating image with a retroreflective screen. Tests show that the system can detect indents and outdents with a maximum depth of less than 10 μm. The method can be developed for automated industrial inspection and machine vision.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. W. Macy, “Two-dimensional fringe-pattern analysis,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3898–3901 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. J. Bone, H. A. Bachor, R. J. Sandeman, “Fringe-pattern analysis using a 2-D Fourier transform,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1653–1660 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Y. Hung, G. C. Jin, S. H. Tang, “Surface inspection of automotive bodies by reflective computer vision,” in Industrial Laser Interferometry II, M. Y. Y. Hung, R. Pryputniewicz, eds., Proc. SPIE955, 37–40 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Malacara, “A review of interferogram analysis methods,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 678–689 (1990).
  6. H. P. Stahl, “Review of phase-measuring interferometry,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 704–719 (1990).
  7. Y. Y. Hung, S. H. Tang, Q. Zhu, “3-D surface inspection using interferometric grating and 2-D FFT based technique,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 696–703 (1990).
  8. D. J. Bone, “Fourier fringe analysis: the two-dimensional phase unwrapping problem,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3627–3632 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. M. Brown, “Fringe analysis for automotive applications,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 203–220 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Surrel, “Moiré and grid methods: a signal processing approach,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 118–127 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Takeda, “Current trends and future directions of fringe analysis,” in Interferometry VII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2544, 2–10 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. L. Reynolds, O. L. Hageniers, “Surface quality measurement on sheet metal stampings,” in Technical Digest, SME Conference and Exposition (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., 1989), MF1989-362, pp. 1–11.
  13. R. L. Reynolds, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Theory and applications of a surface inspection technique using double-pass retroreflection,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2122–2129 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

1996

J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

1993

G. M. Brown, “Fringe analysis for automotive applications,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 203–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Reynolds, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Theory and applications of a surface inspection technique using double-pass retroreflection,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2122–2129 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1986

1983

1982

Bachor, H. A.

Bellinger, N. C.

J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

Bone, D. J.

Brown, G. M.

G. M. Brown, “Fringe analysis for automotive applications,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 203–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gould, R. W.

J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

Hageniers, O. L.

J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

R. L. Reynolds, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Theory and applications of a surface inspection technique using double-pass retroreflection,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2122–2129 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Reynolds, O. L. Hageniers, “Surface quality measurement on sheet metal stampings,” in Technical Digest, SME Conference and Exposition (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., 1989), MF1989-362, pp. 1–11.

Hung, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Hung, G. C. Jin, S. H. Tang, “Surface inspection of automotive bodies by reflective computer vision,” in Industrial Laser Interferometry II, M. Y. Y. Hung, R. Pryputniewicz, eds., Proc. SPIE955, 37–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, S. H. Tang, Q. Zhu, “3-D surface inspection using interferometric grating and 2-D FFT based technique,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 696–703 (1990).

Ina, H.

Jin, G. C.

Y. Y. Hung, G. C. Jin, S. H. Tang, “Surface inspection of automotive bodies by reflective computer vision,” in Industrial Laser Interferometry II, M. Y. Y. Hung, R. Pryputniewicz, eds., Proc. SPIE955, 37–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Karpala, F.

J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

R. L. Reynolds, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Theory and applications of a surface inspection technique using double-pass retroreflection,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2122–2129 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Komorowski, J. P.

J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

Krishnakumar, S.

J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

Macy, W. W.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, “A review of interferogram analysis methods,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 678–689 (1990).

Reynolds, R. L.

R. L. Reynolds, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Theory and applications of a surface inspection technique using double-pass retroreflection,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2122–2129 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Reynolds, O. L. Hageniers, “Surface quality measurement on sheet metal stampings,” in Technical Digest, SME Conference and Exposition (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., 1989), MF1989-362, pp. 1–11.

Sandeman, R. J.

Stahl, H. P.

H. P. Stahl, “Review of phase-measuring interferometry,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 704–719 (1990).

Surrel, Y.

Y. Surrel, “Moiré and grid methods: a signal processing approach,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 118–127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeda, “Current trends and future directions of fringe analysis,” in Interferometry VII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2544, 2–10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

Y. Y. Hung, G. C. Jin, S. H. Tang, “Surface inspection of automotive bodies by reflective computer vision,” in Industrial Laser Interferometry II, M. Y. Y. Hung, R. Pryputniewicz, eds., Proc. SPIE955, 37–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, S. H. Tang, Q. Zhu, “3-D surface inspection using interferometric grating and 2-D FFT based technique,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 696–703 (1990).

Zhu, Q.

Y. Y. Hung, S. H. Tang, Q. Zhu, “3-D surface inspection using interferometric grating and 2-D FFT based technique,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 696–703 (1990).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Mater. Eval.

J. P. Komorowski, S. Krishnakumar, R. W. Gould, N. C. Bellinger, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures,” Mater. Eval. 54, 80–86 (1996).

Opt. Eng.

R. L. Reynolds, F. Karpala, O. L. Hageniers, “Theory and applications of a surface inspection technique using double-pass retroreflection,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2122–2129 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng.

G. M. Brown, “Fringe analysis for automotive applications,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 203–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Surrel, “Moiré and grid methods: a signal processing approach,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 118–127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeda, “Current trends and future directions of fringe analysis,” in Interferometry VII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2544, 2–10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Reynolds, O. L. Hageniers, “Surface quality measurement on sheet metal stampings,” in Technical Digest, SME Conference and Exposition (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., 1989), MF1989-362, pp. 1–11.

Y. Y. Hung, G. C. Jin, S. H. Tang, “Surface inspection of automotive bodies by reflective computer vision,” in Industrial Laser Interferometry II, M. Y. Y. Hung, R. Pryputniewicz, eds., Proc. SPIE955, 37–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Malacara, “A review of interferogram analysis methods,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 678–689 (1990).

H. P. Stahl, “Review of phase-measuring interferometry,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 704–719 (1990).

Y. Y. Hung, S. H. Tang, Q. Zhu, “3-D surface inspection using interferometric grating and 2-D FFT based technique,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, Pt. 2, 696–703 (1990).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration of the system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fourier spectra of deformed grating along the x direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of a discontinuous phase distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of a continuous phase profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Image of distorted grating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Slope of the surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contour of the surface.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Retroreflective Analysis with Physical Measurement

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dx = L tan α + 2 θ - tan α ,
dx = 2 L θ .
i x ,   y = a x ,   y + b x ,   y cos 2 π / p x ,
i x ,   y = a x ,   y + b x ,   y cos 2 π / p x + Φ x ,   y ,
Φ x ,   y = 2 π / p dx = 4 π L / p θ = 4 π n θ ,
i x ,   y = a x ,   y + 1 / 2 b x ,   y exp i 2 π f 0 x + Φ x ,   y + exp - i 2 π f 0 x + Φ x ,   y , i x ,   y = a x ,   y + c x ,   y exp 2 π f 0 x i + c * x ,   y exp - 2 π f 0 x i ,
c x ,   y = 1 / 2 b x ,   y exp i Φ x ,   y ,
I f ,   y = A f ,   y + C f - f 0 ,   y + C * f + f 0 ,   y ,
log c x ,   y = log 1 / 2 b x ,   y + i Φ x ,   y .
θ x ,   y = Φ x ,   y / 4 π n .
d x ,   y =   θ x ,   y d x .

Metrics