Abstract

We report a hybrid microscope composed of an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope and a commercial atomic force microscope. We discuss the optical origin of the near-field images of a test sample. We show that the optical images have a sharp contrast that depends on the illumination parameters: the state of polarization and the angle of incidence of the incident light.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image resolution with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometer scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, P. Adam, E. Bourillot, J. P. Goudonnet, M. Nevière, “Resolution of the photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of physical parameters,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 422–429 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. K. Wickramasinghe, C. C. Williams, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” U.S. patent4,947,034 (7August1989).
  7. T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, “Near field optical microscopy by local perturbation of a diffraction spot,” Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389–397 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Inouye, S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. B. G. de Hollander, N. F. van Hulst, R. P. H. Kooyman, “Near field plasmon and force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 263–269 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Bauer, B. Hecht, C. Rossel, “Piezoresistive cantilevers as optical sensors for scanning near-field microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 127–130 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Castagne, C. Prioleau, J. P. Fillard, “Optical properties of silicon-nitride atomic-force-microscopy tips in scanning tunneling optical microscopy: experimental study,” Appl. Opt. 34, 703–708 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. X. Bouju, A. Dereux, J. P. Vigneron, C. Girard, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by silicon-nitride tips,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 816–819 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Isaacson, J. Cline, H. Barshatzky, “Resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 15–22 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Reconstruction of corrugated dielectric surfaces with a model of a photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of the tip on the near field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 618–628 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in a near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Reconstruction of corrugated dielectric surfaces with a model of a photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of the tip on the near field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 618–628 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in a near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Bouju, A. Dereux, J. P. Vigneron, C. Girard, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by silicon-nitride tips,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 816–819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

R. B. G. de Hollander, N. F. van Hulst, R. P. H. Kooyman, “Near field plasmon and force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 263–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Bauer, B. Hecht, C. Rossel, “Piezoresistive cantilevers as optical sensors for scanning near-field microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 127–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Castagne, C. Prioleau, J. P. Fillard, “Optical properties of silicon-nitride atomic-force-microscopy tips in scanning tunneling optical microscopy: experimental study,” Appl. Opt. 34, 703–708 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, “Near field optical microscopy by local perturbation of a diffraction spot,” Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389–397 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Y. Inouye, S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, P. Adam, E. Bourillot, J. P. Goudonnet, M. Nevière, “Resolution of the photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of physical parameters,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 422–429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Isaacson, J. Cline, H. Barshatzky, “Resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 15–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometer scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image resolution with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P.

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, P. Adam, E. Bourillot, J. P. Goudonnet, M. Nevière, “Resolution of the photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of physical parameters,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 422–429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

An, H.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, “Near field optical microscopy by local perturbation of a diffraction spot,” Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389–397 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barshatzky, H.

M. Isaacson, J. Cline, H. Barshatzky, “Resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 15–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, P.

P. Bauer, B. Hecht, C. Rossel, “Piezoresistive cantilevers as optical sensors for scanning near-field microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 127–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometer scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, “Near field optical microscopy by local perturbation of a diffraction spot,” Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389–397 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouju, X.

X. Bouju, A. Dereux, J. P. Vigneron, C. Girard, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by silicon-nitride tips,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 816–819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bourillot, E.

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, P. Adam, E. Bourillot, J. P. Goudonnet, M. Nevière, “Resolution of the photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of physical parameters,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 422–429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castagne, M.

Cline, J.

M. Isaacson, J. Cline, H. Barshatzky, “Resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 15–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

De Fornel, F.

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, P. Adam, E. Bourillot, J. P. Goudonnet, M. Nevière, “Resolution of the photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of physical parameters,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 422–429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Hollander, R. B. G.

R. B. G. de Hollander, N. F. van Hulst, R. P. H. Kooyman, “Near field plasmon and force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 263–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image resolution with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

X. Bouju, A. Dereux, J. P. Vigneron, C. Girard, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by silicon-nitride tips,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 816–819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Endo, K.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

Furukawa, H.

H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in a near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Bouju, A. Dereux, J. P. Vigneron, C. Girard, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by silicon-nitride tips,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 816–819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gleyzes, P.

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, “Near field optical microscopy by local perturbation of a diffraction spot,” Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389–397 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, P. Adam, E. Bourillot, J. P. Goudonnet, M. Nevière, “Resolution of the photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of physical parameters,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 422–429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometer scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Bauer, B. Hecht, C. Rossel, “Piezoresistive cantilevers as optical sensors for scanning near-field microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 127–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, K.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye, S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaacson, M.

M. Isaacson, J. Cline, H. Barshatzky, “Resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 15–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, A.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, T.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in a near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye, S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayakawa, O.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

R. B. G. de Hollander, N. F. van Hulst, R. P. H. Kooyman, “Near field plasmon and force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 263–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometer scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image resolution with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Madrazo, A.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Reconstruction of corrugated dielectric surfaces with a model of a photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of the tip on the near field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 618–628 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

Martin, Y.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nevière, M.

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, P. Adam, E. Bourillot, J. P. Goudonnet, M. Nevière, “Resolution of the photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of physical parameters,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 422–429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Reconstruction of corrugated dielectric surfaces with a model of a photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of the tip on the near field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 618–628 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oshikane, Y.

T. Kataoka, K. Endo, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, Y. Mori, H. An, O. Kobayakawa, A. Izumi, “Development of a scanning near-field optical microscope with a probe consisting of a small spherical protrusion,” Ultramicroscopy 63, 219–225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image resolution with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prioleau, C.

Reddick, R. C.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rossel, C.

P. Bauer, B. Hecht, C. Rossel, “Piezoresistive cantilevers as optical sensors for scanning near-field microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 127–130 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

F. De Fornel, L. Salomon, P. Adam, E. Bourillot, J. P. Goudonnet, M. Nevière, “Resolution of the photon scanning tunneling microscope: influence of physical parameters,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 422–429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometer scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

R. B. G. de Hollander, N. F. van Hulst, R. P. H. Kooyman, “Near field plasmon and force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 263–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J. P.

X. Bouju, A. Dereux, J. P. Vigneron, C. Girard, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by silicon-nitride tips,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 816–819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warmack, R. J.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometer scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Wickramasinghe, C. C. Williams, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” U.S. patent4,947,034 (7August1989).

Williams, C. C.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, C. C. Williams, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” U.S. patent4,947,034 (7August1989).

Zenhausern, F.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Path 1, illumination at 70°; path 2, illumination at 30°; path 3, illumination at 0°; path 4, collection of scattered light. PZT’s piezoelectric transducers; NA’s, numerical apertures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering of light by the tip apex. Top, silicon nitride tip; bottom, silicon tip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field images of the sample (silicon nitride tip illuminated at 70°): (a) AFM image; (b) SNOM image in s polarization; (c) AFM image; (d) SNOM image in p polarization; (e) profile of SNOM image (s polarization), where the two vertical bars correspond to the 10–90% reflectivity points. The scanned area is 2 μm × 2 μm. X and Y are grating directions; the white arrow is the direction of illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field images of the sample (silicon tip illuminated at 30°): (a) AFM image; (b) SNOM image in s polarization; (c) AFM image; (d) SNOM image in p polarization. The scanned area is 1.35 μm × 1.35 μm. k and E are the projections, on the sample surface, of the wave vector and the electric field, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field images of the sample (the silicon nitride tip is illuminated at 70° in s polarization): (a) SNOM image, modulation amplitude 160 nm; (b) SNOM image, modulation amplitude 120 nm. The scanned area is 2 μm × 2 μm.

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