Abstract

Two-dimensional imaging in the wavelength region of the water window (N Ly α) is demonstrated with a toroidally curved thallium acid phthalate crystal. Direct imaging of a plasma pinch line, as well as imaging of a mesh with plasma backlighting in which the same source is used, is shown. For verification, the results are compared with the results by other methods. An absolute intensity calibration of the images is demonstrated with theoretical data for the reflection properties of the crystal. This advance in two-dimensional imaging was possible owing to the recent progress in the precise bending of acid phthalate crystals to defined concave shapes of high quality (sphere, toroid). With these crystals, the two-dimensional imaging method is pushed to the wavelength of 2.66 nm, which is well inside the water window.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-ray,” Nature (London) 384, 49–51 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of extended lasing plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 36, 831–840 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Lebert, W. Neff, D. Rothweiler, “Pinch plasma source for x-ray microscopy with nanosecond exposure time,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 6, 107–140 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Lebert, D. Rothweiler, A. Engel, K. Bergmann, W. Neff, “Pinch plasmas as intense EUV sources for laboratory applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 241–259 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Bergmann, R. Lebert, “Yield optimization of the Lyman-α emission in pinch plasmas,” J. Phys. D 28, 1579–1587 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Lebert, A. Engel, W. Neff, “Investigations on the transition between column and micropinch mode of plasma focus operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6414–6420 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Burek, “Crystals for astronomical x-ray spectroscopy,” Space Science Instrum. 2, 54–104 (1976).
  14. D. Taupin, “Théorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayons X par les cristeaux déformés,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 87, 469–511 (1964).

1997

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of extended lasing plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 36, 831–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

R. Lebert, W. Neff, D. Rothweiler, “Pinch plasma source for x-ray microscopy with nanosecond exposure time,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 6, 107–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, D. Rothweiler, A. Engel, K. Bergmann, W. Neff, “Pinch plasmas as intense EUV sources for laboratory applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 241–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-ray,” Nature (London) 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, R. Lebert, “Yield optimization of the Lyman-α emission in pinch plasmas,” J. Phys. D 28, 1579–1587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, A. Engel, W. Neff, “Investigations on the transition between column and micropinch mode of plasma focus operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6414–6420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976

A. Burek, “Crystals for astronomical x-ray spectroscopy,” Space Science Instrum. 2, 54–104 (1976).

1964

D. Taupin, “Théorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayons X par les cristeaux déformés,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 87, 469–511 (1964).

Bergmann, K.

R. Lebert, D. Rothweiler, A. Engel, K. Bergmann, W. Neff, “Pinch plasmas as intense EUV sources for laboratory applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 241–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, R. Lebert, “Yield optimization of the Lyman-α emission in pinch plasmas,” J. Phys. D 28, 1579–1587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burek, A.

A. Burek, “Crystals for astronomical x-ray spectroscopy,” Space Science Instrum. 2, 54–104 (1976).

Chenais-Popovics, C.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dirksmöller, M.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Engel, A.

R. Lebert, D. Rothweiler, A. Engel, K. Bergmann, W. Neff, “Pinch plasmas as intense EUV sources for laboratory applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 241–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, A. Engel, W. Neff, “Investigations on the transition between column and micropinch mode of plasma focus operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6414–6420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Förster, E.

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of extended lasing plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 36, 831–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gäbel, K.

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gillerion, F.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hutcheon, R. J.

Jaeglé, P.

Kawagoshi, H.

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-ray,” Nature (London) 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krousky, E.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Larroche, O.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lebert, R.

R. Lebert, W. Neff, D. Rothweiler, “Pinch plasma source for x-ray microscopy with nanosecond exposure time,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 6, 107–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, D. Rothweiler, A. Engel, K. Bergmann, W. Neff, “Pinch plasmas as intense EUV sources for laboratory applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 241–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, R. Lebert, “Yield optimization of the Lyman-α emission in pinch plasmas,” J. Phys. D 28, 1579–1587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, A. Engel, W. Neff, “Investigations on the transition between column and micropinch mode of plasma focus operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6414–6420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-ray,” Nature (London) 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Missalla, T.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nantel, M.

Neff, W.

R. Lebert, D. Rothweiler, A. Engel, K. Bergmann, W. Neff, “Pinch plasmas as intense EUV sources for laboratory applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 241–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, W. Neff, D. Rothweiler, “Pinch plasma source for x-ray microscopy with nanosecond exposure time,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 6, 107–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, A. Engel, W. Neff, “Investigations on the transition between column and micropinch mode of plasma focus operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6414–6420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, H.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ochi, Y.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peyrusse, O.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rancu, O.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Renaudin, P.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Renner, O.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of extended lasing plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 36, 831–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rothweiler, D.

R. Lebert, D. Rothweiler, A. Engel, K. Bergmann, W. Neff, “Pinch plasmas as intense EUV sources for laboratory applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 241–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, W. Neff, D. Rothweiler, “Pinch plasma source for x-ray microscopy with nanosecond exposure time,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 6, 107–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-ray,” Nature (London) 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-ray,” Nature (London) 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sondhauss, P.

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taupin, D.

D. Taupin, “Théorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayons X par les cristeaux déformés,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 87, 469–511 (1964).

Uschmann, I.

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of extended lasing plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 36, 831–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vollbrecht, M.

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of extended lasing plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 36, 831–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr.

D. Taupin, “Théorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayons X par les cristeaux déformés,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 87, 469–511 (1964).

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Lebert, A. Engel, W. Neff, “Investigations on the transition between column and micropinch mode of plasma focus operation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6414–6420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

K. Bergmann, R. Lebert, “Yield optimization of the Lyman-α emission in pinch plasmas,” J. Phys. D 28, 1579–1587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

C. Chenais-Popovics, O. Rancu, P. Renaudin, H. Kawagoshi, J. C. Gauthier, M. Dirksmöller, I. Uschmann, T. Missalla, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, H. Pépin, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, “Experimental and numerical analysis of a plasma collision by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 105–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol.

R. Lebert, W. Neff, D. Rothweiler, “Pinch plasma source for x-ray microscopy with nanosecond exposure time,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 6, 107–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laser Part. Beams

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-ray,” Nature (London) 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

R. Lebert, D. Rothweiler, A. Engel, K. Bergmann, W. Neff, “Pinch plasmas as intense EUV sources for laboratory applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 241–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas

C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, F. Gillerion, J. C. Gauthier, O. Larroche, O. Peyrusse, M. Dirksmöller, P. Sondhauss, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, O. Renner, E. Krousky, “Kinetic to thermal energy transfer and interpenetration in the collision of laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 190–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Space Science Instrum.

A. Burek, “Crystals for astronomical x-ray spectroscopy,” Space Science Instrum. 2, 54–104 (1976).

Other

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Monochromatic imaging scheme with a toroidally curved crystal (demagnification).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-discharge pinch image, size 11.5 mm × 3.8 mm, source operated at 9 kV and 1.0 mbar N2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Backside-illuminated mesh (100-μm period), size 2.5 mm × 4 mm; (b) horizontal and (c) vertical traces along the mesh at the positions marked with arrows in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of micropinches, 0.3-mbar Kr and 1.2-mbar N2 at 9 kV, image size 11.5 mm × 3.8 mm.

Equations (6)

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n λ = 2 d   sin   Θ     Bragg   equation ,
R s R m = sin 2   Θ .
f = R m sin   Θ 2 = R s 2   sin   Θ .
1 f = 1 g + 1 b ,
Δ λ λ w R m tan   Θ M - 1 M + 1 ,
E D = α - α + ϕ - ϕ + λ - λ + d α d ϕ d λ J λ × R Θ + σ α ,   ϕ - λ - λ λ tan   Θ ,

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