Abstract

Spatially resolved near-field luminescence spectroscopy was carried out on locally grown InP ridges, overgrown by a GaInAsP layer in metal organic molecular beam epitaxy. For free access to the quaternary layer the cleaved surface was investigated. Two different reflection scanning near-field microscopy setups were used. In the illumination mode we were able to estimate the charge-carrier diffusion in the InP. For improving the spatial resolution, measurements were also carried out in the collection mode. Here a shift of the center wavelength toward lower energy occurs near the side facets. This can be a result of a material composition gradient or of strained growth near the side facets. A second recombination channel at 1115 nm occurs at the growth–nongrowth transition. With the simultaneous recorded topography this recombination channel can be localized in the quaternary layer grown on the side of the InP ridge.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Heinecke, E. Veuhoff, “Evaluation of III–V growth technologies for optoelectronic applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 21, 120–125 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Heinecke, Low Dimensional Structures Prepared by Epitaxial Growth or Regrowth on Patterned Substrates, NATO ASI Series B (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 229–242.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H Heinecke, M Wachter, U Schöffel, “Facet formation and characterization of III–V structures grown on patterned surfaces,” in Proceedings to International Workshop on Growth, Characterization and Exploitation of Epitaxial Compound Semiconductors on Novel Index Surfaces(NIS 96) Microelectron J.28 (1997).
  4. LVDT: Linear Variable Differential Transformer from PI Instruments, Waldbronn, Germany.
  5. J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, “An easy-to-use nonoptical shear-force distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1912–1916 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. SPM and AFM control unit from Omicron Vakuumphysik GmbH, Taunusstein, Germany. We use the normal force input in the AFM contact mode for shear-force distance control.
  7. IR Multimode Fiber FT-600-URT from 3M Inc., Frontage Road, West Haven, Conn. 06516.
  8. G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Noise eater from Thorlabs Inc., 435 Route 206, P.O. Box 366, Newton, N.J. 07860-0366.
  10. f/4 Spectrometer by Acton Research with a grating constant of 830 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 1.2 μm.
  11. InGaAs Photodiode from Epitaxx. The diode is Peltier cooled at -20 °C. The diameter of the active area is 3 mm.

1996 (1)

J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, “An easy-to-use nonoptical shear-force distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1912–1916 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Heinecke, E. Veuhoff, “Evaluation of III–V growth technologies for optoelectronic applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 21, 120–125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barenz, J.

J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, “An easy-to-use nonoptical shear-force distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1912–1916 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heinecke, H

H Heinecke, M Wachter, U Schöffel, “Facet formation and characterization of III–V structures grown on patterned surfaces,” in Proceedings to International Workshop on Growth, Characterization and Exploitation of Epitaxial Compound Semiconductors on Novel Index Surfaces(NIS 96) Microelectron J.28 (1997).

Heinecke, H.

H. Heinecke, E. Veuhoff, “Evaluation of III–V growth technologies for optoelectronic applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 21, 120–125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Heinecke, Low Dimensional Structures Prepared by Epitaxial Growth or Regrowth on Patterned Substrates, NATO ASI Series B (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 229–242.
[CrossRef]

Hollricher, O.

J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, “An easy-to-use nonoptical shear-force distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1912–1916 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, A.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krausch, G.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, “An easy-to-use nonoptical shear-force distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1912–1916 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meiners, J. C.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schöffel, U

H Heinecke, M Wachter, U Schöffel, “Facet formation and characterization of III–V structures grown on patterned surfaces,” in Proceedings to International Workshop on Growth, Characterization and Exploitation of Epitaxial Compound Semiconductors on Novel Index Surfaces(NIS 96) Microelectron J.28 (1997).

Veuhoff, E.

H. Heinecke, E. Veuhoff, “Evaluation of III–V growth technologies for optoelectronic applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 21, 120–125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wachter, M

H Heinecke, M Wachter, U Schöffel, “Facet formation and characterization of III–V structures grown on patterned surfaces,” in Proceedings to International Workshop on Growth, Characterization and Exploitation of Epitaxial Compound Semiconductors on Novel Index Surfaces(NIS 96) Microelectron J.28 (1997).

Wegscheider, S.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

H. Heinecke, E. Veuhoff, “Evaluation of III–V growth technologies for optoelectronic applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 21, 120–125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Near-field microscopy and lithography with uncoated fiber tips: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. 119, 283–288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, “An easy-to-use nonoptical shear-force distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1912–1916 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

SPM and AFM control unit from Omicron Vakuumphysik GmbH, Taunusstein, Germany. We use the normal force input in the AFM contact mode for shear-force distance control.

IR Multimode Fiber FT-600-URT from 3M Inc., Frontage Road, West Haven, Conn. 06516.

Noise eater from Thorlabs Inc., 435 Route 206, P.O. Box 366, Newton, N.J. 07860-0366.

f/4 Spectrometer by Acton Research with a grating constant of 830 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 1.2 μm.

InGaAs Photodiode from Epitaxx. The diode is Peltier cooled at -20 °C. The diameter of the active area is 3 mm.

H. Heinecke, Low Dimensional Structures Prepared by Epitaxial Growth or Regrowth on Patterned Substrates, NATO ASI Series B (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 229–242.
[CrossRef]

H Heinecke, M Wachter, U Schöffel, “Facet formation and characterization of III–V structures grown on patterned surfaces,” in Proceedings to International Workshop on Growth, Characterization and Exploitation of Epitaxial Compound Semiconductors on Novel Index Surfaces(NIS 96) Microelectron J.28 (1997).

LVDT: Linear Variable Differential Transformer from PI Instruments, Waldbronn, Germany.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image of a typical sample. A 1-μm-thick InP buffer was grown on an InP wafer partially covered by SiO x . On this ridge GaInAsP layer(s) were overgrown. In the case of our first sample only one 400-nm-thick layer was grown. The second sample was overgrown by five 10-nm-thick GaInAsP quantum wells with 30-nm InP spacing. At the transition area various crystal orientations are present.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mechanical setup of our SNOM. We use a homemade linearized scanning platform with an ∼50-μm scan range. The microscope head stands on two translation stages for coarse positioning of the tip and can be taken away for free access to the sample. An all-electrical shear force technique was used for distance control. A commercial Omicron AFM/STM control unit was used for distance control and data acquisition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In the illumination mode setup an argon-ion laser beam is coupled into a glass fiber with a small aperture at its end. This small aperture illuminates the sample in the near field. The luminescence light is collected in the far field by a multimode IR fiber that has a numerical aperture of 0.48. The light collected by the multimode fiber is coupled into a spectrometer and is detected by an InGaAs photodiode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In the collection mode setup the argon-ion laser beam is coupled into the fiber as in the illumination mode. The fiber tip illuminates the sample in the near field. The luminescence light is collected through the same aperture. A beam splitter cube separates the luminescence light from the incident beam. The luminescence light is coupled into the spectrometer and is detected by an InGaAs diode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schemata and SEM of the investigated structure. A 1-μm-thick InP buffer was grown on an InP waver partially covered by SiO x . On this ridge a 400-nm-thick GaInAsP layer was overgrown. In the transition area various crystal facets are present.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminescence spectra at different points. Approximately 5 μm away from the edge the luminescence occurs at the center wavelength of 1075 nm. Spectra toward the edge show a decrease in the total luminescence intensity and a slight shift of the center wavelength toward lower energy. Near the corner a second radiant recombination channel occurs at a center wavelength of ∼1175 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Topography of the investigated structure. In the luminescence map at 1075 nm the decrease in luminescence toward the edge is visible. At the edge the second recombination channel appears as shown in (c). From this one might suppose that this luminescence is caused by the vertical grown quaternary layer on the sidewall. In these spectral maps luminescence occurs if the tip is next to the structure (dark areas in the topographic image). (b), (c) The resolution is limited to ∼4 μm. This is a result of charge carrier diffusion.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured intensity is caused by the recombination of all electrons and holes that passes the quarternary layer per time unit: (a) Homogenous infinite layer in the z and the y directions. The measured intensity is proportional to the integral over the y, z plane in the distance x from the electron–hole source. (b) Cross section far from any disturbance. We can estimate the diffusion length L to be (4.4 ± 0.5) μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schemata and SEM of the investigated structure. A 1-μm-thick InP buffer was grown on an InP waver partially covered by SiO x . Five 10-nm multiple quantum wells were grown with 30-nm InP spacers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Luminescence spectra at different points on the sample. Far from the edge the luminescence has a center wavelength of ∼1016 nm. The total luminescence decreases toward the edge by a factor of 4 and the center wavelength shifts toward 1070 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Topography and luminescence maps at (b) 1016 nm, (c) 1060 nm, and (d) 1115 nm. At 1016 nm a decrease in luminescence toward the edge is visible. The decrease in this wavelength is a result of a luminescence shift toward a higher wavelength. Furthermore the charge carriers are trapped by the vertical facets that form a region of lower energy as (d) shows. The map at 1060 nm shows an increasing luminescence at the edge. This is more clearly shown in the map at 1115 nm where the luminescence of the horizontal layer has vanished.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Vertical cross section through the spectral map in Fig. 11(c). If the extension of the luminescence part can be neglected at the effective aperture, the optical resolution can be estimated at 500 nm at a luminescence wavelength of 1115 nm.

Equations (9)

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nt=1e jn-n1tτe,
je=eDnn,
0=Δn-n1Deτe.
0=Δh-h1Dhτh.
0=Δn-n1Dτ,
τe=τh, 1D=121De+1Dh.
n1=n01rexp-r/L,
Ix0  n0--1rexp-r/Ldydz,
Ix0  2πn0L exp-x0/L.

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