Abstract

By using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer, we evaluated photosensitivity in silica-based waveguides deposited by atmospheric pressure vapor deposition. Our results show that photosensitivity with ArF excimer laser irradiation was ten times greater than photosensitivity with KrF excimer laser irradiation. ArF excimer laser irradiation induced a refractive-index change of greater than 2 × 10-3 at 1.55 μm and a birefringence between TE and TM modes of less than 6 × 10-5. It has also been determined that the photoinduced absorption change of 90 dB/mm at 210 nm cannot account for a refractive-index change greater than 10-3.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, “All fiber narrow band reflection gratings at 1500 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26, 730–732 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, “UV written 1.5 μm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Optical frequency tuning by laser irradiation in silica-based Mach–Zehnder-type multi/demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640–642 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Hibino, Y. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Photoinduced refractive index changes in TiO2 doped silica optical waveguides on silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2294–2295 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Theriault, “Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunication fibre exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light,” Electron. Lett. 31, 879–880 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of Bragg gratings in sputter-deposited GeO2–SiO2 glasses by excimer-laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1360–1362 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, D. Moss, “Hollow cathode PECVD: a new versatile technique for growing UV-photosensitive germanosilica,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1997), pp. 44–47.
  12. N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01–250 nm,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 8, 1120–1127 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Hanada, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, S. Nakamura, “FDM/WDM couplers using silica waveguides deposited by APCVD,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 1, 1–4 (1997).
  14. J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an ArF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 387–389 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  15. M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, “Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the transmission, index of refraction, and density of ultraviolet grade fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276–1278 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Hanada, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, S. Nakamura, “FDM/WDM couplers using silica waveguides deposited by APCVD,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 1, 1–4 (1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Theriault, “Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunication fibre exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light,” Electron. Lett. 31, 879–880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, “UV written 1.5 μm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. Hibino, Y. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Photoinduced refractive index changes in TiO2 doped silica optical waveguides on silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2294–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Optical frequency tuning by laser irradiation in silica-based Mach–Zehnder-type multi/demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, “All fiber narrow band reflection gratings at 1500 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26, 730–732 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01–250 nm,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 8, 1120–1127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, “Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the transmission, index of refraction, and density of ultraviolet grade fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276–1278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

Abe, Y.

Y. Hibino, Y. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Photoinduced refractive index changes in TiO2 doped silica optical waveguides on silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2294–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, “UV written 1.5 μm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Armitage, J. R.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, “UV written 1.5 μm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, “All fiber narrow band reflection gratings at 1500 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26, 730–732 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bazylenko, M. V.

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, D. Moss, “Hollow cathode PECVD: a new versatile technique for growing UV-photosensitive germanosilica,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1997), pp. 44–47.

Bilodeau, F.

Davey, S. T.

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, “All fiber narrow band reflection gratings at 1500 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26, 730–732 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, D. J.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, “Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the transmission, index of refraction, and density of ultraviolet grade fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276–1278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Gross, M.

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, D. Moss, “Hollow cathode PECVD: a new versatile technique for growing UV-photosensitive germanosilica,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1997), pp. 44–47.

Hanada, T.

T. Hanada, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, S. Nakamura, “FDM/WDM couplers using silica waveguides deposited by APCVD,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 1, 1–4 (1997).

Hibino, Y.

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an ArF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 387–389 (1994).
[PubMed]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hibino, Y. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Photoinduced refractive index changes in TiO2 doped silica optical waveguides on silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2294–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Optical frequency tuning by laser irradiation in silica-based Mach–Zehnder-type multi/demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Theriault, “Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunication fibre exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light,” Electron. Lett. 31, 879–880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an ArF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 387–389 (1994).
[PubMed]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

Jinguji, K.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01–250 nm,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 8, 1120–1127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Theriault, “Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunication fibre exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light,” Electron. Lett. 31, 879–880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an ArF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 387–389 (1994).
[PubMed]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, “UV written 1.5 μm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, “All fiber narrow band reflection gratings at 1500 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26, 730–732 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, H.

Kitamura, M.

T. Hanada, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, S. Nakamura, “FDM/WDM couplers using silica waveguides deposited by APCVD,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 1, 1–4 (1997).

Kominato, T.

Y. Hibino, Y. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Photoinduced refractive index changes in TiO2 doped silica optical waveguides on silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2294–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01–250 nm,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 8, 1120–1127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Optical frequency tuning by laser irradiation in silica-based Mach–Zehnder-type multi/demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

Maxwell, G. D.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, “UV written 1.5 μm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

Moss, D.

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, D. Moss, “Hollow cathode PECVD: a new versatile technique for growing UV-photosensitive germanosilica,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1997), pp. 44–47.

Nakamura, S.

T. Hanada, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, S. Nakamura, “FDM/WDM couplers using silica waveguides deposited by APCVD,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 1, 1–4 (1997).

Nishii, J.

Ohmori, Y.

Y. Hibino, Y. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Photoinduced refractive index changes in TiO2 doped silica optical waveguides on silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2294–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Optical frequency tuning by laser irradiation in silica-based Mach–Zehnder-type multi/demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rothschild, M.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, “Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the transmission, index of refraction, and density of ultraviolet grade fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276–1278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shaver, D. C.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, “Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the transmission, index of refraction, and density of ultraviolet grade fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276–1278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, T.

T. Hanada, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, S. Nakamura, “FDM/WDM couplers using silica waveguides deposited by APCVD,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 1, 1–4 (1997).

Sugita, A.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01–250 nm,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 8, 1120–1127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01–250 nm,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 8, 1120–1127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Theriault, S.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Theriault, “Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunication fibre exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light,” Electron. Lett. 31, 879–880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01–250 nm,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 8, 1120–1127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, “UV written 1.5 μm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, “All fiber narrow band reflection gratings at 1500 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26, 730–732 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, “All fiber narrow band reflection gratings at 1500 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26, 730–732 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, “Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the transmission, index of refraction, and density of ultraviolet grade fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276–1278 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

Y. Hibino, Y. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Photoinduced refractive index changes in TiO2 doped silica optical waveguides on silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2294–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Theriault, “Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunication fibre exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light,” Electron. Lett. 31, 879–880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, “All fiber narrow band reflection gratings at 1500 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26, 730–732 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, “UV written 1.5 μm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. (1)

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01–250 nm,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 8, 1120–1127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, “Optical frequency tuning by laser irradiation in silica-based Mach–Zehnder-type multi/demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

T. Hanada, T. Shimoda, M. Kitamura, S. Nakamura, “FDM/WDM couplers using silica waveguides deposited by APCVD,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 1, 1–4 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, D. Moss, “Hollow cathode PECVD: a new versatile technique for growing UV-photosensitive germanosilica,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1997), pp. 44–47.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup that was used to induce the refractive-index change of a part of a Mach–Zehnder-type FDM. A part of the 2-mm long arm was irradiated with ArF and KrF excimer lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra for the high-Ge FDM before and after ArF excimer laser irradiation of 104 shots. The exposure density was 80 mJ/cm2 at 20 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoinduced refractive-index change as a function of shot number with ArF and KrF excimer laser irradiation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photoinduced refractive-index change versus ArF exposure density.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photoinduced birefringence for the low-Ge FDM as a function of photoinduced refractive-index change.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption spectra in the codoped GPSG films with 3 mol.% of Ge before and after ArF excimer laser irradiation.

Equations (1)

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Δ n = Δ λ λ / FSR / Δ L ,

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