Abstract

Designs for flexible, high-power-density, remote irradiation systems are presented. Applications include industrial infrared heating such as in semiconductor processing, alternatives to laser light for certain medical procedures, and general remote high-brightness lighting. The high power densities inherent to the small active radiating regions of conventional metal-halide, halogen, xenon, microwave-sulfur, and related lamps can be restored with nonimaging concentrators with little loss of power. These high flux levels can then be transported at high transmissivity with light channels such as optical fibers or lightpipes, and reshaped into luminaires that can deliver prescribed angular and spatial flux distributions onto desired targets. Details for nominally two- and three-dimensional systems are developed, along with estimates of optical performance.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).
  2. H. Ries, N. Shatz, J. Bortz, W. Spirkl, “Performance limitations of rotationally symmetric nonimaging devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2855–2862 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Shatz, J. Bortz, H. Ries, R. Winston, “Nonrotationally symmetric nonimaging systems that overcome the flux-transfer performance limit imposed by skewness conservation,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer IV, R. Winston, ed., Proc. SPIE3139, 76–85 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Rabl, Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1985).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1987

1977

Benítez, P.

Bortz, J.

H. Ries, N. Shatz, J. Bortz, W. Spirkl, “Performance limitations of rotationally symmetric nonimaging devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2855–2862 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Shatz, J. Bortz, H. Ries, R. Winston, “Nonrotationally symmetric nonimaging systems that overcome the flux-transfer performance limit imposed by skewness conservation,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer IV, R. Winston, ed., Proc. SPIE3139, 76–85 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Collares-Pereira, M.

Fang, Y.

Feuermann, D.

Friedman, R. P.

González, J. C.

Gordon, J. M.

Katzir, A.

A. Katzir, Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

Miñano, J. C.

Ning, X.

O’Gallagher, J.

Ong, P. T.

Rabl, A.

Ries, H.

H. Ries, N. Shatz, J. Bortz, W. Spirkl, “Performance limitations of rotationally symmetric nonimaging devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2855–2862 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ries, A. Rabl, “Edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 2627–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Ries, R. Winston, “Tailored edge-ray reflectors for illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1260–1264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Winston, H. Ries, “Nonimaging reflectors as functionals of the desired irradiance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1902–1908 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Shatz, J. Bortz, H. Ries, R. Winston, “Nonrotationally symmetric nonimaging systems that overcome the flux-transfer performance limit imposed by skewness conservation,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer IV, R. Winston, ed., Proc. SPIE3139, 76–85 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shatz, N.

H. Ries, N. Shatz, J. Bortz, W. Spirkl, “Performance limitations of rotationally symmetric nonimaging devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2855–2862 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Shatz, J. Bortz, H. Ries, R. Winston, “Nonrotationally symmetric nonimaging systems that overcome the flux-transfer performance limit imposed by skewness conservation,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer IV, R. Winston, ed., Proc. SPIE3139, 76–85 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spirkl, W.

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Winston, R.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Other

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

A. Katzir, Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

N. Shatz, J. Bortz, H. Ries, R. Winston, “Nonrotationally symmetric nonimaging systems that overcome the flux-transfer performance limit imposed by skewness conservation,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer IV, R. Winston, ed., Proc. SPIE3139, 76–85 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Rabl, Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1985).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a remote irradiation system. Radiation from a spherical source inside a transparent envelope is transferred to a remote region by way of a large number of light channels. The channels are then grouped to form the input to nonimaging luminaires that are tailored to the required spatial and angular distributions on the target.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a 2D concentrator assembly to restore the high power density of an extended cylindrical source. (a) Six identical nonimaging lens–mirror edge-ray concentrators placed concentrically about the lamp. (b) Method of a constant optical path length for concentrator construction: l i , path lengths; θ, path length along the circular arc of the source relative to its initial value for the tangent from the source to concentrator aperture edge E; r, source radius; R o , transparent envelope radius; R, distance from the center of the source to the edge of the concentrator entrance aperture. For specificity of illustration, realistic values of R/ r = 6.00 and R 0/r = 3.83 are chosen. Mirror height (depth) is denoted by H. Only one of the six concentrator units is shown for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram showing the remote irradiation concept. Radiation from a linear (2D) source is concentrated close to the thermodynamic limit with nonimaging units and then transported through light channels comprising optical fibers or lightpipes. The channels are regrouped at the remote application end to form a near-Lambertian source for reflectors and/or lenses that produce prescribed flux maps on the target.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Construction of the virtual spherical light source when the actual discharge region is a short squat cylinder. (b) When the radiating region is not radially symmetric, one can gain in attainable concentration by designing for an effective reduced spherical source that captures most of the emitted radiation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Assembly drawing of the dodecahedral concentrator assembly comprising 12 identical units (only one of which is shown for clarity). The unit has a regular pentagonal-entrance aperture that, after a short length, tapers into a rotationally symmetric concentrator with a circular exit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometric mismatch between the actual pentagonal-entrance aperture and the fictitious circular-entrance aperture for which the concentrator unit is designed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Trade-off between collection efficiency and concentration relative to the thermodynamic limit (C/ C max) for a pentagonal target and a circular source.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Constant optical path-length construction of an all-dielectric lens-profile concentrator unit, analagous to the procedure shown in Fig. 2(b). System parameters are the same as in Fig. 2, with the refractive index of both the concentrator dielectric and the fiber-optic absorber being n = 1.5. For clarity of illustration only one of the six concentrator units is drawn.

Equations (9)

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C = entrance   aperture absorber = 2 R   sin π / N 2 π r / N = NR π r sin π / N .
f 0 = A A 2 + H 2 1 / 2 H ,   A     a .
f 1 = r H + R   cos π / N H ,   R     a .
r θ + l 1 + nl 2 + l 3 + l 4 = constant ,
f   number = k 2   sin π / N ,
C / C max = 1 - 5 π β - sin β cos β ,
collection   efficiency = sin β + π / 5 - β cos β tan π / 5 cos β ,
cos β = cos π / 5 R / R max ,     1 R / R max cos π / 5 .
r θ + l 1 + n l 2 + l 3 = constant .

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