Abstract

We describe the use of microlenses as amplification for CCD-based detection devices. The possible amplification of a signal in a reaction chamber of a nanoplate is estimated with a first-order approximation. This value was proved with a commercially available microlens and with a specially constructed microlens array made of glass hemispheres. Possible applications of this approach to amplification are given.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  5. A. L. Belostotsky, A. S. Leonov, “Design of aplanatic waveguide Fresnel lenses and aberration-free planar optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 1314–1319 (1993).
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  6. D. J. Arndt-Jovin, M. Robert-Nicoud, S. J. Kaufman, T. M. Jovin, “Fluorescent digital imaging microscopy in cell biology,” Science 230, 247–256 (1985).
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  7. Y. Hiraoka, D. A. Agard, J. W. Sedat, “The use of charge coupled devices for quantitative optical microscopy of biological structures,” Science 231, 36–41 (1987).
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  20. R. N. Waterhouse, L. N. Glover, “CCD monitoring of bioluminescence during the induction of cell wall-deficient, l-form state of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19, 88–91 (1994).
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  25. A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270, 467–470 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. A. Gallop, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, E. M. Gordon, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 1. Background and peptide combinatorial libraries,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1233–1251 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. E. M. Gordon, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, M. A. Gallop, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 2. Combinatorial organic synthesis, library screening strategies and future directions,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1385–1401 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Eigen, R. Rigler, “Sorting single molecules: application to diagnostics and evolutionary biotechnology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5740–5747 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. E. Koppel, F. Morgan, A. E. Cowan, J. H. Carson, “Scanning concentration correlation spectroscopy using the confocal laser microscope,” Biophys. J. 66, 502–507 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1996

I. M. Warner, St. A. Soper, L. B. McGown, “Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 68, 73R–91R (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Köhler, R. Pochmann, A. Schaper, A. Schober, Th. M. Jovin, A. Schwienhorst, “Micromechanical elements for detection of molecules and molecular design,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 202–208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270, 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Singer, M. Testorf, K. H. Brenner, “Gradient-index microlenses: numerical investigation of different spherical index profiles with the wave propagation method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2165–2171 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Engelhardt, K. Knop, “Passive focus sensor,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2339–2344 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kubota, H. Kusuzawa, T. Kosaka, H. Nakamoto, “Flow cytometer and imaging device used in combination,” Cytometry 21, 129–132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. R. Faruqui, H. N. Andrews, C. Raeburn, “A large cooled-CCD detector for electron microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 348, 659–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ambroz, A. J. MacRobert, J. Morgan, G. Rumbles, M. S. C. Foley, D. Philipps, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and intracellular imaging of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 22, 105–117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Maier, H. R. Crollius, H. Lehrach, “Hybridization techniques on gridded high density DNA and in situ colony filters based on fluorescence detection,” Nucl. Acids Res. 22, 3423–3424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Waterhouse, L. N. Glover, “CCD monitoring of bioluminescence during the induction of cell wall-deficient, l-form state of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19, 88–91 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gallop, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, E. M. Gordon, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 1. Background and peptide combinatorial libraries,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1233–1251 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gordon, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, M. A. Gallop, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 2. Combinatorial organic synthesis, library screening strategies and future directions,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1385–1401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eigen, R. Rigler, “Sorting single molecules: application to diagnostics and evolutionary biotechnology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5740–5747 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Koppel, F. Morgan, A. E. Cowan, J. H. Carson, “Scanning concentration correlation spectroscopy using the confocal laser microscope,” Biophys. J. 66, 502–507 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. Tsi, E. Marom, J. Katz, J. Swartz, “System analysis of CCD-based bar code reader,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3504–3512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Steinkamp, T. M. Joshida, J. C. Martin, “Flow cytometer for resolving signals from heterogeneous fluorescence emissions and quantifying life time in fluorochrome-labeled cells/particles by phase-sensitive detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64 12, 3440–3450 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Earle, M. E. Baker, M. B. Denton, R. S. Pomeroy, “Imaging applications for chemical analysis utilizing charge coupled device array detectors,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 12, 395–403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Highett, D. J. Rawlins, P. J. Shaw, “Different patterns of rDNA distribution in Pisum sativum nuclei correlate with different levels of nucleor activity,” J. Cell Sci. 104, 843–852 (1993).

Ch. Nicholson, L. Tao, “Hindered diffusion of high molecular weight compounds in brain extracellular microenvironment measured with integrative optical imaging,” Biophys. J. 65, 2277–2290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Herr, Th. Bastian, R. Pepperkok, Ch. Boulin, W. Ansorge, “A fully automated image acquisition and analysis system for low light level fluorescence microscopy,” Methods Mol. Cell. Biol. 4, 164–170 (1993).

A. L. Belostotsky, A. S. Leonov, “Design of aplanatic waveguide Fresnel lenses and aberration-free planar optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 1314–1319 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, T. Kishimoto, “Multiple imaging and Fourier transformation using planar microlenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4064–4070 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. H. White, J. Morse, Z. A. M. Boniszewski, C. R. Mundy, M. A. W. Brady, D. J. Chriswell, “Imaging of firefly luciferase in single mammalian cells using high sensitive charge coupled device cameras,” Technique 2, 194–201 (1990).

1988

J. V. Sweedler, R. B. Bilhorn, P. M. Epperson, G. R. Sims, M. B. Denton, “High performance charge transfer devices,” Anal. Chem. A 40, 282–291 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

Y. Hiraoka, D. A. Agard, J. W. Sedat, “The use of charge coupled devices for quantitative optical microscopy of biological structures,” Science 231, 36–41 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. J. Arndt-Jovin, M. Robert-Nicoud, S. J. Kaufman, T. M. Jovin, “Fluorescent digital imaging microscopy in cell biology,” Science 230, 247–256 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agard, D. A.

Y. Hiraoka, D. A. Agard, J. W. Sedat, “The use of charge coupled devices for quantitative optical microscopy of biological structures,” Science 231, 36–41 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ambroz, M.

M. Ambroz, A. J. MacRobert, J. Morgan, G. Rumbles, M. S. C. Foley, D. Philipps, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and intracellular imaging of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 22, 105–117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, H. N.

A. R. Faruqui, H. N. Andrews, C. Raeburn, “A large cooled-CCD detector for electron microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 348, 659–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ansorge, W.

S. Herr, Th. Bastian, R. Pepperkok, Ch. Boulin, W. Ansorge, “A fully automated image acquisition and analysis system for low light level fluorescence microscopy,” Methods Mol. Cell. Biol. 4, 164–170 (1993).

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

D. J. Arndt-Jovin, M. Robert-Nicoud, S. J. Kaufman, T. M. Jovin, “Fluorescent digital imaging microscopy in cell biology,” Science 230, 247–256 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, M. E.

C. W. Earle, M. E. Baker, M. B. Denton, R. S. Pomeroy, “Imaging applications for chemical analysis utilizing charge coupled device array detectors,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 12, 395–403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, R. W.

M. A. Gallop, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, E. M. Gordon, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 1. Background and peptide combinatorial libraries,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1233–1251 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gordon, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, M. A. Gallop, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 2. Combinatorial organic synthesis, library screening strategies and future directions,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1385–1401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastian, Th.

S. Herr, Th. Bastian, R. Pepperkok, Ch. Boulin, W. Ansorge, “A fully automated image acquisition and analysis system for low light level fluorescence microscopy,” Methods Mol. Cell. Biol. 4, 164–170 (1993).

Belostotsky, A. L.

A. L. Belostotsky, A. S. Leonov, “Design of aplanatic waveguide Fresnel lenses and aberration-free planar optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 1314–1319 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bilhorn, R. B.

J. V. Sweedler, R. B. Bilhorn, P. M. Epperson, G. R. Sims, M. B. Denton, “High performance charge transfer devices,” Anal. Chem. A 40, 282–291 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boniszewski, Z. A. M.

M. R. H. White, J. Morse, Z. A. M. Boniszewski, C. R. Mundy, M. A. W. Brady, D. J. Chriswell, “Imaging of firefly luciferase in single mammalian cells using high sensitive charge coupled device cameras,” Technique 2, 194–201 (1990).

Boulin, Ch.

S. Herr, Th. Bastian, R. Pepperkok, Ch. Boulin, W. Ansorge, “A fully automated image acquisition and analysis system for low light level fluorescence microscopy,” Methods Mol. Cell. Biol. 4, 164–170 (1993).

Brady, M. A. W.

M. R. H. White, J. Morse, Z. A. M. Boniszewski, C. R. Mundy, M. A. W. Brady, D. J. Chriswell, “Imaging of firefly luciferase in single mammalian cells using high sensitive charge coupled device cameras,” Technique 2, 194–201 (1990).

Brenner, K. H.

Brown, P. O.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270, 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carson, J. H.

D. E. Koppel, F. Morgan, A. E. Cowan, J. H. Carson, “Scanning concentration correlation spectroscopy using the confocal laser microscope,” Biophys. J. 66, 502–507 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chriswell, D. J.

M. R. H. White, J. Morse, Z. A. M. Boniszewski, C. R. Mundy, M. A. W. Brady, D. J. Chriswell, “Imaging of firefly luciferase in single mammalian cells using high sensitive charge coupled device cameras,” Technique 2, 194–201 (1990).

Cowan, A. E.

D. E. Koppel, F. Morgan, A. E. Cowan, J. H. Carson, “Scanning concentration correlation spectroscopy using the confocal laser microscope,” Biophys. J. 66, 502–507 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cremer, Th.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crollius, H. R.

E. Maier, H. R. Crollius, H. Lehrach, “Hybridization techniques on gridded high density DNA and in situ colony filters based on fluorescence detection,” Nucl. Acids Res. 22, 3423–3424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D’Urso, M.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. W.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270, 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denton, M. B.

C. W. Earle, M. E. Baker, M. B. Denton, R. S. Pomeroy, “Imaging applications for chemical analysis utilizing charge coupled device array detectors,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 12, 395–403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Sweedler, R. B. Bilhorn, P. M. Epperson, G. R. Sims, M. B. Denton, “High performance charge transfer devices,” Anal. Chem. A 40, 282–291 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Donis-Keller, H.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Döring, M.

A. Schober, J. M. Köhler, R. Günther, M. Thürk, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Eigen, M. Döring, “Parallele Führung von Reaktionen,” German patent applicationPCT/EP 94/02173 (2July1993).

Dower, W. J.

M. A. Gallop, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, E. M. Gordon, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 1. Background and peptide combinatorial libraries,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1233–1251 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gordon, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, M. A. Gallop, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 2. Combinatorial organic synthesis, library screening strategies and future directions,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1385–1401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Earle, C. W.

C. W. Earle, M. E. Baker, M. B. Denton, R. S. Pomeroy, “Imaging applications for chemical analysis utilizing charge coupled device array detectors,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 12, 395–403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eccles, P.

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eigen, M.

M. Eigen, R. Rigler, “Sorting single molecules: application to diagnostics and evolutionary biotechnology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5740–5747 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schober, J. M. Köhler, R. Günther, M. Thürk, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Eigen, M. Döring, “Parallele Führung von Reaktionen,” German patent applicationPCT/EP 94/02173 (2July1993).

Engelhardt, K.

Epperson, P. M.

J. V. Sweedler, R. B. Bilhorn, P. M. Epperson, G. R. Sims, M. B. Denton, “High performance charge transfer devices,” Anal. Chem. A 40, 282–291 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Faruqui, A. R.

A. R. Faruqui, H. N. Andrews, C. Raeburn, “A large cooled-CCD detector for electron microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 348, 659–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fodor, St. P. A.

E. M. Gordon, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, M. A. Gallop, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 2. Combinatorial organic synthesis, library screening strategies and future directions,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1385–1401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gallop, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, E. M. Gordon, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 1. Background and peptide combinatorial libraries,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1233–1251 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foley, M. S. C.

M. Ambroz, A. J. MacRobert, J. Morgan, G. Rumbles, M. S. C. Foley, D. Philipps, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and intracellular imaging of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 22, 105–117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, M.

A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gallop, M. A.

E. M. Gordon, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, M. A. Gallop, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 2. Combinatorial organic synthesis, library screening strategies and future directions,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1385–1401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gallop, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, E. M. Gordon, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 1. Background and peptide combinatorial libraries,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1233–1251 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glover, L. N.

R. N. Waterhouse, L. N. Glover, “CCD monitoring of bioluminescence during the induction of cell wall-deficient, l-form state of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19, 88–91 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, E. M.

M. A. Gallop, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, E. M. Gordon, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 1. Background and peptide combinatorial libraries,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1233–1251 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gordon, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, M. A. Gallop, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 2. Combinatorial organic synthesis, library screening strategies and future directions,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1385–1401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günther, R.

A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Schober, J. M. Köhler, R. Günther, M. Thürk, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Eigen, M. Döring, “Parallele Führung von Reaktionen,” German patent applicationPCT/EP 94/02173 (2July1993).

Hamanaka, K.

Hayes, St. J.

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herr, S.

S. Herr, Th. Bastian, R. Pepperkok, Ch. Boulin, W. Ansorge, “A fully automated image acquisition and analysis system for low light level fluorescence microscopy,” Methods Mol. Cell. Biol. 4, 164–170 (1993).

Highett, M. I.

M. I. Highett, D. J. Rawlins, P. J. Shaw, “Different patterns of rDNA distribution in Pisum sativum nuclei correlate with different levels of nucleor activity,” J. Cell Sci. 104, 843–852 (1993).

Hinchliffe, St. A.

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hiraoka, Y.

Y. Hiraoka, D. A. Agard, J. W. Sedat, “The use of charge coupled devices for quantitative optical microscopy of biological structures,” Science 231, 36–41 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jauch, A.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Joshida, T. M.

J. A. Steinkamp, T. M. Joshida, J. C. Martin, “Flow cytometer for resolving signals from heterogeneous fluorescence emissions and quantifying life time in fluorochrome-labeled cells/particles by phase-sensitive detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64 12, 3440–3450 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T. M.

D. J. Arndt-Jovin, M. Robert-Nicoud, S. J. Kaufman, T. M. Jovin, “Fluorescent digital imaging microscopy in cell biology,” Science 230, 247–256 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jovin, Th. M.

J. M. Köhler, R. Pochmann, A. Schaper, A. Schober, Th. M. Jovin, A. Schwienhorst, “Micromechanical elements for detection of molecules and molecular design,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 202–208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaschula, R. O. C.

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Katz, J.

Kaufman, S. J.

D. J. Arndt-Jovin, M. Robert-Nicoud, S. J. Kaufman, T. M. Jovin, “Fluorescent digital imaging microscopy in cell biology,” Science 230, 247–256 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khine, M. M.

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, T.

Knop, K.

Köhler, J. M.

J. M. Köhler, R. Pochmann, A. Schaper, A. Schober, Th. M. Jovin, A. Schwienhorst, “Micromechanical elements for detection of molecules and molecular design,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 202–208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Köhler, G. Mayer, Th. Schulz, A. Schober, “Chip elements for combinatorial chemistry, fluid processing and PCR,” in 5th International Conference on Micro-system Technologies, H. Reichl, A. Heuberger, eds. (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 693–698.

A. Schober, J. M. Köhler, R. Günther, M. Thürk, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Eigen, M. Döring, “Parallele Führung von Reaktionen,” German patent applicationPCT/EP 94/02173 (2July1993).

A. Schober, J. M. Köhler, R. Günther, M. Thürk, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Eigen, M. Döring, “Parallele Führung von Reaktionen,” German patent applicationPCT/EP 94/02173 (2July1993).

Koppel, D. E.

D. E. Koppel, F. Morgan, A. E. Cowan, J. H. Carson, “Scanning concentration correlation spectroscopy using the confocal laser microscope,” Biophys. J. 66, 502–507 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosaka, T.

F. Kubota, H. Kusuzawa, T. Kosaka, H. Nakamoto, “Flow cytometer and imaging device used in combination,” Cytometry 21, 129–132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubota, F.

F. Kubota, H. Kusuzawa, T. Kosaka, H. Nakamoto, “Flow cytometer and imaging device used in combination,” Cytometry 21, 129–132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusuzawa, H.

F. Kubota, H. Kusuzawa, T. Kosaka, H. Nakamoto, “Flow cytometer and imaging device used in combination,” Cytometry 21, 129–132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehrach, H.

E. Maier, H. R. Crollius, H. Lehrach, “Hybridization techniques on gridded high density DNA and in situ colony filters based on fluorescence detection,” Nucl. Acids Res. 22, 3423–3424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lengauer, Ch.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leonov, A. S.

A. L. Belostotsky, A. S. Leonov, “Design of aplanatic waveguide Fresnel lenses and aberration-free planar optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 1314–1319 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacRobert, A. J.

M. Ambroz, A. J. MacRobert, J. Morgan, G. Rumbles, M. S. C. Foley, D. Philipps, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and intracellular imaging of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 22, 105–117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, E.

E. Maier, H. R. Crollius, H. Lehrach, “Hybridization techniques on gridded high density DNA and in situ colony filters based on fluorescence detection,” Nucl. Acids Res. 22, 3423–3424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Martin, J. C.

J. A. Steinkamp, T. M. Joshida, J. C. Martin, “Flow cytometer for resolving signals from heterogeneous fluorescence emissions and quantifying life time in fluorochrome-labeled cells/particles by phase-sensitive detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64 12, 3440–3450 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, G.

J. M. Köhler, G. Mayer, Th. Schulz, A. Schober, “Chip elements for combinatorial chemistry, fluid processing and PCR,” in 5th International Conference on Micro-system Technologies, H. Reichl, A. Heuberger, eds. (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 693–698.

McGown, L. B.

I. M. Warner, St. A. Soper, L. B. McGown, “Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 68, 73R–91R (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, F.

D. E. Koppel, F. Morgan, A. E. Cowan, J. H. Carson, “Scanning concentration correlation spectroscopy using the confocal laser microscope,” Biophys. J. 66, 502–507 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, J.

M. Ambroz, A. J. MacRobert, J. Morgan, G. Rumbles, M. S. C. Foley, D. Philipps, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and intracellular imaging of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 22, 105–117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, J.

M. R. H. White, J. Morse, Z. A. M. Boniszewski, C. R. Mundy, M. A. W. Brady, D. J. Chriswell, “Imaging of firefly luciferase in single mammalian cells using high sensitive charge coupled device cameras,” Technique 2, 194–201 (1990).

Mundy, C. R.

M. R. H. White, J. Morse, Z. A. M. Boniszewski, C. R. Mundy, M. A. W. Brady, D. J. Chriswell, “Imaging of firefly luciferase in single mammalian cells using high sensitive charge coupled device cameras,” Technique 2, 194–201 (1990).

Nagaraja, R.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakamoto, H.

F. Kubota, H. Kusuzawa, T. Kosaka, H. Nakamoto, “Flow cytometer and imaging device used in combination,” Cytometry 21, 129–132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemoto, H.

Nicholson, Ch.

Ch. Nicholson, L. Tao, “Hindered diffusion of high molecular weight compounds in brain extracellular microenvironment measured with integrative optical imaging,” Biophys. J. 65, 2277–2290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohguchi, O.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawanda, “Efficient coupling device between a laser diode integrated with a microlens and an optical fiber,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics 1993, P. Roth, ed. (Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 11.6–11.7.

Oikawa, M.

Okuda, E.

Pepperkok, R.

S. Herr, Th. Bastian, R. Pepperkok, Ch. Boulin, W. Ansorge, “A fully automated image acquisition and analysis system for low light level fluorescence microscopy,” Methods Mol. Cell. Biol. 4, 164–170 (1993).

Philipps, D.

M. Ambroz, A. J. MacRobert, J. Morgan, G. Rumbles, M. S. C. Foley, D. Philipps, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and intracellular imaging of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 22, 105–117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pochmann, R.

J. M. Köhler, R. Pochmann, A. Schaper, A. Schober, Th. M. Jovin, A. Schwienhorst, “Micromechanical elements for detection of molecules and molecular design,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 202–208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pomeroy, R. S.

C. W. Earle, M. E. Baker, M. B. Denton, R. S. Pomeroy, “Imaging applications for chemical analysis utilizing charge coupled device array detectors,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 12, 395–403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pope, J. D.

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Popp, S.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raeburn, C.

A. R. Faruqui, H. N. Andrews, C. Raeburn, “A large cooled-CCD detector for electron microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 348, 659–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rawlins, D. J.

M. I. Highett, D. J. Rawlins, P. J. Shaw, “Different patterns of rDNA distribution in Pisum sativum nuclei correlate with different levels of nucleor activity,” J. Cell Sci. 104, 843–852 (1993).

Riethman, H. C.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rigler, R.

M. Eigen, R. Rigler, “Sorting single molecules: application to diagnostics and evolutionary biotechnology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5740–5747 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert-Nicoud, M.

D. J. Arndt-Jovin, M. Robert-Nicoud, S. J. Kaufman, T. M. Jovin, “Fluorescent digital imaging microscopy in cell biology,” Science 230, 247–256 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rumbles, G.

M. Ambroz, A. J. MacRobert, J. Morgan, G. Rumbles, M. S. C. Foley, D. Philipps, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and intracellular imaging of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 22, 105–117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampedro, A.

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sawanda, R.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawanda, “Efficient coupling device between a laser diode integrated with a microlens and an optical fiber,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics 1993, P. Roth, ed. (Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 11.6–11.7.

Schaper, A.

J. M. Köhler, R. Pochmann, A. Schaper, A. Schober, Th. M. Jovin, A. Schwienhorst, “Micromechanical elements for detection of molecules and molecular design,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 202–208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270, 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlessinger, D.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schober, A.

A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Köhler, R. Pochmann, A. Schaper, A. Schober, Th. M. Jovin, A. Schwienhorst, “Micromechanical elements for detection of molecules and molecular design,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 202–208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Köhler, G. Mayer, Th. Schulz, A. Schober, “Chip elements for combinatorial chemistry, fluid processing and PCR,” in 5th International Conference on Micro-system Technologies, H. Reichl, A. Heuberger, eds. (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 693–698.

A. Schober, J. M. Köhler, R. Günther, M. Thürk, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Eigen, M. Döring, “Parallele Führung von Reaktionen,” German patent applicationPCT/EP 94/02173 (2July1993).

Schulz, Th.

J. M. Köhler, G. Mayer, Th. Schulz, A. Schober, “Chip elements for combinatorial chemistry, fluid processing and PCR,” in 5th International Conference on Micro-system Technologies, H. Reichl, A. Heuberger, eds. (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 693–698.

Schwienhorst, A.

J. M. Köhler, R. Pochmann, A. Schaper, A. Schober, Th. M. Jovin, A. Schwienhorst, “Micromechanical elements for detection of molecules and molecular design,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 202–208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Schober, J. M. Köhler, R. Günther, M. Thürk, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Eigen, M. Döring, “Parallele Führung von Reaktionen,” German patent applicationPCT/EP 94/02173 (2July1993).

Sedat, J. W.

Y. Hiraoka, D. A. Agard, J. W. Sedat, “The use of charge coupled devices for quantitative optical microscopy of biological structures,” Science 231, 36–41 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shalon, D.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270, 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, P. J.

M. I. Highett, D. J. Rawlins, P. J. Shaw, “Different patterns of rDNA distribution in Pisum sativum nuclei correlate with different levels of nucleor activity,” J. Cell Sci. 104, 843–852 (1993).

Shimada, J.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawanda, “Efficient coupling device between a laser diode integrated with a microlens and an optical fiber,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics 1993, P. Roth, ed. (Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 11.6–11.7.

Sims, G. R.

J. V. Sweedler, R. B. Bilhorn, P. M. Epperson, G. R. Sims, M. B. Denton, “High performance charge transfer devices,” Anal. Chem. A 40, 282–291 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Singer, W.

Soper, St. A.

I. M. Warner, St. A. Soper, L. B. McGown, “Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 68, 73R–91R (1996).
[CrossRef]

Speicher, R. M.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steinkamp, J. A.

J. A. Steinkamp, T. M. Joshida, J. C. Martin, “Flow cytometer for resolving signals from heterogeneous fluorescence emissions and quantifying life time in fluorochrome-labeled cells/particles by phase-sensitive detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64 12, 3440–3450 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swartz, J.

Sweedler, J. V.

J. V. Sweedler, R. B. Bilhorn, P. M. Epperson, G. R. Sims, M. B. Denton, “High performance charge transfer devices,” Anal. Chem. A 40, 282–291 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Taniwaki, M.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tao, L.

Ch. Nicholson, L. Tao, “Hindered diffusion of high molecular weight compounds in brain extracellular microenvironment measured with integrative optical imaging,” Biophys. J. 65, 2277–2290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testorf, M.

Thürk, M.

A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Schober, J. M. Köhler, R. Günther, M. Thürk, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Eigen, M. Döring, “Parallele Führung von Reaktionen,” German patent applicationPCT/EP 94/02173 (2July1993).

Tsi, D.

van Velzen, D.

St. J. Hayes, St. A. Hinchliffe, J. D. Pope, P. Eccles, M. M. Khine, R. O. C. Kaschula, A. Sampedro, D. van Velzen, “Ploidy analysis on Wilms tumor touch imprints using ethidium bromide and automated image analysis integrated confocal scanning microscopy,” Virchows Arch. 427, 101–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Warner, I. M.

I. M. Warner, St. A. Soper, L. B. McGown, “Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 68, 73R–91R (1996).
[CrossRef]

Waterhouse, R. N.

R. N. Waterhouse, L. N. Glover, “CCD monitoring of bioluminescence during the induction of cell wall-deficient, l-form state of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19, 88–91 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, M. R. H.

M. R. H. White, J. Morse, Z. A. M. Boniszewski, C. R. Mundy, M. A. W. Brady, D. J. Chriswell, “Imaging of firefly luciferase in single mammalian cells using high sensitive charge coupled device cameras,” Technique 2, 194–201 (1990).

Anal. Chem.

I. M. Warner, St. A. Soper, L. B. McGown, “Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 68, 73R–91R (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. A

J. V. Sweedler, R. B. Bilhorn, P. M. Epperson, G. R. Sims, M. B. Denton, “High performance charge transfer devices,” Anal. Chem. A 40, 282–291 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

Ch. Nicholson, L. Tao, “Hindered diffusion of high molecular weight compounds in brain extracellular microenvironment measured with integrative optical imaging,” Biophys. J. 65, 2277–2290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

D. E. Koppel, F. Morgan, A. E. Cowan, J. H. Carson, “Scanning concentration correlation spectroscopy using the confocal laser microscope,” Biophys. J. 66, 502–507 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry

F. Kubota, H. Kusuzawa, T. Kosaka, H. Nakamoto, “Flow cytometer and imaging device used in combination,” Cytometry 21, 129–132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Human Molec. Genet.

Ch. Lengauer, R. M. Speicher, S. Popp, A. Jauch, M. Taniwaki, R. Nagaraja, H. C. Riethman, H. Donis-Keller, M. D’Urso, D. Schlessinger, Th. Cremer, “Chromosomal bar codes produced by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones and whole chromosome painting probes,” Human Molec. Genet. 2, 505–512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell Sci.

M. I. Highett, D. J. Rawlins, P. J. Shaw, “Different patterns of rDNA distribution in Pisum sativum nuclei correlate with different levels of nucleor activity,” J. Cell Sci. 104, 843–852 (1993).

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. L. Belostotsky, A. S. Leonov, “Design of aplanatic waveguide Fresnel lenses and aberration-free planar optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 1314–1319 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Med. Chem.

M. A. Gallop, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, E. M. Gordon, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 1. Background and peptide combinatorial libraries,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1233–1251 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gordon, R. W. Barrett, W. J. Dower, St. P. A. Fodor, M. A. Gallop, “Applications of combinatorial technologies to drug discovery. 2. Combinatorial organic synthesis, library screening strategies and future directions,” J. Med. Chem. 37, 1385–1401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

M. Ambroz, A. J. MacRobert, J. Morgan, G. Rumbles, M. S. C. Foley, D. Philipps, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and intracellular imaging of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 22, 105–117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lett. Appl. Microbiol.

R. N. Waterhouse, L. N. Glover, “CCD monitoring of bioluminescence during the induction of cell wall-deficient, l-form state of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19, 88–91 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Mol. Cell. Biol.

S. Herr, Th. Bastian, R. Pepperkok, Ch. Boulin, W. Ansorge, “A fully automated image acquisition and analysis system for low light level fluorescence microscopy,” Methods Mol. Cell. Biol. 4, 164–170 (1993).

Microsyst. Technol.

A. Schober, A. Schwienhorst, J. M. Köhler, M. Fuchs, R. Günther, M. Thürk, “Microsystems for independent parallel chemical and biological processing,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 168–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Köhler, R. Pochmann, A. Schaper, A. Schober, Th. M. Jovin, A. Schwienhorst, “Micromechanical elements for detection of molecules and molecular design,” Microsyst. Technol. 1, 202–208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Acids Res.

E. Maier, H. R. Crollius, H. Lehrach, “Hybridization techniques on gridded high density DNA and in situ colony filters based on fluorescence detection,” Nucl. Acids Res. 22, 3423–3424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

A. R. Faruqui, H. N. Andrews, C. Raeburn, “A large cooled-CCD detector for electron microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 348, 659–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the paths of rays in an optical system consisting of a CCD objective and a microlens. δ is the angular aperture of (a) the CCD objective and (b) the improved optical system, and δ′ is the angular aperture of the microlens. With Lb, g the following approximation holds: sin2 δ = ν 2 sin2 δ′, with ν = b/ g; b and g are the distances of the image and the object, respectively, from the microlens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illuminated bead (50 μm) sorted in the chamber. (a) CCD image of the chamber without a microlens, (b) CCD image with the microlens adjusted above the chamber. In both cases the CCD camera objective was not changed. The microlens magnifies the image of the bead. The signal was amplified by a factor of 4.1. The measured areas of both images were the same.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) CCD image of the self-designed microlens array illuminated from the back and from the top. (b) CCD measurement of the microlens array illuminated only from the back through an opalescent glass. Four chambers with lenses were selected for the evaluation. (c) Measured signal of the four chambers with and without the microlens array. The amplification is by a factor of 4–5.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin   δ max = N.A .
Ω =   sin   δ d δ d φ = 2 π   0 δ max sin   δ d δ = 2 π -   cos   δ 0 δ max .
Ω = 2 π 1 - 1 - N.A . 2 .
P N.A . = P total 1 - 1 - N.A . 2 .
P trans = P total 1 - 1 - sin 2   δ = P total 1 - 1 - ν 2 sin 2   δ .

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