Abstract

We present a novel method of characterizing urban aerosols that combines scanning-electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and lidar measurements. Inversion algorithms, based on fractal aerosol models, allowed us to compute the scattering coefficients of the measured size distribution. The α and β coefficients were used to invert lidar data, yielding what to our knowledge are the first quantitative three-dimensional measurements of the aerosol mass concentrations in urban conditions. The combined method was used during an extensive experiment in Lyon in the summer of 1996. Size distributions exhibit two main modes, at 0.1 and 0.9 μm, the composition of which was determined by x-ray microanalysis. The first mode is soot, and the second is composed of 60% coarse soot particles and 40% silica particles. Lidar measurements showed a homogeneous aerosol concentration within the mixing layer and a steep gradient above. Measurements made over 24 h also showed loads that were due to traffic rush hours and the dynamics of the height of the planetary boundary layer.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1994 (2)

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J. P. Wolf, “Derivation of Mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength lidar,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5690–5697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

1991 (1)

1986 (3)

M. V. Berry, I. C. Percival, “Optics of fractal aggregates such as smoke,” Opt. Acta 33, 577–591 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Freltoft, J. K. Kjems, S. K. Sinha, “Power-law correlation and finite-size effects in silica particle aggregates studied by small-angle neutron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 269–275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Dietler, C. Aubert, D. S. Cannell, P. Wiltzius, “Gelatin of colloidal silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 3117–3120 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

Ansmann, A.

Aubert, C.

G. Dietler, C. Aubert, D. S. Cannell, P. Wiltzius, “Gelatin of colloidal silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 3117–3120 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, I. C. Percival, “Optics of fractal aggregates such as smoke,” Opt. Acta 33, 577–591 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bonneton, O.

J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, E. Frejafon, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, O. Bonneton, J.-P. Wolf, “New apparatus for simultaneous measurement of extinction and backscattering coefficients of single levitated aerosol particles,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Boutou, V.

J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, E. Frejafon, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, O. Bonneton, J.-P. Wolf, “New apparatus for simultaneous measurement of extinction and backscattering coefficients of single levitated aerosol particles,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Cai, J.

Campillo, A. J.

Cannell, D. S.

G. Dietler, C. Aubert, D. S. Cannell, P. Wiltzius, “Gelatin of colloidal silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 3117–3120 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castagnoli, F.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, R.

Cherbakov, V.

B. Mielke, V. Cherbakov, B. Stein, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, “Error analysis of restoring stratospheric aerosol parameters from single frequency lidar sounding,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing, A. Kohnle, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE1688, 212–216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

del Guasta, M.

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J. P. Wolf, “Derivation of Mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength lidar,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5690–5697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Dietler, G.

G. Dietler, C. Aubert, D. S. Cannell, P. Wiltzius, “Gelatin of colloidal silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 3117–3120 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douard, M.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Egan, W. G.

Elminyawi, I.

Eversole, J. D.

Frejafon, E.

J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, E. Frejafon, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, O. Bonneton, J.-P. Wolf, “New apparatus for simultaneous measurement of extinction and backscattering coefficients of single levitated aerosol particles,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Freltoft, T.

T. Freltoft, J. K. Kjems, S. K. Sinha, “Power-law correlation and finite-size effects in silica particle aggregates studied by small-angle neutron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 269–275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, W. H.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, “Stratospheric aerosol model size distributions derived from multiwavelength lidar observations,” presented at the 14th International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 1988.

Gangopadhyay, S.

Hare, J.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. C. Knight, V. Saandoghar, D. S. Weiss, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery modes in silica microspheres for cavity-QED experiments,” in Advances in Applied Physics, R. K. Chang, A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Vol. 3.

Haroche, S.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. C. Knight, V. Saandoghar, D. S. Weiss, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery modes in silica microspheres for cavity-QED experiments,” in Advances in Applied Physics, R. K. Chang, A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Vol. 3.

Hilgeman, T.

Huston, A. L.

Immler, F.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, E. Frejafon, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, O. Bonneton, J.-P. Wolf, “New apparatus for simultaneous measurement of extinction and backscattering coefficients of single levitated aerosol particles,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Kjems, J. K.

T. Freltoft, J. K. Kjems, S. K. Sinha, “Power-law correlation and finite-size effects in silica particle aggregates studied by small-angle neutron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 269–275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

Kneipp, H.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. C. Knight, V. Saandoghar, D. S. Weiss, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery modes in silica microspheres for cavity-QED experiments,” in Advances in Applied Physics, R. K. Chang, A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Vol. 3.

Kolenda, J.

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Mielke, V. Cherbakov, B. Stein, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, “Error analysis of restoring stratospheric aerosol parameters from single frequency lidar sounding,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing, A. Kohnle, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE1688, 212–216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kyrö, E.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. C. Knight, V. Saandoghar, D. S. Weiss, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery modes in silica microspheres for cavity-QED experiments,” in Advances in Applied Physics, R. K. Chang, A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Vol. 3.

Leung, P. T.

Lin, H.-B.

Liu, S. Y.

Lu, N.

Masci, F.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Matthey, R.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

McCormick, M. P.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, “Stratospheric aerosol model size distributions derived from multiwavelength lidar observations,” presented at the 14th International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 1988.

Michaelis, W.

Mielke, B.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

B. Mielke, V. Cherbakov, B. Stein, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, “Error analysis of restoring stratospheric aerosol parameters from single frequency lidar sounding,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing, A. Kohnle, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE1688, 212–216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Mondelain, D.

J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, E. Frejafon, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, O. Bonneton, J.-P. Wolf, “New apparatus for simultaneous measurement of extinction and backscattering coefficients of single levitated aerosol particles,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Morandi, M.

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J. P. Wolf, “Derivation of Mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength lidar,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5690–5697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Müller, H.

Osborn, M. T.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, “Stratospheric aerosol model size distributions derived from multiwavelength lidar observations,” presented at the 14th International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 1988.

Percival, I. C.

M. V. Berry, I. C. Percival, “Optics of fractal aggregates such as smoke,” Opt. Acta 33, 577–591 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

Quenzel, H.

Raimond, J.-M.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. C. Knight, V. Saandoghar, D. S. Weiss, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery modes in silica microspheres for cavity-QED experiments,” in Advances in Applied Physics, R. K. Chang, A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Vol. 3.

Rairoux, P.

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Mielke, V. Cherbakov, B. Stein, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, “Error analysis of restoring stratospheric aerosol parameters from single frequency lidar sounding,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing, A. Kohnle, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE1688, 212–216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Ramaswamy, V.

Riebesell, M.

Rizi, V.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Saandoghar, V.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. C. Knight, V. Saandoghar, D. S. Weiss, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery modes in silica microspheres for cavity-QED experiments,” in Advances in Applied Physics, R. K. Chang, A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Vol. 3.

Sacco, V. M.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, S. K.

T. Freltoft, J. K. Kjems, S. K. Sinha, “Power-law correlation and finite-size effects in silica particle aggregates studied by small-angle neutron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 269–275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, C.

Sorensen, C. M.

Stefanutti, L.

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J. P. Wolf, “Derivation of Mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength lidar,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5690–5697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Stein, B.

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J. P. Wolf, “Derivation of Mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength lidar,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5690–5697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

B. Mielke, V. Cherbakov, B. Stein, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, “Error analysis of restoring stratospheric aerosol parameters from single frequency lidar sounding,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing, A. Kohnle, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE1688, 212–216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Venturi, V.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vezin, B.

J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, E. Frejafon, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, O. Bonneton, J.-P. Wolf, “New apparatus for simultaneous measurement of extinction and backscattering coefficients of single levitated aerosol particles,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Wandinger, U.

Wang, P.-H.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, “Stratospheric aerosol model size distributions derived from multiwavelength lidar observations,” presented at the 14th International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 1988.

Wedekind, C.

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Weidauer, D.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, D. S.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. C. Knight, V. Saandoghar, D. S. Weiss, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery modes in silica microspheres for cavity-QED experiments,” in Advances in Applied Physics, R. K. Chang, A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Vol. 3.

Weitkamp, C.

Wiltzius, P.

G. Dietler, C. Aubert, D. S. Cannell, P. Wiltzius, “Gelatin of colloidal silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 3117–3120 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J. P.

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J. P. Wolf, “Derivation of Mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength lidar,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5690–5697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

B. Mielke, V. Cherbakov, B. Stein, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, “Error analysis of restoring stratospheric aerosol parameters from single frequency lidar sounding,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing, A. Kohnle, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE1688, 212–216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, E. Frejafon, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, O. Bonneton, J.-P. Wolf, “New apparatus for simultaneous measurement of extinction and backscattering coefficients of single levitated aerosol particles,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Wöste, L.

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

Young, K.

Zuccagnoli, L.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gangopadhyay, I. Elminyawi, C. Sorensen “Optical structure factor measurements of soot particles in a premixed flame,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4859–4864 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J. P. Wolf, “Derivation of Mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength lidar,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5690–5697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, R. Cheng, R. G. Pinnick, “Optical properties and mass concentration of carbocaceous smokes,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2980–2985 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Müller, H. Quenzel, “Information content of multispectral lidar measurement with respect to the aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 648–654 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Sorensen, J. Cai, N. Lu, “Light-scattering measurements of monomer size, monomers per aggregate, and fractal dimension for soot aggregates in flames,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6547–6557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Egan, T. Hilgeman, “Anomalous refractive index of submicron-sized particulates,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3724–3727 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

B. Stein, M. del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Acta (1)

M. V. Berry, I. C. Percival, “Optics of fractal aggregates such as smoke,” Opt. Acta 33, 577–591 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Freltoft, J. K. Kjems, S. K. Sinha, “Power-law correlation and finite-size effects in silica particle aggregates studied by small-angle neutron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 269–275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Dietler, C. Aubert, D. S. Cannell, P. Wiltzius, “Gelatin of colloidal silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 3117–3120 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1996).

B. Mielke, V. Cherbakov, B. Stein, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, “Error analysis of restoring stratospheric aerosol parameters from single frequency lidar sounding,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing, A. Kohnle, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE1688, 212–216 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wedekind, F. Immler, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, L. Wöste, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, F. Masci, V. Rizi, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, E. Kyrö, “Lidar observations of liquid and solid PSC at Sodankyla,” in 3rd Symposium on Polar Stratospheric Ozone, (Schliersee, Germany, 1995), Vol. 21, p. 1339.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, “Stratospheric aerosol model size distributions derived from multiwavelength lidar observations,” presented at the 14th International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 1988.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. C. Knight, V. Saandoghar, D. S. Weiss, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering-gallery modes in silica microspheres for cavity-QED experiments,” in Advances in Applied Physics, R. K. Chang, A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), Vol. 3.

J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, E. Frejafon, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, O. Bonneton, J.-P. Wolf, “New apparatus for simultaneous measurement of extinction and backscattering coefficients of single levitated aerosol particles,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical SEM images with (a) 1000× and (b) 10,000× magnification of impacted filters. Three types of particle can be seen: aggregates, smooth particles, and crystals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray microanalysis spectra of (a) rough and (b) smooth particles captured on the filters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative number, surface, and mass density of urban aerosols as determined from counting on stationary sampling filters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Size dependence of the absorption and backscattering efficiencies of fractal soot particles with D = 1.75 and a = 30 nm at 399 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Size dependence of the extinction and backscattering efficiencies of aggregates of (a) fractal soot particles and (b) silica particles at 399 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Size dependence of the extinction and backscattering efficiencies of typical urban aerosol at 399 nm. The global value of α/β over the whole size distribution is 43 sr.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-dimensional vertical map of aerosol concentration (μg/m3) over Lyon in summer 1996.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertical profiles obtained in three directions, displaying the homogenity of the mixing layer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal evolution of the aerosol concentration (μg/m3), clearly exhibiting traffic rush-hour effects.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison between lidar data at 80 m and spot measurements at ground level.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ abs fractal σ ext fractal = - 4 Nk π a 3   Im m 2 - 1 m 2 + 2 ,
d σ diff fractal θ d Ω = N 2 S x k 4 a 6 m 2 - 1 m 2 + 2 2 ,
S x = 1 + 2 x 2 3 D - D / 2 ,
x = 4 π λ R g sin θ / 2 = 2 kR g sin θ / 2 .
m = 1 + ϕ + ϕ i .

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