Abstract

The far-field pattern of an onboard laser transmitter was measured with a transatmospheric optical link with a distance of ∼33,000 km between the satellite and the optical ground station. The far-field pattern was acquired with a new method used to analyze statistically downlink irradiance data obtained at the ground station. The statistical tracking and pointing characteristics of the transmitter were taken into account in estimating downlink irradiance, assuming that there were no atmospheric scintillation effects. The peak directive gain of the downlink laser beam was 104.3 dB. The beam width (full width at half-maximum) was 28.5 × 17.5 μrad. These results were consistent with the results from a laboratory test undertaken before launch of the satellite.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. A. Lightsey, “Scintillation in ground-to-space and retroreflected laser beams,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2535–2543 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, P. T. Yu, “Optical scintillation and fade statistics for a satellite-communication system,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7742–7751 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using ETS-VI,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. I. Dalgleish, An Introduction to Satellite Communications (Peter Peregrinus, London, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kiasaleh, “On the probability density function of signal intensity in free-space optical communications systems impaired by pointing jitter and turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3748–3757 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  12. Y. Arimoto, Y. Hayano, W. Klaus, “High speed optical feeder link system using adaptive optics,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 142–151 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Hayano, Y. Arimoto, W. Klaus, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication program at CRL using adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 208–215 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

P. A. Lightsey, “Scintillation in ground-to-space and retroreflected laser beams,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2535–2543 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kiasaleh, “On the probability density function of signal intensity in free-space optical communications systems impaired by pointing jitter and turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3748–3757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

Araki, K.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using ETS-VI,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arimoto, Y.

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using ETS-VI,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, Y. Hayano, W. Klaus, “High speed optical feeder link system using adaptive optics,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 142–151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayano, Y. Arimoto, W. Klaus, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication program at CRL using adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 208–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aruga, T.

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dalgleish, D. I.

D. I. Dalgleish, An Introduction to Satellite Communications (Peter Peregrinus, London, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujise, M.

K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, T.

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Furuhama, Y.

K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, R. M.

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Hayano, Y.

Y. Arimoto, Y. Hayano, W. Klaus, “High speed optical feeder link system using adaptive optics,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 142–151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayano, Y. Arimoto, W. Klaus, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication program at CRL using adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 208–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, K.

K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, S.

K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karp, S.

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Kiasaleh, K.

K. Kiasaleh, “On the probability density function of signal intensity in free-space optical communications systems impaired by pointing jitter and turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3748–3757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, W.

Y. Arimoto, Y. Hayano, W. Klaus, “High speed optical feeder link system using adaptive optics,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 142–151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayano, Y. Arimoto, W. Klaus, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication program at CRL using adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 208–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lightsey, P. A.

P. A. Lightsey, “Scintillation in ground-to-space and retroreflected laser beams,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2535–2543 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nohara, M.

K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

Shikatani, M.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using ETS-VI,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using ETS-VI,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, M.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using ETS-VI,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toyoshima, M.

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using ETS-VI,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. A. Lightsey, “Scintillation in ground-to-space and retroreflected laser beams,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2535–2543 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kiasaleh, “On the probability density function of signal intensity in free-space optical communications systems impaired by pointing jitter and turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3748–3757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Y. Arimoto, Y. Hayano, W. Klaus, “High speed optical feeder link system using adaptive optics,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 142–151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayano, Y. Arimoto, W. Klaus, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication program at CRL using adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 208–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using ETS-VI,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground to ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, T. Takahashi, K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, T. Aruga, “Measurements of background noise from earth surface using the ETS-VI/LCE,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 93–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Inagaki, M. Nohara, Y. Arimoto, M. Fujise, Y. Furuhama, S. Kanda, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of on-board laser communication equipment by free-space laser transmission simulator,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies V, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE1866, 83–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Dalgleish, An Introduction to Satellite Communications (Peter Peregrinus, London, 1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration for far-field pattern measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Uplink irradiance measured by the QD at the LCE.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fine-tracking error measured by the QD during the same period as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histogram for the fine-tracking error measured by the QD over 50 min.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Downlink irradiance measured by the QD at the CRL ground station.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram for downlink irradiance over 50 s and the probability density function.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Point-ahead angle.11

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculation for the point-ahead angle seen from the LCE with orbital elements on 1 November 1995. Angles θ and ϕ correspond to the PAM bias angles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Axes of the PAM bias angle.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured downlink irradiance and the relative decrease due to the increase in distance L.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temperature of the onboard semiconductor laser.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Scanning pattern of PAM bias angles.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Directive gain pattern of the onboard laser transmitter in decibels.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Expected value of mispoint loss M(θ, ϕ) fitted against the measured far-field pattern by the least-squares method.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Fine-tracking error during the far-field pattern measurement in microradians (rms).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Far-field pattern (from Ref. 7).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Histogram for the coarse-tracking error measured by the QD during 80 s.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Pointing probability density as a function of azimuth angle x.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Example beam profile calculation as a function of the PAM bias angle.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications for Laser Transmitter

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications for Optical Receiver

Tables Icon

Table 3 Pointing Error Estimates (Gaussian Approximation)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Estimated Directive Gain of the LCE

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison of Far-Field Pattern Measurement

Equations (39)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G dir = 4 π z 2 P T η T P R A R η R τ a ,
ν t = ν s t + ν n t .
I ¯ = I T 0 T   α ν t d t = P ¯ + n 0 ,
P ¯ θ ,   ϕ = P R M θ ,   ϕ γ θ ,   ϕ ,
M θ ,   ϕ =   B x ,   y p x - θ ,   y - ϕ d x d y ,
M θ ,   ϕ M 0 ,   0 γ θ ,   ϕ γ 0 ,   0 = I ¯ θ ,   ϕ - n 0 I ¯ 0 ,   0 - n 0 .
P R = I ¯ θ ,   ϕ - n 0 M θ ,   ϕ γ θ ,   ϕ .
G dir = 4 π z 2 I ¯ θ ,   ϕ - n 0 P T η T τ a A R η R M θ ,   ϕ γ θ ,   ϕ .
e 2 = 1 N i = 1 N I ¯ θ i ,   ϕ i - n 0 I ¯ 0 ,   0 - n 0 - M θ i ,   ϕ i M 0 ,   0 γ θ i ,   ϕ i γ 0 ,   0 2 ,
I 0 r ,   L = W 0 2 W 2 exp - 2   r 2 W 2 ,
I r ,   L = W 0 2 W ea 2 exp - 2   r 2 W ea 2 ,
= γ θ ,   ϕ I 0 r ,   L ,
W ea = W 1 + G d 1 / 2 ,
G d = 4.35 μ Λ 5 / 6 k 7 / 6 H - h 0 5 / 6 sec 11 / 6 ζ ,
μ = h 0 H   C n 2 h h - h 0 H - h 0 5 / 3 d h .
G d = 1.63 Λ 5 / 6 k 7 / 6 sec 11 / 6 ζ C max 2 × h upper - h 0 8 / 3 H - h 0 5 / 6
= 0.00091     1 .
I r ,   L I 0 r ,   L .
γ θ ,   ϕ 1 .
B φ ,   β = exp - 2   φ 2 w 0 2 ,
p φ ,   β ;   ρ = φ σ 2 exp - φ 2 + ρ 2 2 σ 2 I 0 φ ρ σ 2 ,
M ρ = 0 2 π 0   B φ ,   β p φ ,   β ;   ρ d φ d β ,
= 0 exp - 2   φ 2 w 0 2 × φ σ 2   exp - φ 2 + ρ 2 2 σ 2 I 0 φ ρ σ 2 d φ ,
= w 0 2 w ep 2 exp - 2 ρ 2 w ep 2 ,
w ep = w 0 1 + 4 σ 2 w 0 2 1 / 2 .
M 0 = w 0 2 w 0 2 + 4 σ 2 .
f I = w 0 2 4 σ 2 I   I w 0 2 / 4 σ 2 for   0 I 1 ,
0 1   f I I d I = w 0 2 w 0 2 + 4 σ 2 = M 0 .
P I T I = 1 - I T w 0 2 / 4 σ 2     for   0 I T 1 .
θ L τ t ν L = 2 ν c .
B x ,   y = exp - 2 x θ 0 x 2 + y θ 0 y 2 ,
p on x ,   y = ξ 2 π σ on x σ on y × exp - 1 2 x σ on x 2 + y σ on y 2 ,
p off x ,   y = 1 - ξ 2 π σ off x σ off y × exp - 1 2 x σ off x 2 + y σ off y 2 ,
p x ,   y = p on x ,   y + p off x ,   y ,
  p x ,   y d x d y = 1 ,
P ¯ θ ,   ϕ = P R     B x - θ ,   y - ϕ p x ,   y d x d y = P R M θ ,   ϕ ,
M θ ,   ϕ = ξ θ 0 x 2 θ 0 x 2 + 4 σ on x 2 1 / 2 θ 0 y 2 θ 0 y 2 + 4 σ on y 2 1 / 2 × exp - 2 θ 2 θ 0 x 2 + 4 σ on x 2 + ϕ 2 θ 0 y 2 + 4 σ on y 2 + 1 - ξ θ 0 x 2 θ 0 x 2 + 4 σ off x 2 1 / 2 θ 0 y 2 θ 0 y 2 + 4 σ off y 2 1 / 2 × exp - 2 θ 2 θ 0 x 2 + 4 σ off x 2 + ϕ 2 θ 0 y 2 + 4 σ off y 2 ,
p x = -   p x ,   y d y .
θ FWHM = 2   ln   2 1 / 2 θ 0 .

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