Abstract

A disadvantage of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) compared with vibrational CARS is the limited dynamic range for temperature measurements. Here an optical configuration is described that overcomes this limitation by the use of two different center-frequency dye lasers in a dual-broadband CARS approach. Its performance is demonstrated for simultaneous pure rotational CARS temperature and relative N2–O2 concentration measurements up to 1950 K at ambient pressure.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Stufflebeam, A. C. Eckbreth, “CARS diagnostics of solid propellant combustion at elevated pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 66, 163–179 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Bombach, B. Hemmerling, W. Kreutner, “CARS temperature measurements in a lean, turbulent, 120 kW natural gas flame,” in Non-Intrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo, T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell, New York, 1994), pp. 145–151.
  3. S. Kampmann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a contained technical swirl combustor,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2780–2786 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Meier, I. Plath, W. Stricker, “The application of single-pulse CARS for temperature measurements in a turbulent stagnation flame,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 339–346 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. C. Eckbreth, “Optical splitter for dynamic range enhancement of optical multichannel detectors,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2118–2123 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, P. W. Schreiber, “Temperature and species-concentration measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by the CARS technique,” J. Energy 7, 403–409 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen–oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3500–3505 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665–2671 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Seeger, Anwendungsvergleich von Vibrations- und Rotations-CARS in der technischen Verbrennung (ESYTEC, Erlangen, Germany1994).
  15. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump-Stokes spectral separation,” Opt. Lett. 11, 496–498 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Multi-color CARS for simultaneous measurements of multiple combustion species,” in Laser Applications to Chemical Dynamics, M. A. El-Sayed, ed., Proc. SPIE742, 34–41 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Thumann, Temperaturbestimmung mittels der Kohärenten-Anti-Stokes-Raman-Streuung (CARS) unter Berücksichtigung des Druckeinflusses und nichteinheitlicher Temperaturverhältnisse im Messvolumen (ESYTEC, Erlangen, Germany, 1997).
  18. L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Schenk, A. Thumann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: comparison of different evaluation techniques for single-shot simultaneous temperature and relative N2–O2 concentration determination,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

W. Meier, I. Plath, W. Stricker, “The application of single-pulse CARS for temperature measurements in a turbulent stagnation flame,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 339–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. H. Stufflebeam, A. C. Eckbreth, “CARS diagnostics of solid propellant combustion at elevated pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 66, 163–179 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, P. W. Schreiber, “Temperature and species-concentration measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by the CARS technique,” J. Energy 7, 403–409 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. J.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump-Stokes spectral separation,” Opt. Lett. 11, 496–498 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Multi-color CARS for simultaneous measurements of multiple combustion species,” in Laser Applications to Chemical Dynamics, M. A. El-Sayed, ed., Proc. SPIE742, 34–41 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bombach, R.

R. Bombach, B. Hemmerling, W. Kreutner, “CARS temperature measurements in a lean, turbulent, 120 kW natural gas flame,” in Non-Intrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo, T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell, New York, 1994), pp. 145–151.

Bonamy, J.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

J. H. Stufflebeam, A. C. Eckbreth, “CARS diagnostics of solid propellant combustion at elevated pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 66, 163–179 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump-Stokes spectral separation,” Opt. Lett. 11, 496–498 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Optical splitter for dynamic range enhancement of optical multichannel detectors,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2118–2123 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Multi-color CARS for simultaneous measurements of multiple combustion species,” in Laser Applications to Chemical Dynamics, M. A. El-Sayed, ed., Proc. SPIE742, 34–41 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

Goss, L. P.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, P. W. Schreiber, “Temperature and species-concentration measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by the CARS technique,” J. Energy 7, 403–409 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerling, B.

R. Bombach, B. Hemmerling, W. Kreutner, “CARS temperature measurements in a lean, turbulent, 120 kW natural gas flame,” in Non-Intrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo, T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell, New York, 1994), pp. 145–151.

Jonuscheit, J.

Kampmann, S.

Kreutner, W.

R. Bombach, B. Hemmerling, W. Kreutner, “CARS temperature measurements in a lean, turbulent, 120 kW natural gas flame,” in Non-Intrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo, T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell, New York, 1994), pp. 145–151.

Kröll, S.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meier, W.

I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Meier, I. Plath, W. Stricker, “The application of single-pulse CARS for temperature measurements in a turbulent stagnation flame,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 339–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, D.

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Plath, I.

I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Meier, I. Plath, W. Stricker, “The application of single-pulse CARS for temperature measurements in a turbulent stagnation flame,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 339–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, M.

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen–oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3500–3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, A. Thumann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: comparison of different evaluation techniques for single-shot simultaneous temperature and relative N2–O2 concentration determination,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Schreiber, P. W.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, P. W. Schreiber, “Temperature and species-concentration measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by the CARS technique,” J. Energy 7, 403–409 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, T.

Stricker, W.

I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Meier, I. Plath, W. Stricker, “The application of single-pulse CARS for temperature measurements in a turbulent stagnation flame,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 339–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stufflebeam, J. H.

J. H. Stufflebeam, A. C. Eckbreth, “CARS diagnostics of solid propellant combustion at elevated pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 66, 163–179 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Switzer, G. L.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, P. W. Schreiber, “Temperature and species-concentration measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by the CARS technique,” J. Energy 7, 403–409 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Thumann, A.

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen–oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3500–3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, A. Thumann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: comparison of different evaluation techniques for single-shot simultaneous temperature and relative N2–O2 concentration determination,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

A. Thumann, Temperaturbestimmung mittels der Kohärenten-Anti-Stokes-Raman-Streuung (CARS) unter Berücksichtigung des Druckeinflusses und nichteinheitlicher Temperaturverhältnisse im Messvolumen (ESYTEC, Erlangen, Germany, 1997).

Trump, D. D.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, P. W. Schreiber, “Temperature and species-concentration measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by the CARS technique,” J. Energy 7, 403–409 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

W. Meier, I. Plath, W. Stricker, “The application of single-pulse CARS for temperature measurements in a turbulent stagnation flame,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 339–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (2)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Stufflebeam, A. C. Eckbreth, “CARS diagnostics of solid propellant combustion at elevated pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 66, 163–179 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Energy (1)

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, P. W. Schreiber, “Temperature and species-concentration measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by the CARS technique,” J. Energy 7, 403–409 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

M. Schenk, A. Thumann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: comparison of different evaluation techniques for single-shot simultaneous temperature and relative N2–O2 concentration determination,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

T. Seeger, Anwendungsvergleich von Vibrations- und Rotations-CARS in der technischen Verbrennung (ESYTEC, Erlangen, Germany1994).

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Multi-color CARS for simultaneous measurements of multiple combustion species,” in Laser Applications to Chemical Dynamics, M. A. El-Sayed, ed., Proc. SPIE742, 34–41 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Thumann, Temperaturbestimmung mittels der Kohärenten-Anti-Stokes-Raman-Streuung (CARS) unter Berücksichtigung des Druckeinflusses und nichteinheitlicher Temperaturverhältnisse im Messvolumen (ESYTEC, Erlangen, Germany, 1997).

R. Bombach, B. Hemmerling, W. Kreutner, “CARS temperature measurements in a lean, turbulent, 120 kW natural gas flame,” in Non-Intrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo, T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell, New York, 1994), pp. 145–151.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of signal generation for RDBC-1 and RDBC-2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: BD’s, beam dumps; BS, beam splitter; DM’s, dichroic mirrors; L1, L2, f = 400-mm lenses; L3, f = 200-mm lens; M’s, mirrors; MV, measurement volume.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic intensity profile of RDBC-1 with DCM or Rhodamine dye compared with the intensity profile of RDBC-2 with two mixtures of Rhodamine 610 and Rhodamine 640.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the excitation profile on pure rotational CARS spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Accumulated RDBC-2 spectra taken (a) in air at 300 K and (b) at an oven temperature of 1000 K. Below each spectrum the difference between the experimental and the best-fit theoretical spectrum for 290 K and 21.1% O2 and 1018 K and 18.6% O2 is shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evaluated temperature and O2 concentration mean value as a function of the adjusted oven temperature. Each measurement point represents the mean of 20 accumulated 100-pulse or of 100 single-pulse spectra.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Standard deviations for the temperature and the O2-concentration evaluation for 100 single-pulse spectra as function of temperature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the maximum peak intensities of several CARS approaches as a function of temperature. The dashed line indicates the desired value for acceptable precision and accuracy of CARS temperature measurements.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Relative Single-Shot Temperature Uncertainties for Several Experimental Approaches

Equations (1)

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I CARS     | χ CARS 3 | 2   I P 2 I S L 2 f Δ kL ,

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