Abstract

A high-resolution incoherent Doppler lidar has been constructed at the University of Michigan Space Physics Research Laboratory. The primary purpose of this lidar is to measure vertical profiles of the horizontal wind field with high spatial and temporal resolution. In mid-1994 a rawinsonde system was used to assess the performance of the lidar. The resulting comparisons of profiles from the balloons and the lidar are shown. The comparisons show an ∼2-m/s rms error between the two systems. The reasons for this error are discussed, and a sensitivity study is shown to illustrate the sensitivity of the lidar wind measurements to various system parameters. Finally, steps that are being taken to improve the systematic errors are discussed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. J. Post, R. Richter, B. F. Weber, “Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2503–2506 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. J. Post, R. E. Cupp, “Optimizing a pulsed Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4145–4158 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, P. J. Samson, M. J. McGill, “Measurement of aerosol loading profilesand mixing layer heights in Atlanta, Georgia, during the 1992 SORP-ONA field study,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112 (1993).
  5. M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. J. Marsik, K. W. Fischer, T. D. McDonald, P. J. Samson, “Comparison of methods for estimating mixing height used during the 1992 Atlanta Field Intensive,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1802–1814 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. B. Hays, J. Wang, “Image plane detector for Fabry–Perot interferometers: physical model and improvement with anticoincidence detection,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3100–3107 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symarrow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Benayahu, A. Ben-David, S. Fastig, A. Cohen, “Cloud-droplet-size distribution from lidar multiple-scattering measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1569–1578 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Mahrt, “The early evening boundary layer transition,” QJR Meteorol. Soc. 107, 329–343 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Passi, C. Morel, “Wind errors using the worldwide Loran network,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 690–700 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, “Use of multiple Fabry–Perot interferometers in an incoherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 36, 139–145 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997

1995

Y. Benayahu, A. Ben-David, S. Fastig, A. Cohen, “Cloud-droplet-size distribution from lidar multiple-scattering measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1569–1578 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Marsik, K. W. Fischer, T. D. McDonald, P. J. Samson, “Comparison of methods for estimating mixing height used during the 1992 Atlanta Field Intensive,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1802–1814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

1990

1987

R. M. Passi, C. Morel, “Wind errors using the worldwide Loran network,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 690–700 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

1983

1981

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahrt, “The early evening boundary layer transition,” QJR Meteorol. Soc. 107, 329–343 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, P. J. Samson, M. J. McGill, “Measurement of aerosol loading profilesand mixing layer heights in Atlanta, Georgia, during the 1992 SORP-ONA field study,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112 (1993).

Barnes, J. E.

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benayahu, Y.

Ben-David, A.

Ceckowski, D. H.

Cohen, A.

Cupp, R. E.

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fastig, S.

Fischer, K. W.

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marsik, K. W. Fischer, T. D. McDonald, P. J. Samson, “Comparison of methods for estimating mixing height used during the 1992 Atlanta Field Intensive,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1802–1814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, P. J. Samson, M. J. McGill, “Measurement of aerosol loading profilesand mixing layer heights in Atlanta, Georgia, during the 1992 SORP-ONA field study,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112 (1993).

Gell, D. A.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hall, F. F.

Hardesty, R. M.

Hays, P. B.

Huffaker, R. M.

Irgang, T. D.

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M.

Kennedy, B. C.

Killeen, T. L.

Klett, J. D.

Lawrence, T. R.

Mahrt, L.

L. Mahrt, “The early evening boundary layer transition,” QJR Meteorol. Soc. 107, 329–343 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Marsik, F. J.

F. J. Marsik, K. W. Fischer, T. D. McDonald, P. J. Samson, “Comparison of methods for estimating mixing height used during the 1992 Atlanta Field Intensive,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1802–1814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, T. D.

F. J. Marsik, K. W. Fischer, T. D. McDonald, P. J. Samson, “Comparison of methods for estimating mixing height used during the 1992 Atlanta Field Intensive,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1802–1814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGill, M. J.

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, “Use of multiple Fabry–Perot interferometers in an incoherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 36, 139–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, P. J. Samson, M. J. McGill, “Measurement of aerosol loading profilesand mixing layer heights in Atlanta, Georgia, during the 1992 SORP-ONA field study,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112 (1993).

Morel, C.

R. M. Passi, C. Morel, “Wind errors using the worldwide Loran network,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 690–700 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Passi, R. M.

R. M. Passi, C. Morel, “Wind errors using the worldwide Loran network,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 690–700 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

Richter, R.

Samson, P. J.

F. J. Marsik, K. W. Fischer, T. D. McDonald, P. J. Samson, “Comparison of methods for estimating mixing height used during the 1992 Atlanta Field Intensive,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1802–1814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, P. J. Samson, M. J. McGill, “Measurement of aerosol loading profilesand mixing layer heights in Atlanta, Georgia, during the 1992 SORP-ONA field study,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112 (1993).

Skinner, W. R.

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, “Use of multiple Fabry–Perot interferometers in an incoherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 36, 139–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Symarrow, D. A.

Wang, J.

Weber, B. F.

Appl. Opt.

F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. J. Post, R. Richter, B. F. Weber, “Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2503–2506 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Post, R. E. Cupp, “Optimizing a pulsed Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4145–4158 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, J. Wang, “Image plane detector for Fabry–Perot interferometers: physical model and improvement with anticoincidence detection,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3100–3107 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symarrow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Benayahu, A. Ben-David, S. Fastig, A. Cohen, “Cloud-droplet-size distribution from lidar multiple-scattering measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1569–1578 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

F. J. Marsik, K. W. Fischer, T. D. McDonald, P. J. Samson, “Comparison of methods for estimating mixing height used during the 1992 Atlanta Field Intensive,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1802–1814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

R. M. Passi, C. Morel, “Wind errors using the worldwide Loran network,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 690–700 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, “Use of multiple Fabry–Perot interferometers in an incoherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 36, 139–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

QJR Meteorol. Soc.

L. Mahrt, “The early evening boundary layer transition,” QJR Meteorol. Soc. 107, 329–343 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, P. J. Samson, M. J. McGill, “Measurement of aerosol loading profilesand mixing layer heights in Atlanta, Georgia, during the 1992 SORP-ONA field study,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112 (1993).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Return signal that is due to aerosol and molecular scattering. Only the indicated wavelength region is imaged onto the detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three different pieces of information are contained in a measured spectrum, each having a distinct functional shape [Eq. (1)]. A least-squares technique can be used to determine the three parameters uniquely.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Error in recovered line-of-sight wind for various aerosol/molecular ratios (denoted by R) as a function of a) error in detector normalization coefficients and b) error in instrument defect function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Error in recovered line-of-sight wind as a function of étalon offset for various aerosol/molecular ratios (denoted by R).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lidar viewing geometry. L.O.S., line of sight.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Horizontal wind field from 12 September 1994. Vectors are spaced 6 min apart. As denoted by the compass, the positive x axis represents east and the positive y axis represents north. For reference, a 10-m/s scale is drawn in the lower left corner.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lidar (solid curve) and balloon (dashed curve) profiles for a) 2:00 UT and b) 4:00 UT, 9 September 1994. Lidar profiles are hour averages. Error bars are shown for the lidar profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean lidar–balloon wind difference and rms wind difference. Graphs are a composite of 17 balloon profiles during periods when the two étalons were held in resonance.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Wind error as a function of signal level and aerosol/molecular ratio.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Model Input Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Errors in Wind Determination because of Errors in Detector Dead Time for Spectra with Peak Counts in Channel 4.3

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Nr, j=ETλεΔthcOArAT4πr2 ΔhQETOTFνTLREj, ν×ηjnCn=0 An,j sincnNFSR×exp-π2n2ΔνL2ΔνFSR2cos2πnj-j0rNFSR×αr+ωrexp-π2n2ΔνM2ΔνFSR2.
αr=PAπ, rβArexp-2 0rβAr+βMrdr,
ωr=PMπ, rβMrexp-2 0rβAr+βMrdr,
An,j=1-1-21-1+  for n=0,  An,j=21-1-21-1+×n exp-4π2n2ΔdD2jν02  forn > 0,
j0r=NFSRΔνFSRν0-νC-2UHrν0 sin ϕc
ΔνDr=2UHrν0 sin ϕc,
TLREj, ν=1-1+1+E1-E×1-E21-2E cos 2πj-j0rNLRE+ϕLRE+E2,
Nm,j=Na,j1+Na,jτΔt,
σw=i=112wniσn,i,
σw2=σn2i=112wni2.

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