Abstract

An experimental investigation of W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti, and Ni/V multilayers is presented that uses synchrotron radiation in the soft-x-ray energy region between 100 and 1500 eV with special emphasis on the water window. The multilayers were designed as normal incidence reflectors and for polarimetry purposes around the Brewster angle. Both reflection and transmission multilayers were prepared for use as linear polarizers and phase retarders, respectively, to produce or analyze circularly polarized light. Their period was optimized to achieve maximum reflectance at the 1s absorption edge of C (284 eV) and the 2p edges of Ti (454 eV) and V (512 eV), respectively. At these edges the multilayers show an enhancement of reflectance and energy resolution that is in accordance with theoretical calculations.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1998 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Salashchenko, Y. Y. Platonov, S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

G. Gutman, “High-performance Mo/Si and W/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray imaging optics,” J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. 4, 142–150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow band reflection in the range λ ∼ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, “Wavelength considerations in soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7062–7067 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanaghira, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, “A quarter waveplate for the polarization analysis close to the carbon K edge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1375–1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Layer-by-layer design method for soft-x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1622–1630 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (3)

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, B. T. Thole, G. A. Sawatzky, “2p x-ray absorption of 3d transition-metal compounds: an atomic multiplet description including crystal field,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5459–5468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Nagata, “Nickel/vanadium and nickel/titanium multilayers for x-ray optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1215–1219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

W. Jark, J. Stöhr, “A high-vacuum triple-axis-diffractometer for soft x-ray scattering experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 654–658 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, “Computer search for layer materials that maximize the reflectivity of x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1599–1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. F. Miceli, D. A. Neumann, H. Zabel, “X-ray refractive index: a tool to determine the average composition in multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 24–26 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Akhsakhalyan, A. D.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow band reflection in the range λ ∼ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alford, C. S.

Anderson, I. S.

O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Balakireva, L. L.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, H. E.

H. E. Bennet, J. M. Bennet, Physics of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 4.

Bennet, J. M.

H. E. Bennet, J. M. Bennet, Physics of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 4.

Bionta, R. M.

Böni, P.

O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bridou, F.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buffat, P.

O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, C.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

Cerrina, F.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

Cheung, K. C.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, F. M. F.

F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, B. T. Thole, G. A. Sawatzky, “2p x-ray absorption of 3d transition-metal compounds: an atomic multiplet description including crystal field,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5459–5468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, “A quarter waveplate for the polarization analysis close to the carbon K edge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1375–1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

DiFonzo, S.

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Elsenhaus, O.

O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Falco, C. M.

Farnoux, B.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, A. I.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Foulet, G.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friedli, H. P.

O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fuggle, J. C.

F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, B. T. Thole, G. A. Sawatzky, “2p x-ray absorption of 3d transition-metal compounds: an atomic multiplet description including crystal field,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5459–5468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Furuzawa, A.

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beam splitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 155.

Gaupp, A.

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Golub, L.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grimmer, H.

O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Groos, M.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gutman, G.

G. Gutman, “High-performance Mo/Si and W/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray imaging optics,” J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. 4, 142–150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herant, M.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. Q.

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, “A quarter waveplate for the polarization analysis close to the carbon K edge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1375–1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Jark, J. Stöhr, “A high-vacuum triple-axis-diffractometer for soft x-ray scattering experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 654–658 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kalata, K.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, P. A.

Kimura, H.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanaghira, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kolachevsky, N. N.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow band reflection in the range λ ∼ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
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K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
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J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanaghira, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “REFLEC—a program to calculate soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Tech. Rep. BESSY TB 201 (Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung, m.b.h., Berlin, 1996).

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O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
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A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
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L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
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M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Makowiecki, D. M.

Margaritondo, G.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mayama, K.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanaghira, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
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Mertins, H.-Ch.

Miceli, P. F.

P. F. Miceli, D. A. Neumann, H. Zabel, “X-ray refractive index: a tool to determine the average composition in multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 24–26 (1986).
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A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow band reflection in the range λ ∼ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
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Montcalm, C.

Morawe, Ch.

Ch. Morawe, H. Zabel, “Metal/Al2O3: a new class of x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3639–3645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Müller, R.

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
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Neumann, D. A.

P. F. Miceli, D. A. Neumann, H. Zabel, “X-ray refractive index: a tool to determine the average composition in multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 24–26 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, V.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanaghira, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, G.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Packe, I.

Padmore, H. A.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, B.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

Perrera, C. C.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
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Pershin, Y. P.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Y. Y.

N. N. Salashchenko, Y. Y. Platonov, S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quan, M. X.

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ragozin, E. N.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow band reflection in the range λ ∼ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roper, M.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal-incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
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F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
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N. N. Salashchenko, Y. Y. Platonov, S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow band reflection in the range λ ∼ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, F.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sawatzky, G. A.

F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, B. T. Thole, G. A. Sawatzky, “2p x-ray absorption of 3d transition-metal compounds: an atomic multiplet description including crystal field,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5459–5468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “REFLEC—a program to calculate soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Tech. Rep. BESSY TB 201 (Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung, m.b.h., Berlin, 1996).

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beam splitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 155.

Schmolla, F.

Sella, C.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Serov, R. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shamov, E. A.

Shen, T. D.

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Slaughter, J. M.

Slemzin, V. A.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow band reflection in the range λ ∼ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Söchtig, J.

O. Elsenhaus, P. Böni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Söchtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

Spiller, E.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
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E. Spiller, Multilayer Optics for Soft X Rays, (Plenum, New York, 1986).

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal-incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Jark, J. Stöhr, “A high-vacuum triple-axis-diffractometer for soft x-ray scattering experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 654–658 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, B. T.

Thole, B. T.

F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, B. T. Thole, G. A. Sawatzky, “2p x-ray absorption of 3d transition-metal compounds: an atomic multiplet description including crystal field,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5459–5468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J.

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beam splitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 155.

Underwood, J. H.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Dorssen, G. E.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal-incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, A. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. P.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. T.

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beam splitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 155.

Wehling, F.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni-Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni-Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Welnak, J. T.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilczynski, J.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature (London) 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanaghira, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Layer-by-layer design method for soft-x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1622–1630 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, K.

F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beam splitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 155.

Yanaghira, M.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanaghira, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S. A.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zabel, H.

Ch. Morawe, H. Zabel, “Metal/Al2O3: a new class of x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3639–3645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Miceli, D. A. Neumann, H. Zabel, “X-ray refractive index: a tool to determine the average composition in multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 24–26 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. N.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zuev, S. Y.

N. N. Salashchenko, Y. Y. Platonov, S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanaghira, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Miceli, D. A. Neumann, H. Zabel, “X-ray refractive index: a tool to determine the average composition in multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 24–26 (1986).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50-30000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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