Abstract

Passive ridge waveguides can be deposited on silicon by a solvent-assisted lithographic process incorporating simple mask technology and photosensitive solgel-derived glasses. Thick films (∼4 μm) are dip coated in one step, and channel waveguides and power splitters are imprinted in them by UV light through appropriate masks. Unexposed regions of the glass are removed by soaking of the films in n-propanol. The remaining ridges are then treated at 200 °C and planarized with a solgel cladding layer. Circular mode profiles are observed from ridge guides covered with the cladding. The waveguides are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface profilometry, ellipsometry, and fiber end coupling. Overall, the procedure is simple and reproducible and leads to waveguides with low loss, of the order of 0.13 dB/cm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. S. Holmes, R. R. Syms, M. Li, M. Green, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides on silicon substrates using spin-on glass,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4916–4921 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Syms, “Silica on silicon integrated optics,” in Advances in Integrated Optics, S. Martelluci, A. N. Chester, M. Bertolotti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1994) pp. 121–151.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, D. K. Gasgill, D. G. Hendershot, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of quantum confined InP nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 804–806 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ballato, M. Dejneka, R. E. Riman, E. Snitzer, “Sol-gel synthesis of rare-earth-doped fluoride glass thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 11, 841–849 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Yang, S. C. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, J. Hayes, “Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1254–1263 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Schmidt, “Thin films, the chemical processing up to gelation,” in Chemistry, Spectroscopy, and Applications of Sol-Gel Glasses, R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, eds. Vol. 77 of Structure and Bonding Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 119–151.
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Matsuda, Y. Matsuno, S. Kataoka, S. Katayama, T. Tsuno, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Pregrooving on glass disks by the sol-gel method: effects of the addition of organic polymers on the formation of glass films in the SiO2–TiO2 system,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. SPIE1328, 71–79 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C.-Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, A. Malek-Tabrizi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, W. P. Olivera, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 448–455 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning in thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147–148, 447–450 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. P. Andrews, T. Kanigan, S. I. Najafi, “Auto-embossed Bragg gratings from self-organizing polymers: chemical tuning of periodicity and photoinduced anisotropy,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 4–15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. Brinker, G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing, (Academic, New York, 1990).
  17. M. A. Fardad, “Catalysts and the structure of SiO2 sol-gel films,” J. Mater. Sci. (to be published).
  18. R. R. A. Syms, V. Schneider, W. Huang, A. S. Holmes, “Low loss achieved in sol-gel based silica-on-silicon integrated optics using borophosphosilicate glass,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1833–1834 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Mennig, G. Jonschker, H. Schmidt, “Sol-gel-derived thick coatings and their thermomechanical and optical properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 125–134 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Innocenzi, M. O. Abdirashid, M. Guglielmi, “Structure and properties of sol-gel coatings from methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2(4), 3–7 (1994).
  21. Optonex Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
  22. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996

J. Ballato, M. Dejneka, R. E. Riman, E. Snitzer, “Sol-gel synthesis of rare-earth-doped fluoride glass thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 11, 841–849 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, D. K. Gasgill, D. G. Hendershot, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of quantum confined InP nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 804–806 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. R. A. Syms, V. Schneider, W. Huang, A. S. Holmes, “Low loss achieved in sol-gel based silica-on-silicon integrated optics using borophosphosilicate glass,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1833–1834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Innocenzi, M. O. Abdirashid, M. Guglielmi, “Structure and properties of sol-gel coatings from methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2(4), 3–7 (1994).

L. Yang, S. C. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, J. Hayes, “Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1254–1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Holmes, R. R. Syms, M. Li, M. Green, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides on silicon substrates using spin-on glass,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4916–4921 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning in thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147–148, 447–450 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abdirashid, M. O.

P. Innocenzi, M. O. Abdirashid, M. Guglielmi, “Structure and properties of sol-gel coatings from methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2(4), 3–7 (1994).

Andrews, M. P.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C.-Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, A. Malek-Tabrizi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Andrews, T. Kanigan, S. I. Najafi, “Auto-embossed Bragg gratings from self-organizing polymers: chemical tuning of periodicity and photoinduced anisotropy,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 4–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, N. R.

L. Yang, S. C. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, J. Hayes, “Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1254–1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballato, J.

J. Ballato, M. Dejneka, R. E. Riman, E. Snitzer, “Sol-gel synthesis of rare-earth-doped fluoride glass thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 11, 841–849 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, C. J.

C. J. Brinker, G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing, (Academic, New York, 1990).

Chisham, J.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chisham, J. E.

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C.-Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, A. Malek-Tabrizi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coudray, P.

S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dejneka, M.

J. Ballato, M. Dejneka, R. E. Riman, E. Snitzer, “Sol-gel synthesis of rare-earth-doped fluoride glass thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 11, 841–849 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dvorak, M. D.

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, D. K. Gasgill, D. G. Hendershot, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of quantum confined InP nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 804–806 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fardad, M. A.

M. A. Fardad, “Catalysts and the structure of SiO2 sol-gel films,” J. Mater. Sci. (to be published).

Gasgill, D. K.

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, D. K. Gasgill, D. G. Hendershot, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of quantum confined InP nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 804–806 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

Guglielmi, M.

P. Innocenzi, M. O. Abdirashid, M. Guglielmi, “Structure and properties of sol-gel coatings from methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2(4), 3–7 (1994).

Hayes, J.

L. Yang, S. C. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, J. Hayes, “Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1254–1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendershot, D. G.

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, D. K. Gasgill, D. G. Hendershot, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of quantum confined InP nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 804–806 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. S.

R. R. A. Syms, V. Schneider, W. Huang, A. S. Holmes, “Low loss achieved in sol-gel based silica-on-silicon integrated optics using borophosphosilicate glass,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1833–1834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Holmes, R. R. Syms, M. Li, M. Green, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides on silicon substrates using spin-on glass,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4916–4921 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honkanen, S.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

R. R. A. Syms, V. Schneider, W. Huang, A. S. Holmes, “Low loss achieved in sol-gel based silica-on-silicon integrated optics using borophosphosilicate glass,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1833–1834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, P.

P. Innocenzi, M. O. Abdirashid, M. Guglielmi, “Structure and properties of sol-gel coatings from methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2(4), 3–7 (1994).

Jonschker, G.

M. Mennig, G. Jonschker, H. Schmidt, “Sol-gel-derived thick coatings and their thermomechanical and optical properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 125–134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Justus, B. L.

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, D. K. Gasgill, D. G. Hendershot, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of quantum confined InP nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 804–806 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanigan, T.

M. P. Andrews, T. Kanigan, S. I. Najafi, “Auto-embossed Bragg gratings from self-organizing polymers: chemical tuning of periodicity and photoinduced anisotropy,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 4–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, S.

A. Matsuda, Y. Matsuno, S. Kataoka, S. Katayama, T. Tsuno, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Pregrooving on glass disks by the sol-gel method: effects of the addition of organic polymers on the formation of glass films in the SiO2–TiO2 system,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. SPIE1328, 71–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, S.

A. Matsuda, Y. Matsuno, S. Kataoka, S. Katayama, T. Tsuno, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Pregrooving on glass disks by the sol-gel method: effects of the addition of organic polymers on the formation of glass films in the SiO2–TiO2 system,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. SPIE1328, 71–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krug, H.

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning in thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147–148, 447–450 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, W. P. Olivera, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 448–455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C.-Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, A. Malek-Tabrizi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Mackenzie, J. D.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malek-Tabrizi, A.

S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C.-Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, A. Malek-Tabrizi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, A.

A. Matsuda, Y. Matsuno, S. Kataoka, S. Katayama, T. Tsuno, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Pregrooving on glass disks by the sol-gel method: effects of the addition of organic polymers on the formation of glass films in the SiO2–TiO2 system,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. SPIE1328, 71–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matsuno, Y.

A. Matsuda, Y. Matsuno, S. Kataoka, S. Katayama, T. Tsuno, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Pregrooving on glass disks by the sol-gel method: effects of the addition of organic polymers on the formation of glass films in the SiO2–TiO2 system,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. SPIE1328, 71–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mennig, M.

M. Mennig, G. Jonschker, H. Schmidt, “Sol-gel-derived thick coatings and their thermomechanical and optical properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 125–134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Merl, N.

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning in thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147–148, 447–450 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Minami, T.

A. Matsuda, Y. Matsuno, S. Kataoka, S. Katayama, T. Tsuno, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Pregrooving on glass disks by the sol-gel method: effects of the addition of organic polymers on the formation of glass films in the SiO2–TiO2 system,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. SPIE1328, 71–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Andrews, T. Kanigan, S. I. Najafi, “Auto-embossed Bragg gratings from self-organizing polymers: chemical tuning of periodicity and photoinduced anisotropy,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 4–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C.-Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, A. Malek-Tabrizi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olivera, W. P.

H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, W. P. Olivera, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 448–455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, C. V.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Riman, R. E.

J. Ballato, M. Dejneka, R. E. Riman, E. Snitzer, “Sol-gel synthesis of rare-earth-doped fluoride glass thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 11, 841–849 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, S. C.

L. Yang, S. C. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, J. Hayes, “Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1254–1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, G. W.

C. J. Brinker, G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing, (Academic, New York, 1990).

Schmidt, H.

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning in thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147–148, 447–450 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, W. P. Olivera, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 448–455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, “Thin films, the chemical processing up to gelation,” in Chemistry, Spectroscopy, and Applications of Sol-Gel Glasses, R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, eds. Vol. 77 of Structure and Bonding Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 119–151.
[CrossRef]

M. Mennig, G. Jonschker, H. Schmidt, “Sol-gel-derived thick coatings and their thermomechanical and optical properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 125–134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, V.

R. R. A. Syms, V. Schneider, W. Huang, A. S. Holmes, “Low loss achieved in sol-gel based silica-on-silicon integrated optics using borophosphosilicate glass,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1833–1834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. Ballato, M. Dejneka, R. E. Riman, E. Snitzer, “Sol-gel synthesis of rare-earth-doped fluoride glass thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 11, 841–849 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Svalgaard, M.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process for sol and film formation. R* is the molar ratio of H2O to the silicon and zirconium alkoxides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM photographs of (a) a typical ridge waveguide with nine channels ranging from 2 to 10 μm wide and (b) a 1 × 8 power splitter with channels 5 μm wide imprinted by UV light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM photographs of (a) a typical exposed and (b) a buried UV-imprinted ridge waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured mode profiles of (a) a 6 μm × 3 μm exposed and (b) a 5 μm × 3 μm buried UV-imprinted ridge waveguide at λ = 1.55, with their corresponding modal field intensity distributions. Simulated mode profile intensity by the finite-difference method. Normalized contours of intensity 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 are indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic setup for the propagation loss measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Atomic force microscopy image of an exposed UV-imprinted ridge waveguide. The image covers 25 μm2 of the top surface of the ridge.

Equations (1)

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α p = - 10   log 1 - I 2 2 T f I 1 I 3 T o 2 ,

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