Abstract

A fiber probe has been designed as a surgical aid to cut intraocular membranes with laser-induced breakdown as the mechanism. The design of the intraocular laser surgical probe is discussed. A preliminary retinal damage distance has been calculated with breakdown threshold, spot size, and shielding measurements. Collateral mechanical-damage effects caused by shock wave and cavitation are discussed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Yanoff, B. S. Fine, “Diabetes Mellitus,” in Duane’s Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 18, pp. 4–11.
  2. W. E. Benson, W. Tasman, T. D. Duane, “Diabetes mellitus and the eye,” in Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 30, pp. 8–12.
  3. G. C. Brown, W. E. Benson, “Treatment of diabetic traction retinal detachment with the pulsed Neodymium-YAG laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99, 258–262 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  4. W. E. Benson, “Vitrectomy,” in Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 6, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 56, pp. 1–33.
  5. T. M. Aaberg, G. W. Abrams, “Changing indications and techniques for vitrectomy in management of complications of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. 94, 775–779 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. S. Mandelcorn, G. Blankenship, R. Machemer, “Pars plana vitrectomy for the management of severe diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 561–570 (1976).
    [PubMed]
  7. T. A. Rice, R. G. Michels, E. R. Rice, “Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 22–33 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  8. S. M. Meyers, R. F. Bonner, M. M. Rodrigues, E. J. Ballintine, “Phototransection of vitreal membranes with the carbon dioxide laser in rabbits,” Ophthalmol. 90, 563–568 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Borirakchanyavat, C. A. Puliafito, G. H. Kliman, T. I. Margolis, E. L. Galler, “Holmium-YAG laser surgery on experimental vitreous membranes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1605–1609 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmol. 102, 278 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Pellin, G. A. Williams, C. E. Young, D. M. Gruen, M. A. Peters, “Endoexcimer laser intraocular ablative photo-decomposition,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 483–484 (1985).
  12. D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).
  13. P. Rol, P. Niederer, F. Fankhauser, M. Arigoni, E. DeHaller, “Q-switched pulses and optical breakdown generation through optical fibers,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 3, 213–219 (1990).
  14. H. Green, J. Ball, J. Parrish, I. Kochevar, A. Oseroff, “Cytoxicity and mutagenicity of low intensity 248 and 193 nm excimer laser radiation in mammalian cells,” Cancer Res. 47, 410–413 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  15. P. K. Kennedy, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous Media: Part I—Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2241–2250 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Aron-Rosa, J. J. Aron, M. Griesemann, R. Thyzel, “Use of the neodymium-YAG laser to open the posterior capsule after lens implant surgery: a preliminary report,” J. Am. Intraocular Implant Soc. 6, 352–354 (1980).
  21. F. Frankhauser, P. Roussel, J. Steffen, E. van der Zypen, A. Chrenkova, “Clinical studies on the efficiency of high power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior segment of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 3, 129–139 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Fankhauser, H. Lortscher, E. van der Zypen, “Clinical studies on high and low power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 5, 15–32 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. C. Terry, W. J. Stark, A. E. Maumenee, W. Fagadau, “Neodymium-YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 716–720 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  24. M. M. Krasnov, “Laseropuncture of anterior chamber angle in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 674–678 (1973).
    [PubMed]
  25. E. van der Zypen, F. Fankhauser, H. Bebie, J. Marshall, “Changes in the ultrastructure of the iris after irradiation with intense light,” Adv. Ophthalmol. 39, 59–180 (1979).
  26. R. M. Klapper, “Q-switched neodymium:YAG laser iridotomy,” Ophthalmol. 91, 1017–1021 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. F. Bonner, S. M. Meyers, D. E. Gaasterland, “Threshold for retinal damage associated with the use of high-power neodymium-YAG laser in the vitreous,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 153–159 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  28. C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, K. Slawinski, G. D. Noojin, “Gradient index (GRIN) lens multimode fiber probe for laser induced breakdown in the eye,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J. M. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE2126, 291–304 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, W. P. Roach, “Gradient index optics for ophthalmic laser surgery,” ARVO Abstracts: Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1614 (1994).
  30. K. Nakatate, N. Shamoto, T. Oohasi, T. Tsumanuma, K. Sanada, “Silica based rod lens for the medical fiberscope,” in Specialty Fibers for Biomedical and System Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2131, 203–214 (1994).
  31. M. M. Pankratov, O. Pomerantzeff, K. P. Pflibsen, G. R. Bearse, “A step-zoom probe for laser endophotocoagulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. 18, 61–65 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  32. D. Decker-Dunn, D. A. Christensen, G. M. Vincent, “Multifiber gradient-index lens laser angioplasty probe,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 85–93 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, P. Niederer, “A comparison of ophthalmic fiber optic microfocusing systems,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 115–124 (1988).
  34. R. E. Setchell, P. Klingsporn, “Laser-induced damage studies on step-index, multimode fibers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 56–64 (1991).
  35. D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1971).
  36. A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  37. F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. I. Optical breakdown determination for liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 87–103 (1986).
  38. F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. II. Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 105–116 (1986).
  39. D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. W. Ebbers, I. L. Dunsky, “Retinal damage thresholds for multiple pulse lasers,” Aerosp. Med. 44, 317–318 (1973).
    [PubMed]
  41. ANSI Standard Z136.1-1993, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1993).
  42. W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 1, 84.
  44. A. Vogel, “Non-linear Absorption: Intraocular Microsurgery and Laser Lithotripsy,” to be published in Phys. Med. & Biol.

1996 (1)

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

P. K. Kennedy, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous Media: Part I—Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2241–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmol. 102, 278 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, W. P. Roach, “Gradient index optics for ophthalmic laser surgery,” ARVO Abstracts: Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1614 (1994).

1991 (2)

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Borirakchanyavat, C. A. Puliafito, G. H. Kliman, T. I. Margolis, E. L. Galler, “Holmium-YAG laser surgery on experimental vitreous membranes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1605–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

P. Rol, P. Niederer, F. Fankhauser, M. Arigoni, E. DeHaller, “Q-switched pulses and optical breakdown generation through optical fibers,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 3, 213–219 (1990).

D. Decker-Dunn, D. A. Christensen, G. M. Vincent, “Multifiber gradient-index lens laser angioplasty probe,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 85–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, P. Niederer, “A comparison of ophthalmic fiber optic microfocusing systems,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 115–124 (1988).

1987 (3)

M. M. Pankratov, O. Pomerantzeff, K. P. Pflibsen, G. R. Bearse, “A step-zoom probe for laser endophotocoagulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. 18, 61–65 (1987).
[PubMed]

H. Green, J. Ball, J. Parrish, I. Kochevar, A. Oseroff, “Cytoxicity and mutagenicity of low intensity 248 and 193 nm excimer laser radiation in mammalian cells,” Cancer Res. 47, 410–413 (1987).
[PubMed]

T. M. Aaberg, G. W. Abrams, “Changing indications and techniques for vitrectomy in management of complications of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. 94, 775–779 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. I. Optical breakdown determination for liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 87–103 (1986).

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. II. Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 105–116 (1986).

1985 (2)

G. C. Brown, W. E. Benson, “Treatment of diabetic traction retinal detachment with the pulsed Neodymium-YAG laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99, 258–262 (1985).
[PubMed]

M. J. Pellin, G. A. Williams, C. E. Young, D. M. Gruen, M. A. Peters, “Endoexcimer laser intraocular ablative photo-decomposition,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 483–484 (1985).

1984 (1)

R. M. Klapper, “Q-switched neodymium:YAG laser iridotomy,” Ophthalmol. 91, 1017–1021 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (4)

R. F. Bonner, S. M. Meyers, D. E. Gaasterland, “Threshold for retinal damage associated with the use of high-power neodymium-YAG laser in the vitreous,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 153–159 (1983).
[PubMed]

A. C. Terry, W. J. Stark, A. E. Maumenee, W. Fagadau, “Neodymium-YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 716–720 (1983).
[PubMed]

T. A. Rice, R. G. Michels, E. R. Rice, “Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 22–33 (1983).
[PubMed]

S. M. Meyers, R. F. Bonner, M. M. Rodrigues, E. J. Ballintine, “Phototransection of vitreal membranes with the carbon dioxide laser in rabbits,” Ophthalmol. 90, 563–568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

F. Fankhauser, H. Lortscher, E. van der Zypen, “Clinical studies on high and low power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 5, 15–32 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

F. Frankhauser, P. Roussel, J. Steffen, E. van der Zypen, A. Chrenkova, “Clinical studies on the efficiency of high power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior segment of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 3, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. Aron-Rosa, J. J. Aron, M. Griesemann, R. Thyzel, “Use of the neodymium-YAG laser to open the posterior capsule after lens implant surgery: a preliminary report,” J. Am. Intraocular Implant Soc. 6, 352–354 (1980).

1979 (1)

E. van der Zypen, F. Fankhauser, H. Bebie, J. Marshall, “Changes in the ultrastructure of the iris after irradiation with intense light,” Adv. Ophthalmol. 39, 59–180 (1979).

1976 (1)

M. S. Mandelcorn, G. Blankenship, R. Machemer, “Pars plana vitrectomy for the management of severe diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 561–570 (1976).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

R. W. Ebbers, I. L. Dunsky, “Retinal damage thresholds for multiple pulse lasers,” Aerosp. Med. 44, 317–318 (1973).
[PubMed]

M. M. Krasnov, “Laseropuncture of anterior chamber angle in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 674–678 (1973).
[PubMed]

Aaberg, T. M.

T. M. Aaberg, G. W. Abrams, “Changing indications and techniques for vitrectomy in management of complications of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. 94, 775–779 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, G. W.

T. M. Aaberg, G. W. Abrams, “Changing indications and techniques for vitrectomy in management of complications of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. 94, 775–779 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arigoni, M.

P. Rol, P. Niederer, F. Fankhauser, M. Arigoni, E. DeHaller, “Q-switched pulses and optical breakdown generation through optical fibers,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 3, 213–219 (1990).

Aron, J. J.

D. Aron-Rosa, J. J. Aron, M. Griesemann, R. Thyzel, “Use of the neodymium-YAG laser to open the posterior capsule after lens implant surgery: a preliminary report,” J. Am. Intraocular Implant Soc. 6, 352–354 (1980).

Aron-Rosa, D.

D. Aron-Rosa, J. J. Aron, M. Griesemann, R. Thyzel, “Use of the neodymium-YAG laser to open the posterior capsule after lens implant surgery: a preliminary report,” J. Am. Intraocular Implant Soc. 6, 352–354 (1980).

Ball, J.

H. Green, J. Ball, J. Parrish, I. Kochevar, A. Oseroff, “Cytoxicity and mutagenicity of low intensity 248 and 193 nm excimer laser radiation in mammalian cells,” Cancer Res. 47, 410–413 (1987).
[PubMed]

Ballintine, E. J.

S. M. Meyers, R. F. Bonner, M. M. Rodrigues, E. J. Ballintine, “Phototransection of vitreal membranes with the carbon dioxide laser in rabbits,” Ophthalmol. 90, 563–568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bearse, G. R.

M. M. Pankratov, O. Pomerantzeff, K. P. Pflibsen, G. R. Bearse, “A step-zoom probe for laser endophotocoagulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. 18, 61–65 (1987).
[PubMed]

Bebie, H.

E. van der Zypen, F. Fankhauser, H. Bebie, J. Marshall, “Changes in the ultrastructure of the iris after irradiation with intense light,” Adv. Ophthalmol. 39, 59–180 (1979).

Benson, W. E.

G. C. Brown, W. E. Benson, “Treatment of diabetic traction retinal detachment with the pulsed Neodymium-YAG laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99, 258–262 (1985).
[PubMed]

W. E. Benson, “Vitrectomy,” in Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 6, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 56, pp. 1–33.

W. E. Benson, W. Tasman, T. D. Duane, “Diabetes mellitus and the eye,” in Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 30, pp. 8–12.

Bernal, M. T.

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmol. 102, 278 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blankenship, G.

M. S. Mandelcorn, G. Blankenship, R. Machemer, “Pars plana vitrectomy for the management of severe diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 561–570 (1976).
[PubMed]

Bonner, R. F.

S. M. Meyers, R. F. Bonner, M. M. Rodrigues, E. J. Ballintine, “Phototransection of vitreal membranes with the carbon dioxide laser in rabbits,” Ophthalmol. 90, 563–568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Bonner, S. M. Meyers, D. E. Gaasterland, “Threshold for retinal damage associated with the use of high-power neodymium-YAG laser in the vitreous,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 153–159 (1983).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borirakchanyavat, S.

S. Borirakchanyavat, C. A. Puliafito, G. H. Kliman, T. I. Margolis, E. L. Galler, “Holmium-YAG laser surgery on experimental vitreous membranes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1605–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramlette, C.

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brazitikos, P. D.

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmol. 102, 278 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. C.

G. C. Brown, W. E. Benson, “Treatment of diabetic traction retinal detachment with the pulsed Neodymium-YAG laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99, 258–262 (1985).
[PubMed]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrenkova, A.

F. Frankhauser, P. Roussel, J. Steffen, E. van der Zypen, A. Chrenkova, “Clinical studies on the efficiency of high power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior segment of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 3, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, D. A.

D. Decker-Dunn, D. A. Christensen, G. M. Vincent, “Multifiber gradient-index lens laser angioplasty probe,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 85–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Amico, D. J.

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmol. 102, 278 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Decker-Dunn, D.

D. Decker-Dunn, D. A. Christensen, G. M. Vincent, “Multifiber gradient-index lens laser angioplasty probe,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 85–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeHaller, E.

P. Rol, P. Niederer, F. Fankhauser, M. Arigoni, E. DeHaller, “Q-switched pulses and optical breakdown generation through optical fibers,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 3, 213–219 (1990).

Diggs, S. J.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Docchio, F.

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. I. Optical breakdown determination for liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 87–103 (1986).

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. II. Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 105–116 (1986).

Dossi, L.

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. II. Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 105–116 (1986).

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. I. Optical breakdown determination for liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 87–103 (1986).

Duane, T. D.

W. E. Benson, W. Tasman, T. D. Duane, “Diabetes mellitus and the eye,” in Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 30, pp. 8–12.

Dunsky, I. L.

R. W. Ebbers, I. L. Dunsky, “Retinal damage thresholds for multiple pulse lasers,” Aerosp. Med. 44, 317–318 (1973).
[PubMed]

Ebbers, R. W.

R. W. Ebbers, I. L. Dunsky, “Retinal damage thresholds for multiple pulse lasers,” Aerosp. Med. 44, 317–318 (1973).
[PubMed]

Fagadau, W.

A. C. Terry, W. J. Stark, A. E. Maumenee, W. Fagadau, “Neodymium-YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 716–720 (1983).
[PubMed]

Fankhauser, F.

P. Rol, P. Niederer, F. Fankhauser, M. Arigoni, E. DeHaller, “Q-switched pulses and optical breakdown generation through optical fibers,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 3, 213–219 (1990).

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, P. Niederer, “A comparison of ophthalmic fiber optic microfocusing systems,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 115–124 (1988).

F. Fankhauser, H. Lortscher, E. van der Zypen, “Clinical studies on high and low power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 5, 15–32 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. van der Zypen, F. Fankhauser, H. Bebie, J. Marshall, “Changes in the ultrastructure of the iris after irradiation with intense light,” Adv. Ophthalmol. 39, 59–180 (1979).

Fine, B. S.

M. Yanoff, B. S. Fine, “Diabetes Mellitus,” in Duane’s Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 18, pp. 4–11.

Finney, D. J.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1971).

Fish, G.

D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).

Frankhauser, F.

F. Frankhauser, P. Roussel, J. Steffen, E. van der Zypen, A. Chrenkova, “Clinical studies on the efficiency of high power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior segment of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 3, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Frenz, M.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaasterland, D. E.

R. F. Bonner, S. M. Meyers, D. E. Gaasterland, “Threshold for retinal damage associated with the use of high-power neodymium-YAG laser in the vitreous,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 153–159 (1983).
[PubMed]

Galler, E. L.

S. Borirakchanyavat, C. A. Puliafito, G. H. Kliman, T. I. Margolis, E. L. Galler, “Holmium-YAG laser surgery on experimental vitreous membranes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1605–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, A. I.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, H.

H. Green, J. Ball, J. Parrish, I. Kochevar, A. Oseroff, “Cytoxicity and mutagenicity of low intensity 248 and 193 nm excimer laser radiation in mammalian cells,” Cancer Res. 47, 410–413 (1987).
[PubMed]

Griesemann, M.

D. Aron-Rosa, J. J. Aron, M. Griesemann, R. Thyzel, “Use of the neodymium-YAG laser to open the posterior capsule after lens implant surgery: a preliminary report,” J. Am. Intraocular Implant Soc. 6, 352–354 (1980).

Gruen, D. M.

M. J. Pellin, G. A. Williams, C. E. Young, D. M. Gruen, M. A. Peters, “Endoexcimer laser intraocular ablative photo-decomposition,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 483–484 (1985).

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, W. P. Roach, “Gradient index optics for ophthalmic laser surgery,” ARVO Abstracts: Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1614 (1994).

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, K. Slawinski, G. D. Noojin, “Gradient index (GRIN) lens multimode fiber probe for laser induced breakdown in the eye,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J. M. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE2126, 291–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, J.

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hemo, I.

D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).

Holland, L. M.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, T. F.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jungnickel, K.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, P. K.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous Media: Part I—Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2241–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klapper, R. M.

R. M. Klapper, “Q-switched neodymium:YAG laser iridotomy,” Ophthalmol. 91, 1017–1021 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kliman, G. H.

S. Borirakchanyavat, C. A. Puliafito, G. H. Kliman, T. I. Margolis, E. L. Galler, “Holmium-YAG laser surgery on experimental vitreous membranes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1605–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klingsporn, P.

R. E. Setchell, P. Klingsporn, “Laser-induced damage studies on step-index, multimode fibers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 56–64 (1991).

Kochevar, I.

H. Green, J. Ball, J. Parrish, I. Kochevar, A. Oseroff, “Cytoxicity and mutagenicity of low intensity 248 and 193 nm excimer laser radiation in mammalian cells,” Cancer Res. 47, 410–413 (1987).
[PubMed]

Krasnov, M. M.

M. M. Krasnov, “Laseropuncture of anterior chamber angle in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 674–678 (1973).
[PubMed]

Kuwabara, T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwasniewska, S.

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, P. Niederer, “A comparison of ophthalmic fiber optic microfocusing systems,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 115–124 (1988).

Lewis, A.

D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).

Lortscher, H.

F. Fankhauser, H. Lortscher, E. van der Zypen, “Clinical studies on high and low power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 5, 15–32 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machemer, R.

M. S. Mandelcorn, G. Blankenship, R. Machemer, “Pars plana vitrectomy for the management of severe diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 561–570 (1976).
[PubMed]

Mandelcorn, M. S.

M. S. Mandelcorn, G. Blankenship, R. Machemer, “Pars plana vitrectomy for the management of severe diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 561–570 (1976).
[PubMed]

Margolis, T. I.

S. Borirakchanyavat, C. A. Puliafito, G. H. Kliman, T. I. Margolis, E. L. Galler, “Holmium-YAG laser surgery on experimental vitreous membranes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1605–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

E. van der Zypen, F. Fankhauser, H. Bebie, J. Marshall, “Changes in the ultrastructure of the iris after irradiation with intense light,” Adv. Ophthalmol. 39, 59–180 (1979).

Maumenee, A. E.

A. C. Terry, W. J. Stark, A. E. Maumenee, W. Fagadau, “Neodymium-YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 716–720 (1983).
[PubMed]

Meyers, S. M.

R. F. Bonner, S. M. Meyers, D. E. Gaasterland, “Threshold for retinal damage associated with the use of high-power neodymium-YAG laser in the vitreous,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 153–159 (1983).
[PubMed]

S. M. Meyers, R. F. Bonner, M. M. Rodrigues, E. J. Ballintine, “Phototransection of vitreal membranes with the carbon dioxide laser in rabbits,” Ophthalmol. 90, 563–568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Michels, R. G.

T. A. Rice, R. G. Michels, E. R. Rice, “Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 22–33 (1983).
[PubMed]

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakatate, K.

K. Nakatate, N. Shamoto, T. Oohasi, T. Tsumanuma, K. Sanada, “Silica based rod lens for the medical fiberscope,” in Specialty Fibers for Biomedical and System Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2131, 203–214 (1994).

Newman, B. E.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niederer, P.

P. Rol, P. Niederer, F. Fankhauser, M. Arigoni, E. DeHaller, “Q-switched pulses and optical breakdown generation through optical fibers,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 3, 213–219 (1990).

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, P. Niederer, “A comparison of ophthalmic fiber optic microfocusing systems,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 115–124 (1988).

Noack, J.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noojin, G. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, K. Slawinski, G. D. Noojin, “Gradient index (GRIN) lens multimode fiber probe for laser induced breakdown in the eye,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J. M. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE2126, 291–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oohasi, T.

K. Nakatate, N. Shamoto, T. Oohasi, T. Tsumanuma, K. Sanada, “Silica based rod lens for the medical fiberscope,” in Specialty Fibers for Biomedical and System Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2131, 203–214 (1994).

Oseroff, A.

H. Green, J. Ball, J. Parrish, I. Kochevar, A. Oseroff, “Cytoxicity and mutagenicity of low intensity 248 and 193 nm excimer laser radiation in mammalian cells,” Cancer Res. 47, 410–413 (1987).
[PubMed]

Palanker, D.

D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).

Pankratov, M. M.

M. M. Pankratov, O. Pomerantzeff, K. P. Pflibsen, G. R. Bearse, “A step-zoom probe for laser endophotocoagulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. 18, 61–65 (1987).
[PubMed]

Parrish, J.

H. Green, J. Ball, J. Parrish, I. Kochevar, A. Oseroff, “Cytoxicity and mutagenicity of low intensity 248 and 193 nm excimer laser radiation in mammalian cells,” Cancer Res. 47, 410–413 (1987).
[PubMed]

Pellin, M. J.

M. J. Pellin, G. A. Williams, C. E. Young, D. M. Gruen, M. A. Peters, “Endoexcimer laser intraocular ablative photo-decomposition,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 483–484 (1985).

Peters, M. A.

M. J. Pellin, G. A. Williams, C. E. Young, D. M. Gruen, M. A. Peters, “Endoexcimer laser intraocular ablative photo-decomposition,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 483–484 (1985).

Pflibsen, K. P.

M. M. Pankratov, O. Pomerantzeff, K. P. Pflibsen, G. R. Bearse, “A step-zoom probe for laser endophotocoagulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. 18, 61–65 (1987).
[PubMed]

Pomerantzeff, O.

M. M. Pankratov, O. Pomerantzeff, K. P. Pflibsen, G. R. Bearse, “A step-zoom probe for laser endophotocoagulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. 18, 61–65 (1987).
[PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

S. Borirakchanyavat, C. A. Puliafito, G. H. Kliman, T. I. Margolis, E. L. Galler, “Holmium-YAG laser surgery on experimental vitreous membranes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1605–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, E. R.

T. A. Rice, R. G. Michels, E. R. Rice, “Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 22–33 (1983).
[PubMed]

Rice, T. A.

T. A. Rice, R. G. Michels, E. R. Rice, “Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 22–33 (1983).
[PubMed]

Roach, W. P.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, W. P. Roach, “Gradient index optics for ophthalmic laser surgery,” ARVO Abstracts: Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1614 (1994).

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, B. A.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues, M. M.

S. M. Meyers, R. F. Bonner, M. M. Rodrigues, E. J. Ballintine, “Phototransection of vitreal membranes with the carbon dioxide laser in rabbits,” Ophthalmol. 90, 563–568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rol, P.

P. Rol, P. Niederer, F. Fankhauser, M. Arigoni, E. DeHaller, “Q-switched pulses and optical breakdown generation through optical fibers,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 3, 213–219 (1990).

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, P. Niederer, “A comparison of ophthalmic fiber optic microfocusing systems,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 115–124 (1988).

Roussel, P.

F. Frankhauser, P. Roussel, J. Steffen, E. van der Zypen, A. Chrenkova, “Clinical studies on the efficiency of high power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior segment of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 3, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sacchi, C. A.

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. I. Optical breakdown determination for liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 87–103 (1986).

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. II. Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 105–116 (1986).

Sanada, K.

K. Nakatate, N. Shamoto, T. Oohasi, T. Tsumanuma, K. Sanada, “Silica based rod lens for the medical fiberscope,” in Specialty Fibers for Biomedical and System Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2131, 203–214 (1994).

Sasnett, M. W.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Setchell, R. E.

R. E. Setchell, P. Klingsporn, “Laser-induced damage studies on step-index, multimode fibers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 56–64 (1991).

Shamoto, N.

K. Nakatate, N. Shamoto, T. Oohasi, T. Tsumanuma, K. Sanada, “Silica based rod lens for the medical fiberscope,” in Specialty Fibers for Biomedical and System Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2131, 203–214 (1994).

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Slawinski, K.

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, K. Slawinski, G. D. Noojin, “Gradient index (GRIN) lens multimode fiber probe for laser induced breakdown in the eye,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J. M. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE2126, 291–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 1, 84.

Stark, W. J.

A. C. Terry, W. J. Stark, A. E. Maumenee, W. Fagadau, “Neodymium-YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 716–720 (1983).
[PubMed]

Steffen, J.

F. Frankhauser, P. Roussel, J. Steffen, E. van der Zypen, A. Chrenkova, “Clinical studies on the efficiency of high power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior segment of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 3, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stolarski, D. J.

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tasman, W.

W. E. Benson, W. Tasman, T. D. Duane, “Diabetes mellitus and the eye,” in Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 30, pp. 8–12.

Terry, A. C.

A. C. Terry, W. J. Stark, A. E. Maumenee, W. Fagadau, “Neodymium-YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 716–720 (1983).
[PubMed]

Thomas, R. J.

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thyzel, R.

D. Aron-Rosa, J. J. Aron, M. Griesemann, R. Thyzel, “Use of the neodymium-YAG laser to open the posterior capsule after lens implant surgery: a preliminary report,” J. Am. Intraocular Implant Soc. 6, 352–354 (1980).

Toth, C. A.

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, W. P. Roach, “Gradient index optics for ophthalmic laser surgery,” ARVO Abstracts: Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1614 (1994).

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, K. Slawinski, G. D. Noojin, “Gradient index (GRIN) lens multimode fiber probe for laser induced breakdown in the eye,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J. M. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE2126, 291–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsumanuma, T.

K. Nakatate, N. Shamoto, T. Oohasi, T. Tsumanuma, K. Sanada, “Silica based rod lens for the medical fiberscope,” in Specialty Fibers for Biomedical and System Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2131, 203–214 (1994).

Turovets, I.

D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).

van der Zypen, E.

F. Fankhauser, H. Lortscher, E. van der Zypen, “Clinical studies on high and low power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 5, 15–32 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Frankhauser, P. Roussel, J. Steffen, E. van der Zypen, A. Chrenkova, “Clinical studies on the efficiency of high power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior segment of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 3, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. van der Zypen, F. Fankhauser, H. Bebie, J. Marshall, “Changes in the ultrastructure of the iris after irradiation with intense light,” Adv. Ophthalmol. 39, 59–180 (1979).

Vincent, G. M.

D. Decker-Dunn, D. A. Christensen, G. M. Vincent, “Multifiber gradient-index lens laser angioplasty probe,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 85–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, “Non-linear Absorption: Intraocular Microsurgery and Laser Lithotripsy,” to be published in Phys. Med. & Biol.

Walsh, A. W.

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmol. 102, 278 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. A.

M. J. Pellin, G. A. Williams, C. E. Young, D. M. Gruen, M. A. Peters, “Endoexcimer laser intraocular ablative photo-decomposition,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 483–484 (1985).

Wolbarsht, M.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 1, 84.

Yanoff, M.

M. Yanoff, B. S. Fine, “Diabetes Mellitus,” in Duane’s Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 18, pp. 4–11.

Young, C. E.

M. J. Pellin, G. A. Williams, C. E. Young, D. M. Gruen, M. A. Peters, “Endoexcimer laser intraocular ablative photo-decomposition,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 483–484 (1985).

Zauberman, H.

D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).

Adv. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. van der Zypen, F. Fankhauser, H. Bebie, J. Marshall, “Changes in the ultrastructure of the iris after irradiation with intense light,” Adv. Ophthalmol. 39, 59–180 (1979).

Aerosp. Med. (1)

R. W. Ebbers, I. L. Dunsky, “Retinal damage thresholds for multiple pulse lasers,” Aerosp. Med. 44, 317–318 (1973).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (7)

R. F. Bonner, S. M. Meyers, D. E. Gaasterland, “Threshold for retinal damage associated with the use of high-power neodymium-YAG laser in the vitreous,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 153–159 (1983).
[PubMed]

A. C. Terry, W. J. Stark, A. E. Maumenee, W. Fagadau, “Neodymium-YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 716–720 (1983).
[PubMed]

M. M. Krasnov, “Laseropuncture of anterior chamber angle in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 674–678 (1973).
[PubMed]

G. C. Brown, W. E. Benson, “Treatment of diabetic traction retinal detachment with the pulsed Neodymium-YAG laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99, 258–262 (1985).
[PubMed]

M. S. Mandelcorn, G. Blankenship, R. Machemer, “Pars plana vitrectomy for the management of severe diabetic retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 81, 561–570 (1976).
[PubMed]

T. A. Rice, R. G. Michels, E. R. Rice, “Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 22–33 (1983).
[PubMed]

M. J. Pellin, G. A. Williams, C. E. Young, D. M. Gruen, M. A. Peters, “Endoexcimer laser intraocular ablative photo-decomposition,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 483–484 (1985).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Borirakchanyavat, C. A. Puliafito, G. H. Kliman, T. I. Margolis, E. L. Galler, “Holmium-YAG laser surgery on experimental vitreous membranes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1605–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ARVO Abstracts: Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, W. P. Roach, “Gradient index optics for ophthalmic laser surgery,” ARVO Abstracts: Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1614 (1994).

Cancer Res. (1)

H. Green, J. Ball, J. Parrish, I. Kochevar, A. Oseroff, “Cytoxicity and mutagenicity of low intensity 248 and 193 nm excimer laser radiation in mammalian cells,” Cancer Res. 47, 410–413 (1987).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

P. K. Kennedy, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous Media: Part I—Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2241–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for the computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II—comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 670–678 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Int. Ophthalmol. (2)

F. Frankhauser, P. Roussel, J. Steffen, E. van der Zypen, A. Chrenkova, “Clinical studies on the efficiency of high power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior segment of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 3, 129–139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Fankhauser, H. Lortscher, E. van der Zypen, “Clinical studies on high and low power laser radiation upon some structures of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. 5, 15–32 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

D. Palanker, I. Hemo, I. Turovets, H. Zauberman, G. Fish, A. Lewis, “Vitreoretinal ablation with the 193-nm excimer laser in fluid media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3835–3840 (1994).

J. Am. Intraocular Implant Soc. (1)

D. Aron-Rosa, J. J. Aron, M. Griesemann, R. Thyzel, “Use of the neodymium-YAG laser to open the posterior capsule after lens implant surgery: a preliminary report,” J. Am. Intraocular Implant Soc. 6, 352–354 (1980).

Lasers Life Sci. (2)

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. I. Optical breakdown determination for liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 87–103 (1986).

F. Docchio, L. Dossi, C. A. Sacchi, “Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the eye and related phenomena: An experimental study. II. Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in liquids and membranes,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 105–116 (1986).

Lasers Light Ophthalmol. (2)

P. Rol, P. Niederer, F. Fankhauser, M. Arigoni, E. DeHaller, “Q-switched pulses and optical breakdown generation through optical fibers,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 3, 213–219 (1990).

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, P. Niederer, “A comparison of ophthalmic fiber optic microfocusing systems,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 115–124 (1988).

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

D. Decker-Dunn, D. A. Christensen, G. M. Vincent, “Multifiber gradient-index lens laser angioplasty probe,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 85–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. (1)

M. M. Pankratov, O. Pomerantzeff, K. P. Pflibsen, G. R. Bearse, “A step-zoom probe for laser endophotocoagulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. 18, 61–65 (1987).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmol. (4)

R. M. Klapper, “Q-switched neodymium:YAG laser iridotomy,” Ophthalmol. 91, 1017–1021 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Aaberg, G. W. Abrams, “Changing indications and techniques for vitrectomy in management of complications of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmol. 94, 775–779 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmol. 102, 278 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Meyers, R. F. Bonner, M. M. Rodrigues, E. J. Ballintine, “Phototransection of vitreal membranes with the carbon dioxide laser in rabbits,” Ophthalmol. 90, 563–568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, “Ocular hazards from picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG laser radiation,” Science 185, 362–363 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (12)

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 1, 84.

A. Vogel, “Non-linear Absorption: Intraocular Microsurgery and Laser Lithotripsy,” to be published in Phys. Med. & Biol.

R. E. Setchell, P. Klingsporn, “Laser-induced damage studies on step-index, multimode fibers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 56–64 (1991).

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1971).

ANSI Standard Z136.1-1993, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1993).

W. E. Benson, “Vitrectomy,” in Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 6, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 56, pp. 1–33.

M. Yanoff, B. S. Fine, “Diabetes Mellitus,” in Duane’s Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 18, pp. 4–11.

W. E. Benson, W. Tasman, T. D. Duane, “Diabetes mellitus and the eye,” in Duane’s Clinical Ophthalmology, Vol. 3, W. Tasman, E. A. Jaeger, eds. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1992), Chap. 30, pp. 8–12.

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Toth, D. X. Hammer, K. Slawinski, G. D. Noojin, “Gradient index (GRIN) lens multimode fiber probe for laser induced breakdown in the eye,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J. M. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE2126, 291–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakatate, N. Shamoto, T. Oohasi, T. Tsumanuma, K. Sanada, “Silica based rod lens for the medical fiberscope,” in Specialty Fibers for Biomedical and System Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2131, 203–214 (1994).

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, M. Frenz, E. D. Jansen, G. D. Noojin, S. J. Diggs, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, “Shock wave and cavitation bubble measurements of ultra-short pulse laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 437–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intraocular laser surgical probe design, including design parameters for the fiber and lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical setup used for imaging the shock-wave and cavitation-bubble radii. The output of the Nd:YAG laser contains both 1064 nm and 532 nm light. The 1064 nm mirror is transparent to visible light and separates the two wavelengths; λ/2, waveplate; PC, polarization cube; FL, fiber launch; MO, long-working-distance microscope object.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot (data points) illustrating spatial distribution of plasmas produced by ILSP taken near threshold energy (0.8–2.1 mJ). Total number of plasma sites measured was 116. Each plasma site in a multiple breakdown event was measured separately. The solid curve is a plot of the normalized Gaussian (normal) distribution with maximum at the average value, 〈n〉 = 0.38 and standard deviation, σ = 0.05.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of initial shock-wave and cavitation-bubble formation (left) and cavitation-bubble oscillation (right) produced by ILSP immersed in tap water at 3 mJ average laser-pulse energy. The pulse is incident from the right in the images on the left and from above in the images on the right. The delay between pump and probe pulse is shown for each image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Initial shock-wave and cavitation-bubble radii measured with pump–probe techniques at 3 mJ average laser-pulse energy. Each point represents an average of approximately 10 shots. Solid curves are empirical curve fits according to the equations shown. The dashed curve is the acoustic speed from a radius of 7 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Initial shock-wave and cavitation-bubble velocity calculated from the first derivative of the curve fit to the measured radii in Fig. 5. The average laser-pulse energy is 3 mJ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Peak pressure of initial shock wave calculated from the shock-wave velocity shown in Fig. 6. The average laser-pulse energy is 3 mJ.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated retinal-damage distance of ILSP from threshold, spot size, and shielding measurements in comparison with the ANSI retinal MPE safety limits and the measured damage threshold. The gray shaded region is where breakdown occurs (taken from Fig. 3).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

wz=M2w01+λnz-z0πM2w02,
ps=5160ρovs10vs-co/25 300-1,
EB=43 πp0-pvRB3,

Metrics