Abstract

One order or greater of magnitude enhancement of lasing emission is confirmed experimentally from liquid microdroplets of Acridine Orange dye mixed with the fat emulsion Intralipid-10% suspension as highly scattering media, compared with pure dye-doped droplets. This novel method that makes use of a high-gain laser dye soft scatter microsystem allows for a wide range of lasing of microdropslets. Originally without lasing pure dye droplets enabled one to lase with a well-defined threshold and an appreciably increased emission intensity in suitable conditions. Spectral characteristics and emission peak intensities from these microdroplets are measured quantitatively as a function of volume content of Intralipid-10% solutions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (1)

1996 (7)

H. Taniguchi, M. Nishiya, S. Tanosaki, H. Inaba, “Lasing behavior in a liquid spherical dye laser containing highly scattering nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Competition between two lasing modes of Sulforhodamine 640 in highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1277–1279 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Understanding bichromatic emission from scattering gain media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1603–1605 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, N. M. Lawandy, “Laser action in polymeric gain media containing scattering particles,” Appl. Opt. 35, 640–643 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Microdroplet dye laser enhancing effects in dye-highly scattering intralipid mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 719–721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Experimental studies on output, spatial, and spectral characteristics of a microdroplet dye laser containing Intralipid as a highly scattering medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1864–1873 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Bio-material laser action enforced by mixed highly scattering Intralipid in micro-droplet containing pigment extracted from biological tissues,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1484–1486 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (7)

1994 (6)

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, and Sarjono, “Morphology- dependent dye lasing from a single microdroplet with double-layered dye doping,” Opt. Lett. 19, 366–368 (1994).

W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Spectral and temporal measurements of laser action of Rhodamine 640 dye in strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1922–1924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Micrometre-resolution, optical imaging of objects through highly scattering media using a heterodyne detector array,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1753–1754 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, “Wavelength tuning in spherical liquid dye lasers by controlling the cavity Q-values,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3305–3307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, “Three-color whispering-gallery-mode dye lasers using dye-doped liquid spheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1421–L1424 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, “Simple arrangement for liquid-droplet experiments due to morphology-dependent resonances,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3594–3597 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Armstrong, J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekgauer, J. Gu, R. G. Pinnick, “Effects of submicrometer-sized particles on microdroplet lasing,” Opt. Lett. 18, 119–121 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (3)

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. J. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some characteristics of a droplet whispering-gallery mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Multi-order Stokes emission from micrometer-sized droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

N. Chang, T. Suzuki, H. Inaba, “Distributed feedback dye laser using small gel particle as a periodic structure,” Oyo Butsuri (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 54, 841–846 (1985), in Japanese.

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1961 (1)

C. G. B. Garret, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Ambartsumyan, R. V.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, “Nonresonant feedback in lasers,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders, K. W. H. Stevens, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1970), pp. 109–185.

Armstrong, R. L.

Baba, M.

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

Basov, N. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, “Nonresonant feedback in lasers,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders, K. W. H. Stevens, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1970), pp. 109–185.

Ben-Amotz, D.

Biswas, A.

Bond, W. L.

C. G. B. Garret, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. J.

Chan, K. P.

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Optical imaging through highly scattering media by use of heterodyne detection in the 1.3-μm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 20, 492–494 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Micrometre-resolution, optical imaging of objects through highly scattering media using a heterodyne detector array,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1753–1754 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, N.

N. Chang, T. Suzuki, H. Inaba, “Distributed feedback dye laser using small gel particle as a periodic structure,” Oyo Butsuri (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 54, 841–846 (1985), in Japanese.

Chang, R. K.

Chen, G.

Chylek, P.

Creegan, E.

Cue, N.

Devaraj, B.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Bio-material laser action enforced by mixed highly scattering Intralipid in micro-droplet containing pigment extracted from biological tissues,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1484–1486 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Optical imaging through highly scattering media by use of heterodyne detection in the 1.3-μm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 20, 492–494 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Ribo-Flavin: new material laser action in microdroplets and its enhancement by strongly scattering Intralipid substitution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1997 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 157.

Drake, J. M.

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

M.-K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, K. Ema, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

Fernandez, G.

Fujiwara, T.

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garret, C. G. B.

C. G. B. Garret, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, J. B.

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gonokami, M.-K.

M.-K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, K. Ema, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J.

Huston, A. L.

Inaba, H.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Bio-material laser action enforced by mixed highly scattering Intralipid in micro-droplet containing pigment extracted from biological tissues,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1484–1486 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Microdroplet dye laser enhancing effects in dye-highly scattering intralipid mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 719–721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, M. Nishiya, S. Tanosaki, H. Inaba, “Lasing behavior in a liquid spherical dye laser containing highly scattering nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Experimental studies on output, spatial, and spectral characteristics of a microdroplet dye laser containing Intralipid as a highly scattering medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1864–1873 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Optical imaging through highly scattering media by use of heterodyne detection in the 1.3-μm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 20, 492–494 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Micrometre-resolution, optical imaging of objects through highly scattering media using a heterodyne detector array,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1753–1754 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Chang, T. Suzuki, H. Inaba, “Distributed feedback dye laser using small gel particle as a periodic structure,” Oyo Butsuri (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 54, 841–846 (1985), in Japanese.

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Highly scattering effect of substituted Intralipid on dye-doped microdroplets for lasing enforcement,” in Technical Digest of 1996 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 283.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Ribo-Flavin: new material laser action in microdroplets and its enhancement by strongly scattering Intralipid substitution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1997 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 157.

Ito, H.

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jarzembski, M.

Justus, B. J.

Kaiser, W.

C. G. B. Garret, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kryukov, P. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, “Nonresonant feedback in lasers,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders, K. W. H. Stevens, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1970), pp. 109–185.

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, “Random laser?,” Nature (London) 373, 203–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

LaPlant, F. P.

Latifi, H.

Lawandy, N. M.

Letokhov, V. S.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, “Nonresonant feedback in lasers,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders, K. W. H. Stevens, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1970), pp. 109–185.

Lin, H.-B.

Liu, C.-H.

Liu, F.

Long, M. B.

Mazunder, M. M.

Moes, C. J. M.

Moon, J. A.

Morozumi, H.

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nishiya, M.

Pacheco, D. P.

Pinnick, R. G.

Prahl, S. A.

Qian, S.-X.

S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Multi-order Stokes emission from micrometer-sized droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, J. S.

Ruekgauer, T. E.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W. L.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Oxford U. Press, London, 1986), Chap. 13, p. 547.

Snow, J. B.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srivastava, V.

Suzuki, T.

N. Chang, T. Suzuki, H. Inaba, “Distributed feedback dye laser using small gel particle as a periodic structure,” Oyo Butsuri (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 54, 841–846 (1985), in Japanese.

Takeda, K.

M.-K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, K. Ema, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, H.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Bio-material laser action enforced by mixed highly scattering Intralipid in micro-droplet containing pigment extracted from biological tissues,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1484–1486 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, M. Nishiya, S. Tanosaki, H. Inaba, “Lasing behavior in a liquid spherical dye laser containing highly scattering nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Experimental studies on output, spatial, and spectral characteristics of a microdroplet dye laser containing Intralipid as a highly scattering medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1864–1873 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Microdroplet dye laser enhancing effects in dye-highly scattering intralipid mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 719–721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, “Wavelength tuning in spherical liquid dye lasers by controlling the cavity Q-values,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3305–3307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, and Sarjono, “Morphology- dependent dye lasing from a single microdroplet with double-layered dye doping,” Opt. Lett. 19, 366–368 (1994).

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, “Three-color whispering-gallery-mode dye lasers using dye-doped liquid spheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1421–L1424 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, “Simple arrangement for liquid-droplet experiments due to morphology-dependent resonances,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3594–3597 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Highly scattering effect of substituted Intralipid on dye-doped microdroplets for lasing enforcement,” in Technical Digest of 1996 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 283.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Ribo-Flavin: new material laser action in microdroplets and its enhancement by strongly scattering Intralipid substitution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1997 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 157.

Tanosaki, S.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Bio-material laser action enforced by mixed highly scattering Intralipid in micro-droplet containing pigment extracted from biological tissues,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1484–1486 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Microdroplet dye laser enhancing effects in dye-highly scattering intralipid mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 719–721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Experimental studies on output, spatial, and spectral characteristics of a microdroplet dye laser containing Intralipid as a highly scattering medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1864–1873 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, M. Nishiya, S. Tanosaki, H. Inaba, “Lasing behavior in a liquid spherical dye laser containing highly scattering nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, “Three-color whispering-gallery-mode dye lasers using dye-doped liquid spheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1421–L1424 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Highly scattering effect of substituted Intralipid on dye-doped microdroplets for lasing enforcement,” in Technical Digest of 1996 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 283.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Ribo-Flavin: new material laser action in microdroplets and its enhancement by strongly scattering Intralipid substitution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1997 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 157.

Thompson, C. A.

Tomisawa, H.

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, “Wavelength tuning in spherical liquid dye lasers by controlling the cavity Q-values,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3305–3307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, and Sarjono, “Morphology- dependent dye lasing from a single microdroplet with double-layered dye doping,” Opt. Lett. 19, 366–368 (1994).

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, “Simple arrangement for liquid-droplet experiments due to morphology-dependent resonances,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3594–3597 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsujita, K.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Microdroplet dye laser enhancing effects in dye-highly scattering intralipid mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 719–721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Experimental studies on output, spatial, and spectral characteristics of a microdroplet dye laser containing Intralipid as a highly scattering medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1864–1873 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Bio-material laser action enforced by mixed highly scattering Intralipid in micro-droplet containing pigment extracted from biological tissues,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1484–1486 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Highly scattering effect of substituted Intralipid on dye-doped microdroplets for lasing enforcement,” in Technical Digest of 1996 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 283.

Tzeng, H.-M.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Albada, M. P.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, “Random laser?,” Nature (London) 373, 203–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Marle, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Wall, K. F.

Webb, K. J.

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, “Random laser?,” Nature (London) 373, 203–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.-G.

Yamada, H.

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Optical imaging through highly scattering media by use of heterodyne detection in the 1.3-μm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 20, 492–494 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Micrometre-resolution, optical imaging of objects through highly scattering media using a heterodyne detector array,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1753–1754 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

M.-K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, K. Ema, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

Zhang, W.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, “Wavelength tuning in spherical liquid dye lasers by controlling the cavity Q-values,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3305–3307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Microdroplet dye laser enhancing effects in dye-highly scattering intralipid mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 719–721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, K. Tsujita, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Bio-material laser action enforced by mixed highly scattering Intralipid in micro-droplet containing pigment extracted from biological tissues,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1484–1486 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Micrometre-resolution, optical imaging of objects through highly scattering media using a heterodyne detector array,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1753–1754 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Experimental studies on output, spatial, and spectral characteristics of a microdroplet dye laser containing Intralipid as a highly scattering medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1864–1873 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M.-K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, K. Ema, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, H. Yamada, T. Fujiwara, S. Tanosaki, H. Ito, H. Morozumi, M. Baba, “Laser emission from dye-doped small spheres by ultraviolet N2 laser pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L58–L61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, “Three-color whispering-gallery-mode dye lasers using dye-doped liquid spheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1421–L1424 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (4)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, “Random laser, Lawandy and Balachandran reply,” Nature (London) 373, 204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, “Random laser?,” Nature (London) 373, 203–204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (18)

H. Taniguchi, M. Nishiya, S. Tanosaki, H. Inaba, “Lasing behavior in a liquid spherical dye laser containing highly scattering nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Competition between two lasing modes of Sulforhodamine 640 in highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1277–1279 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Understanding bichromatic emission from scattering gain media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1603–1605 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. J. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some characteristics of a droplet whispering-gallery mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Armstrong, J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekgauer, R. G. Pinnick, “Energy-transfer assisted lasing from microdroplets seeded with fluorescent sol,” Opt. Lett. 17, 943–945 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Armstrong, J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekgauer, J. Gu, R. G. Pinnick, “Effects of submicrometer-sized particles on microdroplet lasing,” Opt. Lett. 18, 119–121 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, and Sarjono, “Morphology- dependent dye lasing from a single microdroplet with double-layered dye doping,” Opt. Lett. 19, 366–368 (1994).

W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Spectral and temporal measurements of laser action of Rhodamine 640 dye in strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1922–1924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Chan, M. Yamada, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Optical imaging through highly scattering media by use of heterodyne detection in the 1.3-μm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 20, 492–494 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Mazunder, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, J. B. Gillespie, “Wavelength shifts of dye lasing in microdroplets: effect of absorption change,” Opt. Lett. 20, 878–880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, “Emission linewidth of laser action in random gain media,” Opt. Lett. 20, 961–963 (1995).
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C. A. Thompson, J. S. Reynolds, K. J. Webb, F. P. LaPlant, D. Ben-Amotz, “Raman spectroscopic studies of diamond in Intralipid,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
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R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, J. A. Moon, “Theory of laser action in scattering gain media,” Opt. Lett. 22, 319–321 (1997).
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R. G. Pinnick, A. Biswas, P. Chylek, R. L. Armstrong, H. Latifi, E. Creegan, V. Srivastava, M. Jarzembski, G. Fernandez, “Stimulated Raman scattering in micrometer-sized droplets,” Opt. Lett. 13, 494–496 (1988).
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H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, P. Chylek, “Internal scattering effects on microdroplet resonant emission structure,” Opt. Lett. 17, 970–972 (1992).
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Oyo Butsuri (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) (1)

N. Chang, T. Suzuki, H. Inaba, “Distributed feedback dye laser using small gel particle as a periodic structure,” Oyo Butsuri (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 54, 841–846 (1985), in Japanese.

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. G. B. Garret, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Multi-order Stokes emission from micrometer-sized droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. Taniguchi, H. Tomisawa, “Simple arrangement for liquid-droplet experiments due to morphology-dependent resonances,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3594–3597 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

See, for example, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

H. Taniguchi, S. Tanosaki, K. Tsujita, H. Inaba, “Highly scattering effect of substituted Intralipid on dye-doped microdroplets for lasing enforcement,” in Technical Digest of 1996 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 283.

G. Müller, B. B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, P. van der Zee , eds., Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, Vol. IS11 of SPIE Institute Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1993).

R. R. Alfano, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Vol. 2, of Trends in Optics and Photonics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1996).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Oxford U. Press, London, 1986), Chap. 13, p. 547.

S. Tanosaki, H. Taniguchi, B. Devaraj, H. Inaba, “Ribo-Flavin: new material laser action in microdroplets and its enhancement by strongly scattering Intralipid substitution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1997 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 157.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, “Nonresonant feedback in lasers,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders, K. W. H. Stevens, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1970), pp. 109–185.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pump intensity (Ep) dye microdroplet emission intensity characteristics from the ACO-doped single microdroplet at a peak wavelength as a parameter of volume content (Nc %) of scattering Intralipid-10%: Nc = 0% (plot A), 1% (B), 5% (C), 10% (D), and 40% (E), for a fixed dye concentration of 3 × 10-3-M ACO. Plots C–E, obtained with a larger quantity of Intralipid-10%, reveal two distinct regions with bending points that correspond to lasing thresholds.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical emission spectra for (a) Ep = 29 and (b) Ep = 8.2 from the ACO-doped microdroplets as a parameter of Intralipid-10% content (Nc %) for the two different pump intensities Ep (corresponding to the horizontal scale in Fig. 1), Nc = 0% (A), 1% (B), 5% (C), 10% (D), and 40% (E). The spectra plotted as A and B and C–E correspond to no lasing and lasing respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral width (FWHM) and emission peak wavelength measured from the ACO-doped microdroplets as a function of Intralipid-10% content (Nc %) for three different pump intensities: Ep = 8.2, 12.5, and 29.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission intensity from the ACO-doped single microdroplet at a peak wavelength as a function of volume content (Nc %) of Intralipid-10% as a parameter of the relative pump beam intensity (Ep) for a 3 × 10-3-M ACO dye concentration.

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