Abstract

Forked laser eigenstates are shown to provide a powerful tool both to phase lock spatially separated laser oscillators and to add their powers coherently into a TEM00 output beam. Coherent addition of the powers extracted from two fiber-coupled diode-pumped Nd:YAG channels is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. Pure TEM00 oscillation is obtained with a 20% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. The coherence of the two-propagation-axis laser is proved, and single-frequency operation is demonstrated. The scalability of the scheme is discussed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, “Optical coupling of adjacent stripe-geometry junction lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 371–373 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Experimental and analytical studies of coupled multiple stripe diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 917–922 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced ‘leaky’ waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 464–466 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Oka, H. Masuda, Y. Kaneda, S. Kubota, “Laser-diode-pumped phase locked Nd:YAG laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1142–1147 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Fabiny, P. Colet, R. Roy, D. Lenstra, “Coherence and phase dynamics of spatially coupled solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4287–4296 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Xu, S. Li, K. K. Lee, Y. C. Chen, “Phase-locking in a two-element laser array: a test of the coupled-oscillator model,” Opt. Lett. 18, 513–515 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, C. Roychoudhuri, “Mode control of an array of AlGaAs lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 816–818 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Lescroart, R. Muller, G. Bourdet, “Phase coupling of a linear array of 9 square CO2 cw waveguide lasers by a spatial filter within an external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 108, 289–296 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ménard, M. Vampouille, B. Colombeau, C. Froehly, “Highly efficient phase locking and extracavity coherent combination of two diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with diode pumping,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1996–1998 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D. Nabors, A. Sanchez, A. Mooradian, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:YAG microchip laser array,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1587–1589 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Waarts, D. Nam, S. Sanders, J. Harrison, B. J. Dinerman, “Two-dimensional Er:YSGG microlaser array pumped with a monolithic two-dimensional laser diode array,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1738–1740 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Brunel, A. Le Floch, F. Bretenaker, “Multiaxis laser eigenstates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 946–960 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. The coupling constant between the laser eigenstates has recently been directly measured in a Nd:YAG laser: See M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch , “Differential measurement of the coupling constant between laser eigenstates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070–2072 (1997).

1997

The coupling constant between the laser eigenstates has recently been directly measured in a Nd:YAG laser: See M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch , “Differential measurement of the coupling constant between laser eigenstates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070–2072 (1997).

1996

1994

G. Lescroart, R. Muller, G. Bourdet, “Phase coupling of a linear array of 9 square CO2 cw waveguide lasers by a spatial filter within an external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 108, 289–296 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Waarts, D. Nam, S. Sanders, J. Harrison, B. J. Dinerman, “Two-dimensional Er:YSGG microlaser array pumped with a monolithic two-dimensional laser diode array,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1738–1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

L. Fabiny, P. Colet, R. Roy, D. Lenstra, “Coherence and phase dynamics of spatially coupled solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4287–4296 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, S. Li, K. K. Lee, Y. C. Chen, “Phase-locking in a two-element laser array: a test of the coupled-oscillator model,” Opt. Lett. 18, 513–515 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

C. D. Nabors, A. Sanchez, A. Mooradian, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:YAG microchip laser array,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1587–1589 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oka, H. Masuda, Y. Kaneda, S. Kubota, “Laser-diode-pumped phase locked Nd:YAG laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1142–1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, C. Roychoudhuri, “Mode control of an array of AlGaAs lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced ‘leaky’ waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 464–466 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Experimental and analytical studies of coupled multiple stripe diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 917–922 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, “Optical coupling of adjacent stripe-geometry junction lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 371–373 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Botez, D.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced ‘leaky’ waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 464–466 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bourdet, G.

G. Lescroart, R. Muller, G. Bourdet, “Phase coupling of a linear array of 9 square CO2 cw waveguide lasers by a spatial filter within an external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 108, 289–296 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

The coupling constant between the laser eigenstates has recently been directly measured in a Nd:YAG laser: See M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch , “Differential measurement of the coupling constant between laser eigenstates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070–2072 (1997).

M. Brunel, A. Le Floch, F. Bretenaker, “Multiaxis laser eigenstates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 946–960 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, M.

The coupling constant between the laser eigenstates has recently been directly measured in a Nd:YAG laser: See M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch , “Differential measurement of the coupling constant between laser eigenstates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070–2072 (1997).

M. Brunel, A. Le Floch, F. Bretenaker, “Multiaxis laser eigenstates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 946–960 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. D.

D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Experimental and analytical studies of coupled multiple stripe diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 917–922 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Colet, P.

L. Fabiny, P. Colet, R. Roy, D. Lenstra, “Coherence and phase dynamics of spatially coupled solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4287–4296 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombeau, B.

D’Amato, F. X.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, C. Roychoudhuri, “Mode control of an array of AlGaAs lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dinerman, B. J.

Fabiny, L.

L. Fabiny, P. Colet, R. Roy, D. Lenstra, “Coherence and phase dynamics of spatially coupled solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4287–4296 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, C.

Harrison, J.

Hayashida, P.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced ‘leaky’ waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 464–466 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, Y.

M. Oka, H. Masuda, Y. Kaneda, S. Kubota, “Laser-diode-pumped phase locked Nd:YAG laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1142–1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, S.

M. Oka, H. Masuda, Y. Kaneda, S. Kubota, “Laser-diode-pumped phase locked Nd:YAG laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1142–1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Le Floch, A.

The coupling constant between the laser eigenstates has recently been directly measured in a Nd:YAG laser: See M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch , “Differential measurement of the coupling constant between laser eigenstates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070–2072 (1997).

M. Brunel, A. Le Floch, F. Bretenaker, “Multiaxis laser eigenstates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 946–960 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lenstra, D.

L. Fabiny, P. Colet, R. Roy, D. Lenstra, “Coherence and phase dynamics of spatially coupled solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4287–4296 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lescroart, G.

G. Lescroart, R. Muller, G. Bourdet, “Phase coupling of a linear array of 9 square CO2 cw waveguide lasers by a spatial filter within an external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 108, 289–296 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Masuda, H.

M. Oka, H. Masuda, Y. Kaneda, S. Kubota, “Laser-diode-pumped phase locked Nd:YAG laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1142–1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mawst, L. J.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced ‘leaky’ waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 464–466 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ménard, S.

Mooradian, A.

Muller, R.

G. Lescroart, R. Muller, G. Bourdet, “Phase coupling of a linear array of 9 square CO2 cw waveguide lasers by a spatial filter within an external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 108, 289–296 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nabors, C. D.

Nam, D.

Oka, M.

M. Oka, H. Masuda, Y. Kaneda, S. Kubota, “Laser-diode-pumped phase locked Nd:YAG laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1142–1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paoli, T. L.

J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, “Optical coupling of adjacent stripe-geometry junction lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 371–373 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, G. L.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced ‘leaky’ waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 464–466 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ripper, J. E.

J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, “Optical coupling of adjacent stripe-geometry junction lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 371–373 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Roth, T. J.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced ‘leaky’ waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 464–466 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

L. Fabiny, P. Colet, R. Roy, D. Lenstra, “Coherence and phase dynamics of spatially coupled solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4287–4296 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roychoudhuri, C.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, C. Roychoudhuri, “Mode control of an array of AlGaAs lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

Sanders, S.

Scifres, D. R.

D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Experimental and analytical studies of coupled multiple stripe diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 917–922 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, E. T.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, C. Roychoudhuri, “Mode control of an array of AlGaAs lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Experimental and analytical studies of coupled multiple stripe diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 917–922 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, M.

The coupling constant between the laser eigenstates has recently been directly measured in a Nd:YAG laser: See M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch , “Differential measurement of the coupling constant between laser eigenstates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070–2072 (1997).

Vampouille, M.

Waarts, R.

Xu, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, “Optical coupling of adjacent stripe-geometry junction lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 371–373 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced ‘leaky’ waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 464–466 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, C. Roychoudhuri, “Mode control of an array of AlGaAs lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

The coupling constant between the laser eigenstates has recently been directly measured in a Nd:YAG laser: See M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch , “Differential measurement of the coupling constant between laser eigenstates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070–2072 (1997).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Oka, H. Masuda, Y. Kaneda, S. Kubota, “Laser-diode-pumped phase locked Nd:YAG laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1142–1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, “Experimental and analytical studies of coupled multiple stripe diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 917–922 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

G. Lescroart, R. Muller, G. Bourdet, “Phase coupling of a linear array of 9 square CO2 cw waveguide lasers by a spatial filter within an external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 108, 289–296 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

L. Fabiny, P. Colet, R. Roy, D. Lenstra, “Coherence and phase dynamics of spatially coupled solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4287–4296 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic of the two-propagation-axis end-pumped Nd:YAG laser: M, concave mirror; C, double-refraction YVO4 crystal; QWP, quarter-wave plate. Ψ is the angle made by the fast axis of the quarter-wave plate with respect to the y axis. The laser is pumped by two separate fiber-coupled diode lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental output power at 1064 nm versus input power at 808 nm of the two-propagation axis laser of Fig. 1 (circles) and of the corresponding single-axis laser when the crystal and the quarter-wave plate have been removed (squares).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental intensity profiles at the output of the laser of Fig. 1 when Ψ = 0 and only one channel is pumped (squares) and Ψ = π/4 and both channels are pumped (circles). Solid curves, Gaussian fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental observation of the interference fringes obtained between the two spatially separated orthogonally polarized x and y components of the laser of Fig. 1. (a) Ψ = 0; fringe contrast, 0. (b) Ψ = π/4; forked eigenstates; fringe contrast, 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental observation of the optical spectrum of the laser of Fig. 1 when an etalon is inserted on the one-arm side of the cavity. (a) Ψ = 0; one extraordinary eigenstate and one ordinary eigenstate oscillate independently. (b) Ψ = π/4; only one forked eigenstate oscillates, combining the overall power of the system in a single frequency.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ME = λ E ,
M = 0 0 0 0 0 - exp 2 i ϕ e cos   2 Ψ exp   i ϕ e + ϕ o sin   2 Ψ 0 0 exp   i ϕ e + ϕ o sin   2 Ψ exp 2 i ϕ o cos   2 Ψ 0 0 0 0 0
E e = 0 1 0 0 ,
E o = 0 0 1 0 .
E + = 1 2 0 1 1 0 ,
E - = 1 2 0 1 - 1 0 .

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