Abstract

We studied integral photography (IP), which creates three-dimensional autostereoscopic images. In particular we studied the possibility of a new method that uses a television camera to shoot directly numerous real images produced by a lens array. Unlike the conventional IP method in which the film is placed immediately behind a lens array, this method employs a television camera, which enables us to shoot moving pictures. Of a number of factors affecting the process of image pickup, we examined some optical factors and compared them with those obtained by the conventional IP method. The results show that with this new direct pickup method that uses a television camera, we can obtain an IP image like those obtained by using the conventional IP method. Further, we conducted an experiment with an high-definition TV camera, confirming the production of an autostereoscopic image by using a display device that combines a liquid-crystal panel and pinholes.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).
  2. T. Okoshi, Three Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1971).
  3. M. McCormick, “Integral 3D image for broadcast,” in Proceedings of the Second International Display Workshop (ITE, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 77–80.
  4. H. Higuchi, J. Hamasaki, “Real-time transmission of 3-D images formed by parallax panoramagrams,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3895–3902 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1908 (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

Hamasaki, J.

Higuchi, H.

Lippmann, M. G.

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

McCormick, M.

M. McCormick, “Integral 3D image for broadcast,” in Proceedings of the Second International Display Workshop (ITE, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 77–80.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, Three Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1971).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Phys. (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

Other (2)

T. Okoshi, Three Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1971).

M. McCormick, “Integral 3D image for broadcast,” in Proceedings of the Second International Display Workshop (ITE, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 77–80.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of IP: (a) pickup, (b) reproduction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of direct pickup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of convex–concave conversion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Direct pickup with only a lens array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Direct pickup with a combination of a lens array and a large-aperture convex lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pickup directions of element images with a combination of a lens array and a large-aperture convex lens.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the depth of focus in direct pickup and indirect pickup.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reproduced autostereoscopic image (with a large-aperture convex lens).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Enlarged image on the liquid-crystal panel (with a large-aperture convex lens).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Whole image on the liquid-crystal panel (a) without and (b) with a large-aperture convex lens).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Equipment Specifications

Equations (22)

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WLZMC WSfc,
WL=WMN,
WS=NMPC,
θn=tan-1-ynZR+ZIC,
ZF=fF,
WLfF=WSZC WSfc
yt,ybWC2.
yt=WM2+ΔynZFZR,
yb=-WM2-ΔynZFZR.
-WM2Δyn WM2.
WC>2WMZRZF2 WMfM fF,
DM=SMfM2fM4/ZP-fM2-SM2/4,
SM=2FMδM=kSCFMFC,
SC=2FCδC,
FC=fCWdWd<WCfCWCWd>WC.
DIP=DCfM2fM4/ZP-fM2-DC2/4.
DC=SCfC2fC4/ZIC-fC2-SC2/4,
fCB=kδCFCFMFM-kFC1/2,
k=WLWS=ZICfC.
FM=fMWM.
ΔZa=ΔZbfF2fF4/Za-fF2-ΔZb2/4,
ΔZaΔZbfF2fF2-ΔZb2/4ΔZb,

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