Abstract

We present a systematic study of the changes induced in the refractive-index profile of different sets of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides on soda-lime and BK7 substrates because of thermal annealing in the presence or absence of salt vapors. The concentration of potassium is recovered by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and the propagation losses are measured by means of the three-prism configuration.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Marchese, G. Kakarantzas, A. Jha, “G4 lifetimes, optical and thermal characteristics of Pr-doped GeS2-chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 314–319 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. De Sario, A. D’Orazio, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Propagation characteristics of nonlinear graded index optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1565–1571 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 984–1001 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Iraj Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1992).
  5. J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in BK7 and Pyrex glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22(6), 892–895 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of the index change in K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass,” Appl. Opt. 30, 674–681 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. A. Agapiou, C. M. Verber, “Fabrication and characterization of double-diffused waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 43–48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. L. Auger, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium- and silver-double-ion-exchanged slab glass waveguides: characterization and modeling,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3333–3337 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. G. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, “Characterization and modeling of planar surface and buried glass waveguides made by field-assisted K+ ion exchange,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5283–5291 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Insertion loss reduction between single-mode fibers and diffused channel waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4837–4843 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurities Analysis, (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1989).
  12. Y. H. Won, P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “Three-prism loss measurements of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 269–270 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(6), 1123–1130 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3(2), 385–391 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. L. Yip, J. Albert, “Characterization of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in glass,” Opt. Lett. 10, 151–153 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, S. Sottini, “Thermal annealing of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1374–1376 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Ciminelli, S. Cucurachi, M. De Sario, C. Gerardi, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical characterization of ion exchanged waveguides subjected to thermal annealing,” in Proceedings of Melecon ’96, Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical ConferenceM. De Sario, B. Maione, P. Pugliese, M. Savino, eds. (Grafiche Colucci, Monopoli, Italy, 1996), pp. 693–696.
  19. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford U. Press, London, 1956).
  20. C. De Bernardi, S. Morasca, D. Scarano, A. Carnera, M. Morra, “Compositional and stress-optical effects in glass waveguides: comparison between K–Na and Ag–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 195–204 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. T. Aksenov, A. A. Lipovskii, A. V. Pavlenko, “Fabrication of low-mode optical waveguides of increased thickness in glass,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26(1), 136–137 (1981).
  22. A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Design of active switches using InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP heterostructure,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(1), 19–27 (1997).

1997

A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Design of active switches using InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP heterostructure,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(1), 19–27 (1997).

1996

D. Marchese, G. Kakarantzas, A. Jha, “G4 lifetimes, optical and thermal characteristics of Pr-doped GeS2-chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 314–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. A. Agapiou, C. M. Verber, “Fabrication and characterization of double-diffused waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(6), 1123–1130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, S. Sottini, “Thermal annealing of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1374–1376 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

C. De Bernardi, S. Morasca, D. Scarano, A. Carnera, M. Morra, “Compositional and stress-optical effects in glass waveguides: comparison between K–Na and Ag–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 195–204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 984–1001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Insertion loss reduction between single-mode fibers and diffused channel waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4837–4843 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in BK7 and Pyrex glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22(6), 892–895 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3(2), 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Yip, J. Albert, “Characterization of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in glass,” Opt. Lett. 10, 151–153 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

E. T. Aksenov, A. A. Lipovskii, A. V. Pavlenko, “Fabrication of low-mode optical waveguides of increased thickness in glass,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26(1), 136–137 (1981).

1980

Y. H. Won, P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “Three-prism loss measurements of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 269–270 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agapiou, G. A.

G. A. Agapiou, C. M. Verber, “Fabrication and characterization of double-diffused waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aksenov, E. T.

E. T. Aksenov, A. A. Lipovskii, A. V. Pavlenko, “Fabrication of low-mode optical waveguides of increased thickness in glass,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26(1), 136–137 (1981).

Albert, J.

Auger, P. L.

Carnera, A.

C. De Bernardi, S. Morasca, D. Scarano, A. Carnera, M. Morra, “Compositional and stress-optical effects in glass waveguides: comparison between K–Na and Ag–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 195–204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, G. H.

Y. H. Won, P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “Three-prism loss measurements of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 269–270 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3(2), 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ciminelli, C.

C. Ciminelli, S. Cucurachi, M. De Sario, C. Gerardi, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical characterization of ion exchanged waveguides subjected to thermal annealing,” in Proceedings of Melecon ’96, Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical ConferenceM. De Sario, B. Maione, P. Pugliese, M. Savino, eds. (Grafiche Colucci, Monopoli, Italy, 1996), pp. 693–696.

Crank, J.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford U. Press, London, 1956).

Cucurachi, S.

C. Ciminelli, S. Cucurachi, M. De Sario, C. Gerardi, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical characterization of ion exchanged waveguides subjected to thermal annealing,” in Proceedings of Melecon ’96, Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical ConferenceM. De Sario, B. Maione, P. Pugliese, M. Savino, eds. (Grafiche Colucci, Monopoli, Italy, 1996), pp. 693–696.

D’Orazio, A.

A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Design of active switches using InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP heterostructure,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(1), 19–27 (1997).

M. De Sario, A. D’Orazio, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Propagation characteristics of nonlinear graded index optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1565–1571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

De Bernardi, C.

C. De Bernardi, S. Morasca, D. Scarano, A. Carnera, M. Morra, “Compositional and stress-optical effects in glass waveguides: comparison between K–Na and Ag–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 195–204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

De Franceschi, R.

C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

De Sario, M.

A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Design of active switches using InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP heterostructure,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(1), 19–27 (1997).

M. De Sario, A. D’Orazio, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Propagation characteristics of nonlinear graded index optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1565–1571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, S. Cucurachi, M. De Sario, C. Gerardi, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical characterization of ion exchanged waveguides subjected to thermal annealing,” in Proceedings of Melecon ’96, Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical ConferenceM. De Sario, B. Maione, P. Pugliese, M. Savino, eds. (Grafiche Colucci, Monopoli, Italy, 1996), pp. 693–696.

Ficarella, G.

A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Design of active switches using InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP heterostructure,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(1), 19–27 (1997).

Gerardi, C.

C. Ciminelli, S. Cucurachi, M. De Sario, C. Gerardi, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical characterization of ion exchanged waveguides subjected to thermal annealing,” in Proceedings of Melecon ’96, Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical ConferenceM. De Sario, B. Maione, P. Pugliese, M. Savino, eds. (Grafiche Colucci, Monopoli, Italy, 1996), pp. 693–696.

Giorgetti, E.

E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, S. Sottini, “Thermal annealing of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1374–1376 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(6), 1123–1130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gortych, J. E.

J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in BK7 and Pyrex glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22(6), 892–895 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grando, D.

E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, S. Sottini, “Thermal annealing of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1374–1376 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(6), 1123–1130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in BK7 and Pyrex glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22(6), 892–895 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jaussaud, P. C.

Y. H. Won, P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “Three-prism loss measurements of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 269–270 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

D. Marchese, G. Kakarantzas, A. Jha, “G4 lifetimes, optical and thermal characteristics of Pr-doped GeS2-chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 314–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kakarantzas, G.

D. Marchese, G. Kakarantzas, A. Jha, “G4 lifetimes, optical and thermal characteristics of Pr-doped GeS2-chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 314–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lipovskii, A. A.

E. T. Aksenov, A. A. Lipovskii, A. V. Pavlenko, “Fabrication of low-mode optical waveguides of increased thickness in glass,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26(1), 136–137 (1981).

Magee, C. W.

R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurities Analysis, (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1989).

Malvicino, C.

C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marchese, D.

D. Marchese, G. Kakarantzas, A. Jha, “G4 lifetimes, optical and thermal characteristics of Pr-doped GeS2-chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 314–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miliou, A. N.

Morasca, S.

C. De Bernardi, S. Morasca, D. Scarano, A. Carnera, M. Morra, “Compositional and stress-optical effects in glass waveguides: comparison between K–Na and Ag–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 195–204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moro, L.

C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morra, M.

C. De Bernardi, S. Morasca, D. Scarano, A. Carnera, M. Morra, “Compositional and stress-optical effects in glass waveguides: comparison between K–Na and Ag–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 195–204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

Noutsios, P. G.

Palchetti, L.

E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, S. Sottini, “Thermal annealing of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1374–1376 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(6), 1123–1130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pavlenko, A. V.

E. T. Aksenov, A. A. Lipovskii, A. V. Pavlenko, “Fabrication of low-mode optical waveguides of increased thickness in glass,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26(1), 136–137 (1981).

Petruzzelli, V.

A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Design of active switches using InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP heterostructure,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(1), 19–27 (1997).

M. De Sario, A. D’Orazio, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Propagation characteristics of nonlinear graded index optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1565–1571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prudenzano, F.

A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Design of active switches using InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP heterostructure,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(1), 19–27 (1997).

M. De Sario, A. D’Orazio, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Propagation characteristics of nonlinear graded index optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1565–1571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of the index change in K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass,” Appl. Opt. 30, 674–681 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 984–1001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Scarano, D.

C. De Bernardi, S. Morasca, D. Scarano, A. Carnera, M. Morra, “Compositional and stress-optical effects in glass waveguides: comparison between K–Na and Ag–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 195–204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sottini, S.

E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, S. Sottini, “Thermal annealing of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1374–1376 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(6), 1123–1130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of the index change in K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass,” Appl. Opt. 30, 674–681 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 984–1001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stevie, F. A.

R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurities Analysis, (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1989).

Verber, C. M.

G. A. Agapiou, C. M. Verber, “Fabrication and characterization of double-diffused waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. G.

R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurities Analysis, (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1989).

Won, Y. H.

Y. H. Won, P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “Three-prism loss measurements of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 269–270 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yip, G. L.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. H. Won, P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “Three-prism loss measurements of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 269–270 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(6), 1123–1130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, “Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in BK7 and Pyrex glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22(6), 892–895 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron.

A. D’Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, “Design of active switches using InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP heterostructure,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(1), 19–27 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 984–1001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3(2), 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Modern Opt.

C. De Bernardi, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Modern Opt. 35(6), 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

D. Marchese, G. Kakarantzas, A. Jha, “G4 lifetimes, optical and thermal characteristics of Pr-doped GeS2-chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 314–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. De Bernardi, S. Morasca, D. Scarano, A. Carnera, M. Morra, “Compositional and stress-optical effects in glass waveguides: comparison between K–Na and Ag–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 195–204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

G. A. Agapiou, C. M. Verber, “Fabrication and characterization of double-diffused waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.

E. T. Aksenov, A. A. Lipovskii, A. V. Pavlenko, “Fabrication of low-mode optical waveguides of increased thickness in glass,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26(1), 136–137 (1981).

Other

S. Iraj Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1992).

R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, C. W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurities Analysis, (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1989).

C. Ciminelli, S. Cucurachi, M. De Sario, C. Gerardi, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical characterization of ion exchanged waveguides subjected to thermal annealing,” in Proceedings of Melecon ’96, Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical ConferenceM. De Sario, B. Maione, P. Pugliese, M. Savino, eds. (Grafiche Colucci, Monopoli, Italy, 1996), pp. 693–696.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford U. Press, London, 1956).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SIMS concentration profile and RIP recovered for the BK7 waveguides KC21 and KC15 obtained for T = 440 °C, (a) t = 2 h and (b) t = 5 h.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental values of the index change at the surface Δn for (a) the TE and (b) the TM modes determined for the set of waveguides annealed at T = 420 °C for 1 h (solid curve) and those annealed at T = 420 °C for 2 h (sahsed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental values of diffusion depth d for (a) the TE and (b) the TM modes determined for the set of waveguides annealed at T = 420 °C for 1 h (solid curve) and those annealed at T = 420 °C for 2 h (dashed curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RIP’s of the waveguide KC15 that was ion exchanged at (a) T = 440 °C for t = 5 h and subjected to thermal annealing at the same temperature (b) for t a = 5 h and (c) for t a = 10 h; TE modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SIMS concentration profile and RIP of the waveguide KC15 subjected to thermal annealing at the same temperature of the ion-exchange process for (a) t a = 5 h and (b) t a = 10 h.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RIP’s of (a) BK7 KC11 IEWG (T = 470 °C, t = 1 h) subjected to thermal annealing for t a = 2 h; (b) KC21 IEWG (T = 440 °C, t = 2 h) subjected to thermal annealing for t a = 8 h; (c) KC15 IEWG (T = 440 °C, t = 5 h) subjected to thermal annealing for t a = 20 h; TE modes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

RIP’s of the soda-lime waveguide that was ion exchanged at (a) T = 440 °C for t = 5 h and subjected to thermal annealing at the same temperature (b) for t a = 5 h and (c) for t a = 10 h; TE modes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Attenuation curves of two sets of waveguides that were ion exchanged in (a) soda-lime and (b) BK7 glasses.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the index change at the surface Δn versus the annealing time for two sets of IEWG’s (T = 420 °C, t = 1 h) annealed in the presence (solid curve) and absence (dashed curve) of the source of diffusate and (a) TE polarization, (b) TM polarization.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the diffusion depth versus the annealing time for two sets of IEWG’s (T = 420 °C, t = 1 h) annealed in the presence (solid curve) and absence (dashed curve) of the source of diffusate and (a) TE polarization, (b) TM polarization.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Evolution of annealed concentration C(x, t) for (a) the BK7 waveguide that was ion exchanged for T = 440 °C, t = 5 h and (b) the soda-lime waveguide that was ion exchanged for T = 420 °C, t = 2 h; TE polarization.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison between the Δn a values calculated according to Eqs. 1 and 2 (dashed curve) and by MOL integration (solid curve) and experimentally evaluated (filled circles) for the (a) BK7 and (b) soda-lime IEWG’s described in Figs. 11(a) and 11(b).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Mean Values of the Recovered Index Change at the Surface Δn, Diffusion Depth d, and Number of Guided Modes for the Sets of Soda-Lime Waveguides Submitted to Annealinga

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Table 2 Recovered Index Change at the Surface Δn and Diffusion Depth d of IEWG’s Annealed in the Presence of Vapors of KNO3

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Table 3 Influence of Annealing Temperature on a Set of IEWG’s (T = 420 °C, t = 1 h)

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Table 4 Index Change at the Surface Δn, Diffusion Depth d, and Guided-Mode Number of Multistep IEWG’s

Equations (4)

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n x = n s + Δ n 0 f x / d ,
Δ n a = 2 π   Δ n 0 arctan Dt D a t a 1 / 2 .
Δ n a = Δ n 0 1 + D a t a Dt 1 / 2 .
C x , t t = D   2 C x , t x 2 ,

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