Abstract

We present a compact stand-alone near-field optical microscope combined with force detection in which manufactured atomic force microscope (AFM) microcantilevers are used for both optical and force detection. Because of the stand-alone design, the combination allows a great variety of operation modes, including the scanning tunneling optical microscope (STOM), and possibly the reflection scanning near-field optical microscope modes. The first images obtained in the AFM and the STOM mode are presented. A polarization study is carried out to confirm the optical nature of the detected signal and to discuss possible artifacts.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science Reprint Series 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
  3. E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, J.-M. Vigoureux, “Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion,” J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).
  5. H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, M. Fujihira, “Optical processing and recording by scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscope (SNOAM),” in Near-Field Optics, M. A. Praesler, P. J. Moyer, eds., Proc. SPIE2535, 16–27 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 141–146 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, “Reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy using an apertureless metallic tip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2160–2170 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Rugar, H. J. Mamin, P. Guethner, “Improved fiber-optic interferometer for atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2588–2590 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. Mulhern, T. Hubbard, C. S. Arnold, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho, “A scanning force microscope with a fiber-optic-interferometer displacement sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1280–1284 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Martin, C. C. Williams, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Atomic force microscope-force mapping and profiling on a sub 100 Å scale,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4723–4729 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Oshio, N. Nakatani, Y. Sakai, N. Suzuki, T. Kataoka, “Atomic force microscope detection system using an optical fiber heterodyne interferometer free from external disturbances,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 310–314 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Baida, D. Courjon, G. Tribillon, “Combination of a fiber and a silicon nitride tip as a bifunctional detector; first results and perspectives,” in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 651–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,467–14,473 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. V. Labeke, “Instrumentation in near field optics,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale—Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, eds., Vol. 319 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 105–117.
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (3)

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 141–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,467–14,473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

T. Oshio, N. Nakatani, Y. Sakai, N. Suzuki, T. Kataoka, “Atomic force microscope detection system using an optical fiber heterodyne interferometer free from external disturbances,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 310–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science Reprint Series 251, 1468–1470 (1991).

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, J.-M. Vigoureux, “Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion,” J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

P. J. Mulhern, T. Hubbard, C. S. Arnold, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho, “A scanning force microscope with a fiber-optic-interferometer displacement sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1280–1284 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. Rugar, H. J. Mamin, P. Guethner, “Improved fiber-optic interferometer for atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2588–2590 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Martin, C. C. Williams, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Atomic force microscope-force mapping and profiling on a sub 100 Å scale,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4723–4729 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. S.

P. J. Mulhern, T. Hubbard, C. S. Arnold, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho, “A scanning force microscope with a fiber-optic-interferometer displacement sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1280–1284 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ataka, T.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 141–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, M. Fujihira, “Optical processing and recording by scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscope (SNOAM),” in Near-Field Optics, M. A. Praesler, P. J. Moyer, eds., Proc. SPIE2535, 16–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Baida, F.

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. V. Labeke, “Instrumentation in near field optics,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale—Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, eds., Vol. 319 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 105–117.
[CrossRef]

F. Baida, D. Courjon, G. Tribillon, “Combination of a fiber and a silicon nitride tip as a bifunctional detector; first results and perspectives,” in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
[CrossRef]

Bainier, C.

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. V. Labeke, “Instrumentation in near field optics,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale—Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, eds., Vol. 319 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 105–117.
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science Reprint Series 251, 1468–1470 (1991).

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blackford, B. L.

P. J. Mulhern, T. Hubbard, C. S. Arnold, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho, “A scanning force microscope with a fiber-optic-interferometer displacement sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1280–1284 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

Bourillot, E.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, N.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 141–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, M. Fujihira, “Optical processing and recording by scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscope (SNOAM),” in Near-Field Optics, M. A. Praesler, P. J. Moyer, eds., Proc. SPIE2535, 16–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, J.-M. Vigoureux, “Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion,” J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. V. Labeke, “Instrumentation in near field optics,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale—Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, eds., Vol. 319 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 105–117.
[CrossRef]

F. Baida, D. Courjon, G. Tribillon, “Combination of a fiber and a silicon nitride tip as a bifunctional detector; first results and perspectives,” in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,467–14,473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Devel, M.

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,467–14,473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujihira, M.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 141–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, M. Fujihira, “Optical processing and recording by scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscope (SNOAM),” in Near-Field Optics, M. A. Praesler, P. J. Moyer, eds., Proc. SPIE2535, 16–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,467–14,473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gleyzes, P.

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guethner, P.

D. Rugar, H. J. Mamin, P. Guethner, “Improved fiber-optic interferometer for atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2588–2590 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science Reprint Series 251, 1468–1470 (1991).

Hörsch, I.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, T.

P. J. Mulhern, T. Hubbard, C. S. Arnold, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho, “A scanning force microscope with a fiber-optic-interferometer displacement sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1280–1284 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Iwabuchi, S.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jalocha, A.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, J.-M. Vigoureux, “Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion,” J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

Jericho, M. H.

P. J. Mulhern, T. Hubbard, C. S. Arnold, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho, “A scanning force microscope with a fiber-optic-interferometer displacement sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1280–1284 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, T.

T. Oshio, N. Nakatani, Y. Sakai, N. Suzuki, T. Kataoka, “Atomic force microscope detection system using an optical fiber heterodyne interferometer free from external disturbances,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 310–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science Reprint Series 251, 1468–1470 (1991).

Krausch, G.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Labeke, D. V.

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. V. Labeke, “Instrumentation in near field optics,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale—Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, eds., Vol. 319 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 105–117.
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lux-Steiner, M.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mamin, H. J.

D. Rugar, H. J. Mamin, P. Guethner, “Improved fiber-optic interferometer for atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2588–2590 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,467–14,473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, Y.

Y. Martin, C. C. Williams, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Atomic force microscope-force mapping and profiling on a sub 100 Å scale,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4723–4729 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuoka, Y.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, M. Fujihira, “Optical processing and recording by scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscope (SNOAM),” in Near-Field Optics, M. A. Praesler, P. J. Moyer, eds., Proc. SPIE2535, 16–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monobe, H.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 141–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mulhern, P. J.

P. J. Mulhern, T. Hubbard, C. S. Arnold, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho, “A scanning force microscope with a fiber-optic-interferometer displacement sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1280–1284 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Muramatsu, H.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 141–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, M. Fujihira, “Optical processing and recording by scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscope (SNOAM),” in Near-Field Optics, M. A. Praesler, P. J. Moyer, eds., Proc. SPIE2535, 16–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, M. Fujihira, “Optical processing and recording by scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscope (SNOAM),” in Near-Field Optics, M. A. Praesler, P. J. Moyer, eds., Proc. SPIE2535, 16–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, N.

T. Oshio, N. Nakatani, Y. Sakai, N. Suzuki, T. Kataoka, “Atomic force microscope detection system using an optical fiber heterodyne interferometer free from external disturbances,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 310–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oshio, T.

T. Oshio, N. Nakatani, Y. Sakai, N. Suzuki, T. Kataoka, “Atomic force microscope detection system using an optical fiber heterodyne interferometer free from external disturbances,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 310–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rugar, D.

D. Rugar, H. J. Mamin, P. Guethner, “Improved fiber-optic interferometer for atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2588–2590 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

T. Oshio, N. Nakatani, Y. Sakai, N. Suzuki, T. Kataoka, “Atomic force microscope detection system using an optical fiber heterodyne interferometer free from external disturbances,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 310–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, J.-M. Vigoureux, “Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion,” J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

Spajer, M.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, J.-M. Vigoureux, “Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion,” J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

Suzuki, N.

T. Oshio, N. Nakatani, Y. Sakai, N. Suzuki, T. Kataoka, “Atomic force microscope detection system using an optical fiber heterodyne interferometer free from external disturbances,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 310–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tamiya, E.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science Reprint Series 251, 1468–1470 (1991).

Tribillon, G.

F. Baida, D. Courjon, G. Tribillon, “Combination of a fiber and a silicon nitride tip as a bifunctional detector; first results and perspectives,” in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
[CrossRef]

Vaez-Iravani, M.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J.-M.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, J.-M. Vigoureux, “Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion,” J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science Reprint Series 251, 1468–1470 (1991).

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

Y. Martin, C. C. Williams, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Atomic force microscope-force mapping and profiling on a sub 100 Å scale,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4723–4729 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. C.

Y. Martin, C. C. Williams, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Atomic force microscope-force mapping and profiling on a sub 100 Å scale,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4723–4729 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Rugar, H. J. Mamin, P. Guethner, “Improved fiber-optic interferometer for atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2588–2590 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Martin, C. C. Williams, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Atomic force microscope-force mapping and profiling on a sub 100 Å scale,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4723–4729 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. III (1)

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, J.-M. Vigoureux, “Microscopie en champ proche par réflexion,” J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, S. Iwabuchi, E. Tamiya, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: observation of recombinant escherichia-coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein,” Opt. Rev. 3, 470–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,467–14,473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. J. Mulhern, T. Hubbard, C. S. Arnold, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho, “A scanning force microscope with a fiber-optic-interferometer displacement sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1280–1284 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science Reprint Series (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science Reprint Series 251, 1468–1470 (1991).

Ultramicroscopy (2)

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, T. Ataka, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, “Scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 141–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Oshio, N. Nakatani, Y. Sakai, N. Suzuki, T. Kataoka, “Atomic force microscope detection system using an optical fiber heterodyne interferometer free from external disturbances,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 310–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. Baida, D. Courjon, G. Tribillon, “Combination of a fiber and a silicon nitride tip as a bifunctional detector; first results and perspectives,” in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. V. Labeke, “Instrumentation in near field optics,” in Optics at the Nanometer Scale—Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, eds., Vol. 319 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 105–117.
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, Y. Mitsuoka, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, M. Fujihira, “Optical processing and recording by scanning near-field optic/atomic-force microscope (SNOAM),” in Near-Field Optics, M. A. Praesler, P. J. Moyer, eds., Proc. SPIE2535, 16–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the hybrid (AFM × STOM) detection. (A) is a top view of the illumination area on the cantilever (AFM signal).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the microscope head (C, capillary; S, fine-thread screw; and H, cantilever holder).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the microscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simultaneous AFM and (b) TE STOM images of a crossed metallic grating in force-constant mode. (c) AFM and (d) TM STOM images of the same object obtained simultaneously.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Processed optical images of the grating after filtering the fringes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross sections obtained from processed TE and TM images.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) AFM image of the same grating and (b) the error signal of the feedback. The scanned area is 4 times smaller then before.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical TM image of the two-dimensional metallic grating. The three areas correspond to three different working points (separated by a distance of λ/2).

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