Abstract

Two-line fluorescence thermometry measurements based on excitation of the AX (0, 0) band of nitric oxide were performed in the free-stream flow of a large-scale shock tunnel, the Arnold Engineering Development Center Impulse Facility. Because the flow is optically thick, effects of laser absorption must be taken into account. This can be accomplished by extending the two-line thermometry concept to three lines. We illustrate the three-line technique by combining two-line planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements from separate facility runs. The resulting free-stream temperature T 0 = 468 K ± 65 K is insensitive to assumptions regarding the laser propagation distance through the flow, the vibrational temperature of the flow, and the precise nature of the absorption line shape.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. K. McMillin, L. P. Palmer, R. K. Hanson, “Temporally resolved, two-line fluorescence imaging of NO temperature in a transverse jet in a supersonic cross flow,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7532–7545 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. P. Lee, B. K. McMillin, R. K. Hanson, “Temperature measurements in gases by use of planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5379–5396 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. E. Cassady, S. F. Lieberg, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO (A–X) in hypersonic flowfields,” paper AIAA-92-2962, presented at the Twenty-Third Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, 6–8 July 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992)
  4. J. L. Palmer, A. F. P. Houwing, M. C. Thurber, S. D. Wehe, R. K. Hanson, “PLIF imaging of transient shock phenomena in hypersonic flows,” paper AIAA-94-2642, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).
  5. W. L. Roberts, M. G. Allen, R. P. Howard, G. J. Wilson, R. Trucco, “Measurement and prediction of nitric oxide concentration in the HYPULSE expansion tube facility,” paper AIAA-94-2644, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).
  6. P. C. Palma, T. J. McIntyre, A. F. P. Houwing, “PLIF imaging of nitric oxide in high enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1617–1622.
  7. W. H. Beck, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Rosenhauer, T. Müller, J. Jourdan, “Status of the development and implementation of optical spectroscopic techniques on the DLR high enthalpy shock tunnel HEG,” paper AIAA-96-221, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).
  8. W. M. Ruyten, W. D. Williams, F. L. Heltsley, “Computational flow imaging for planar laser-induced fluorescence applications,” paper AIAA-94-2621, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).
  9. W. M. Ruyten, M. S. Smith, W. D. Williams, “On the role of laser absorption in planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of high-enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1639–1644.
  10. W. M. Ruyten, “Comparison of calculated and measured temperature fields in the AEDC Impulse Facility,” paper AIAA-96-2237, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiann, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).
  11. M. S. Smith, L. L. Price, W. D. Williams, “Laser induced fluorescence diagnostics using a two-line excitation method,” AIAA J. 31, 478–482 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Maus, J. Blanks, J. DeWitt, “Calibration test of a new free-piston shock tunnel,” paper AIAA-93-5003, presented at the Fifth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Munich, Germany, 30 November–3 December 1993 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1993).
  13. J. R. Maus, S. G. Rock, “Computational results for AEDC free piston shock tunnel and comparison with calibration data,” paper AIAA-95-6039, presented at the Sixth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Chattanooga, Tennessee, 3–7 April 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).
  14. J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, “Einstein coefficients for rotational lines of the (0, 0) band of the NO A2∑+ - X2Π system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43–54 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, “Einstein coefficients for rotational lines of the (0, 0) band of the NO A2∑+ - X2Π system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

W. L. Roberts, M. G. Allen, R. P. Howard, G. J. Wilson, R. Trucco, “Measurement and prediction of nitric oxide concentration in the HYPULSE expansion tube facility,” paper AIAA-94-2644, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Beck, W. H.

W. H. Beck, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Rosenhauer, T. Müller, J. Jourdan, “Status of the development and implementation of optical spectroscopic techniques on the DLR high enthalpy shock tunnel HEG,” paper AIAA-96-221, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Blanks, J.

J. Maus, J. Blanks, J. DeWitt, “Calibration test of a new free-piston shock tunnel,” paper AIAA-93-5003, presented at the Fifth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Munich, Germany, 30 November–3 December 1993 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1993).

Carter, C. D.

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, “Einstein coefficients for rotational lines of the (0, 0) band of the NO A2∑+ - X2Π system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cassady, P. E.

P. E. Cassady, S. F. Lieberg, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO (A–X) in hypersonic flowfields,” paper AIAA-92-2962, presented at the Twenty-Third Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, 6–8 July 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992)

DeWitt, J.

J. Maus, J. Blanks, J. DeWitt, “Calibration test of a new free-piston shock tunnel,” paper AIAA-93-5003, presented at the Fifth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Munich, Germany, 30 November–3 December 1993 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1993).

Hanson, R. K.

M. P. Lee, B. K. McMillin, R. K. Hanson, “Temperature measurements in gases by use of planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5379–5396 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. McMillin, L. P. Palmer, R. K. Hanson, “Temporally resolved, two-line fluorescence imaging of NO temperature in a transverse jet in a supersonic cross flow,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7532–7545 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Palmer, A. F. P. Houwing, M. C. Thurber, S. D. Wehe, R. K. Hanson, “PLIF imaging of transient shock phenomena in hypersonic flows,” paper AIAA-94-2642, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Heltsley, F. L.

W. M. Ruyten, W. D. Williams, F. L. Heltsley, “Computational flow imaging for planar laser-induced fluorescence applications,” paper AIAA-94-2621, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Houwing, A. F. P.

J. L. Palmer, A. F. P. Houwing, M. C. Thurber, S. D. Wehe, R. K. Hanson, “PLIF imaging of transient shock phenomena in hypersonic flows,” paper AIAA-94-2642, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

P. C. Palma, T. J. McIntyre, A. F. P. Houwing, “PLIF imaging of nitric oxide in high enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1617–1622.

Howard, R. P.

W. L. Roberts, M. G. Allen, R. P. Howard, G. J. Wilson, R. Trucco, “Measurement and prediction of nitric oxide concentration in the HYPULSE expansion tube facility,” paper AIAA-94-2644, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Jourdan, J.

W. H. Beck, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Rosenhauer, T. Müller, J. Jourdan, “Status of the development and implementation of optical spectroscopic techniques on the DLR high enthalpy shock tunnel HEG,” paper AIAA-96-221, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Laurendeau, N. M.

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, “Einstein coefficients for rotational lines of the (0, 0) band of the NO A2∑+ - X2Π system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. P.

Lieberg, S. F.

P. E. Cassady, S. F. Lieberg, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO (A–X) in hypersonic flowfields,” paper AIAA-92-2962, presented at the Twenty-Third Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, 6–8 July 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992)

Maus, J.

J. Maus, J. Blanks, J. DeWitt, “Calibration test of a new free-piston shock tunnel,” paper AIAA-93-5003, presented at the Fifth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Munich, Germany, 30 November–3 December 1993 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1993).

Maus, J. R.

J. R. Maus, S. G. Rock, “Computational results for AEDC free piston shock tunnel and comparison with calibration data,” paper AIAA-95-6039, presented at the Sixth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Chattanooga, Tennessee, 3–7 April 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

McIntyre, T. J.

P. C. Palma, T. J. McIntyre, A. F. P. Houwing, “PLIF imaging of nitric oxide in high enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1617–1622.

McMillin, B. K.

Müller, T.

W. H. Beck, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Rosenhauer, T. Müller, J. Jourdan, “Status of the development and implementation of optical spectroscopic techniques on the DLR high enthalpy shock tunnel HEG,” paper AIAA-96-221, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Palma, P. C.

P. C. Palma, T. J. McIntyre, A. F. P. Houwing, “PLIF imaging of nitric oxide in high enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1617–1622.

Palmer, J. L.

J. L. Palmer, A. F. P. Houwing, M. C. Thurber, S. D. Wehe, R. K. Hanson, “PLIF imaging of transient shock phenomena in hypersonic flows,” paper AIAA-94-2642, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Palmer, L. P.

Price, L. L.

M. S. Smith, L. L. Price, W. D. Williams, “Laser induced fluorescence diagnostics using a two-line excitation method,” AIAA J. 31, 478–482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reisel, J. R.

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, “Einstein coefficients for rotational lines of the (0, 0) band of the NO A2∑+ - X2Π system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, W. L.

W. L. Roberts, M. G. Allen, R. P. Howard, G. J. Wilson, R. Trucco, “Measurement and prediction of nitric oxide concentration in the HYPULSE expansion tube facility,” paper AIAA-94-2644, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Rock, S. G.

J. R. Maus, S. G. Rock, “Computational results for AEDC free piston shock tunnel and comparison with calibration data,” paper AIAA-95-6039, presented at the Sixth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Chattanooga, Tennessee, 3–7 April 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Rosenhauer, M.

W. H. Beck, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Rosenhauer, T. Müller, J. Jourdan, “Status of the development and implementation of optical spectroscopic techniques on the DLR high enthalpy shock tunnel HEG,” paper AIAA-96-221, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Ruyten, W. M.

W. M. Ruyten, M. S. Smith, W. D. Williams, “On the role of laser absorption in planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of high-enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1639–1644.

W. M. Ruyten, “Comparison of calculated and measured temperature fields in the AEDC Impulse Facility,” paper AIAA-96-2237, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiann, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

W. M. Ruyten, W. D. Williams, F. L. Heltsley, “Computational flow imaging for planar laser-induced fluorescence applications,” paper AIAA-94-2621, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Smith, M. S.

M. S. Smith, L. L. Price, W. D. Williams, “Laser induced fluorescence diagnostics using a two-line excitation method,” AIAA J. 31, 478–482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Ruyten, M. S. Smith, W. D. Williams, “On the role of laser absorption in planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of high-enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1639–1644.

Thurber, M. C.

J. L. Palmer, A. F. P. Houwing, M. C. Thurber, S. D. Wehe, R. K. Hanson, “PLIF imaging of transient shock phenomena in hypersonic flows,” paper AIAA-94-2642, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Trucco, R.

W. L. Roberts, M. G. Allen, R. P. Howard, G. J. Wilson, R. Trucco, “Measurement and prediction of nitric oxide concentration in the HYPULSE expansion tube facility,” paper AIAA-94-2644, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Wehe, S. D.

J. L. Palmer, A. F. P. Houwing, M. C. Thurber, S. D. Wehe, R. K. Hanson, “PLIF imaging of transient shock phenomena in hypersonic flows,” paper AIAA-94-2642, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Williams, W. D.

M. S. Smith, L. L. Price, W. D. Williams, “Laser induced fluorescence diagnostics using a two-line excitation method,” AIAA J. 31, 478–482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Ruyten, W. D. Williams, F. L. Heltsley, “Computational flow imaging for planar laser-induced fluorescence applications,” paper AIAA-94-2621, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

W. M. Ruyten, M. S. Smith, W. D. Williams, “On the role of laser absorption in planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of high-enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1639–1644.

Wilson, G. J.

W. L. Roberts, M. G. Allen, R. P. Howard, G. J. Wilson, R. Trucco, “Measurement and prediction of nitric oxide concentration in the HYPULSE expansion tube facility,” paper AIAA-94-2644, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Wollenhaupt, M.

W. H. Beck, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Rosenhauer, T. Müller, J. Jourdan, “Status of the development and implementation of optical spectroscopic techniques on the DLR high enthalpy shock tunnel HEG,” paper AIAA-96-221, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

AIAA J. (1)

M. S. Smith, L. L. Price, W. D. Williams, “Laser induced fluorescence diagnostics using a two-line excitation method,” AIAA J. 31, 478–482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, “Einstein coefficients for rotational lines of the (0, 0) band of the NO A2∑+ - X2Π system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

J. Maus, J. Blanks, J. DeWitt, “Calibration test of a new free-piston shock tunnel,” paper AIAA-93-5003, presented at the Fifth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Munich, Germany, 30 November–3 December 1993 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1993).

J. R. Maus, S. G. Rock, “Computational results for AEDC free piston shock tunnel and comparison with calibration data,” paper AIAA-95-6039, presented at the Sixth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, Chattanooga, Tennessee, 3–7 April 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

P. E. Cassady, S. F. Lieberg, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO (A–X) in hypersonic flowfields,” paper AIAA-92-2962, presented at the Twenty-Third Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, 6–8 July 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992)

J. L. Palmer, A. F. P. Houwing, M. C. Thurber, S. D. Wehe, R. K. Hanson, “PLIF imaging of transient shock phenomena in hypersonic flows,” paper AIAA-94-2642, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

W. L. Roberts, M. G. Allen, R. P. Howard, G. J. Wilson, R. Trucco, “Measurement and prediction of nitric oxide concentration in the HYPULSE expansion tube facility,” paper AIAA-94-2644, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

P. C. Palma, T. J. McIntyre, A. F. P. Houwing, “PLIF imaging of nitric oxide in high enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1617–1622.

W. H. Beck, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Rosenhauer, T. Müller, J. Jourdan, “Status of the development and implementation of optical spectroscopic techniques on the DLR high enthalpy shock tunnel HEG,” paper AIAA-96-221, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

W. M. Ruyten, W. D. Williams, F. L. Heltsley, “Computational flow imaging for planar laser-induced fluorescence applications,” paper AIAA-94-2621, presented at the Eighteenth Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 20–23 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

W. M. Ruyten, M. S. Smith, W. D. Williams, “On the role of laser absorption in planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of high-enthalpy flows,” in Shock Waves, Vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium of Shock Waves, J. Sturtevant, J. E. Sheperd, H. G. Hornung, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 1639–1644.

W. M. Ruyten, “Comparison of calculated and measured temperature fields in the AEDC Impulse Facility,” paper AIAA-96-2237, presented at the Nineteenth Advanced Measurements and Ground Testing Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiann, 17–20 June 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized signal ratios 21 (solid curves) and 31 (dashed curves) as a function of NO density and temperature. The indices correspond to the spectral lines from Table 1. The assumed laser propagation path length is 185 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized laser spectral profiles for a laser propagation path length of 185 mm, a free-stream temperature of 500 K, and a free-stream NO density of 5 × 1015 cc-1. The dotted curve represents the unattenuated profile. The attenuated profiles are labeled with the spectral line index k from Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-line temperature and density sensitivity factors ρ T (solid curves) and ρ N (dashed curves) for the data from Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Identification of measurement location in AEDC Impulse Facility flow.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Selected Spectral Lines and Associated Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Stagnation Pressure and Normalized Signal Ratio versus AEDC Impulse Facility Run Number

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S k = B k E k g k N , T , T v f k T , T v × NV k ϕ k N , T , T v , N j η k Ω k 4 π   G k ,
R 21 S 2 S 1 = C 21 R ˆ 21 ,
R ˆ 21 B 2 B 1 g 2 N , T , T v g 1 N , T , T v f 2 T , T v f 1 T , T v ,
R ˆ 21 na = B 2 B 1 2 J 2 + 1 2 J 1 + 1 exp - Δ 21 k B T ,
δ T T = ρ 21 δ R ˆ R ˆ ,
ρ 21 = k B T / Δ 21 .
k ν = k ν exp - Nf k T , T v L σ k ν ,
R ˆ 21 = R ˆ 21 na   2 ν σ 2 ν d ν / B 2   1 ν σ 1 ν d ν / B 1 ,
σ k ν = hB k m 2 π k B T 1 / 2 exp - ν - ν k 0 2 2 k B T / mc 2 ,
R ˆ k 1 - R ˆ k 1 0 = n k 1 0 N - N 0 + t k 1 0 T - T 0 ,
δ T T = ρ T δ R ˆ R ˆ ,
ρ T = n 21 0 R ˆ 31 0 2 + n 31 0 R ˆ 21 0 2 1 / 2 T 0 | n 21 0 t 31 0 - n 31 0 t 21 0 | ,
δ N N = ρ N δ R ˆ R ˆ ,
ρ N = t 21 0 R ˆ 31 0 2 + t 31 0 R ˆ 21 0 2 1 / 2 N 0 | n 21 0 t 31 0 - n 31 0 t 21 0 | .
N = N   L L f k T , T v f k T , T v .

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