Abstract

Tropospheric height profiles of five particle backscatter coefficients between 355 and 800 nm and particle extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm measured with a multiple-wavelength backscatter lidar and a dual-wavelength Raman lidar are presented. From these data microphysical particle parameters are determined by a specifically designed inversion algorithm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. V. Hobbs, B. J. Huebert, eds., “Atmospheric aerosols. A new focus of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC),” (IGAC Core Project Office, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).
  2. J. Heintzenberg, H.-F. Graf, R. J. Charlson, P. Warneck, “Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol—Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme?,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 261–271 (1996).
  3. D. Müller, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Multiple-wavelength aerosol lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
  4. D. Müller , “Inversionsalgorithmus zur Bestimmung physikalischer Partikeleigenschaften aus Mehrwellenlängen-Lidarmessungen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, 1997).
  5. J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, E. Thomalla, “Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1308–1315 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Qing, H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, S. Kitamura, “Numerical simulation of the retrieval of aerosol size distribution from multiwavelength laser radar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5259–5265 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error caused by using a constant extinction/backscatter ratio in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929–3932 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, New York, 1977).

1996 (1)

J. Heintzenberg, H.-F. Graf, R. J. Charlson, P. Warneck, “Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol—Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme?,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 261–271 (1996).

1993 (1)

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

1971 (1)

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

D. Müller, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Multiple-wavelength aerosol lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Multiple-wavelength aerosol lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

Arsenin, V. Y.

A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, New York, 1977).

Bösenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Charlson, R. J.

J. Heintzenberg, H.-F. Graf, R. J. Charlson, P. Warneck, “Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol—Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme?,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 261–271 (1996).

Elouragini, S.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Graf, H.-F.

J. Heintzenberg, H.-F. Graf, R. J. Charlson, P. Warneck, “Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol—Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme?,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 261–271 (1996).

Heintzenberg, J.

J. Heintzenberg, H.-F. Graf, R. J. Charlson, P. Warneck, “Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol—Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme?,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 261–271 (1996).

J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, E. Thomalla, “Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1308–1315 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ismail, S.

Kitamura, S.

Klapheck, K.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Menenger, L.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

D. Müller , “Inversionsalgorithmus zur Bestimmung physikalischer Partikeleigenschaften aus Mehrwellenlängen-Lidarmessungen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, 1997).

D. Müller, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Multiple-wavelength aerosol lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

Müller, H.

Nakane, H.

Qing, P.

Quenzel, H.

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Sassen, K.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Senff, C.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Thomalla, E.

Thro, P.-Y.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonov, A. N.

A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, New York, 1977).

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Multiple-wavelength aerosol lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

Warneck, P.

J. Heintzenberg, H.-F. Graf, R. J. Charlson, P. Warneck, “Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol—Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme?,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 261–271 (1996).

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Contrib. Atmos. Phys. (1)

J. Heintzenberg, H.-F. Graf, R. J. Charlson, P. Warneck, “Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol—Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme?,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 261–271 (1996).

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, New York, 1977).

D. Müller, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Multiple-wavelength aerosol lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

D. Müller , “Inversionsalgorithmus zur Bestimmung physikalischer Partikeleigenschaften aus Mehrwellenlängen-Lidarmessungen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, 1997).

P. V. Hobbs, B. J. Huebert, eds., “Atmospheric aerosols. A new focus of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC),” (IGAC Core Project Office, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vertical profiles of particle backscatter, particle extinction, humidity, and depolarization ratio. The measurements were taken at the Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany, 17 March 1997, between 21:47 and 22:47 local time. The five profiles of the particle backscatter coefficient were determined from the signals taken with the multiple-wavelength lidar; all the other profiles are from the measurements with the Raman lidar. The vertical resolution is 60 m. The symbols denote those data points that were used for the inversion algorithm. To reduce the statistical error the mean of two neighboring values had to be taken.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral behavior of backscatter and extinction at the three chosen heights for the measurements shown in Fig. 1. The error bars indicate the sum of statistical and systematic uncertainty.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Inversion Results for the Microphysical Particle Parameters at Three Heights

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