Abstract

The quantum detection efficiency of photon-counting microchannel-plate detector channels can be increased by a factor of 2 in the extreme ultraviolet bandpass, from 256 Å to 1024 Å, by subjecting the input channel plate to a chemical solution treatment. The efficiency increase has proven to be insensitive to the exposure of laboratory atmosphere and is stable over the extracted charge lifetime equivalent of multiyear astrophysical observations. Chemically treated microchannel plates that are overcoated with opaque photocathodes of KBr and CsI show a factor of 2 quantum detection efficiency increase from 834 Å to 1100 Å in comparison with previous measurements using conventional untreated microchannel plates.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. W. Fraser, M. A. Garstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The soft x-ray detection efficiency of coated microchannel plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme ultraviolet quantum efficiency of opaque alkali halide photocathodes on microchannel plates,” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 18–24 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. H. W. Siegmund, G. A. Gaines, “Photoelectron energy spectra of opaque photocathodes in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy, H. S. Hudson, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE1344, 217–227 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206–4207 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. R. Carruthers, “Quantum efficiencies of imaging detectors with alkali halide photocathodes. I. Microchannel plates with separate and integral CsI photocathodes,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2925–2930 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. O. H. W. Siegmund, D. E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft-x-ray and extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide photocathode layers on microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1568–1573 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Whitely, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The stability of CsI coated microchannel plate array x-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes at soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440–2449 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The stability of cesium iodide X-ray photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–469 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Edelstein, S. Bowyer, “The diffuse EUV spectrometer UCB,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 2–10 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, P. Jelinsky, “Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy,” in X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources, and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 40–48 (1988).
  13. J. V. Vallerga, M. Eckert, M. Sirk, O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, “Long-term orbital performance of the mcp detectors aboard the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 57–68 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Philips Photonics Limited, Specification Sheet for Type G12-33DT/13-13-13 (Shortform G12-33DT/B), Spec. qs 93–109.
  15. J. Lettieri, Philips Components, Slatersville, R.I. 02876 (personal communication, 1996).
  16. O. H. W. Siegmund, “Preconditioning of microchannel plate stacks,” in Image Intensification, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. SPIE1072, 111–118 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, D. E. Everman, J. Hull, “Long-term performance characteristics of the detectors for the extreme ultra-violet explorer,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. SPIE1140, 106–111 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. M. Then, C. G. Pantano, “Formation and behavior of surface layers on electron emission glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 178–187 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Y. Shashkov, V. N. Sigaev, L. A. Grechanik, V. B. Kalinin, “X-ray phase analysis and small-angle x-ray scattering study of the reduced layer of microchannel plates (glass structure),” Sov. J. Gl. Phys. Chem. 17, 385–389 (1991).
  20. B. Pracek, “AES studies of the active surface in mcp channels,” Vacuum 40, 949–950 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. F. Malina, K. R. Coburn, “Comparative lifetesting results for microchannel plates in windowless EUV photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 404–407 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. E. Huheey, Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity (Harper & Row, New York, 1972).

1992 (1)

B. Pracek, “AES studies of the active surface in mcp channels,” Vacuum 40, 949–950 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Y. Shashkov, V. N. Sigaev, L. A. Grechanik, V. B. Kalinin, “X-ray phase analysis and small-angle x-ray scattering study of the reduced layer of microchannel plates (glass structure),” Sov. J. Gl. Phys. Chem. 17, 385–389 (1991).

1989 (1)

A. M. Then, C. G. Pantano, “Formation and behavior of surface layers on electron emission glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 178–187 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

1984 (3)

M. J. Whitely, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The stability of CsI coated microchannel plate array x-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Garstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The soft x-ray detection efficiency of coated microchannel plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Malina, K. R. Coburn, “Comparative lifetesting results for microchannel plates in windowless EUV photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 404–407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The stability of cesium iodide X-ray photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–469 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Barstow, M. A.

M. J. Whitely, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The stability of CsI coated microchannel plate array x-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206–4207 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Edelstein, S. Bowyer, “The diffuse EUV spectrometer UCB,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 2–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, G. R.

Coburn, K. R.

R. F. Malina, K. R. Coburn, “Comparative lifetesting results for microchannel plates in windowless EUV photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 404–407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Dietz, E. R.

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The stability of cesium iodide X-ray photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–469 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, M.

J. V. Vallerga, M. Eckert, M. Sirk, O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, “Long-term orbital performance of the mcp detectors aboard the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 57–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, J.

J. Edelstein, S. Bowyer, “The diffuse EUV spectrometer UCB,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 2–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Everman, D. E.

O. H. W. Siegmund, D. E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft-x-ray and extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide photocathode layers on microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1568–1573 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, D. E. Everman, J. Hull, “Long-term performance characteristics of the detectors for the extreme ultra-violet explorer,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. SPIE1140, 106–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Everman, E.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme ultraviolet quantum efficiency of opaque alkali halide photocathodes on microchannel plates,” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 18–24 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Garstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The soft x-ray detection efficiency of coated microchannel plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Whitely, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The stability of CsI coated microchannel plate array x-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, G. G.

Gaines, G. A.

O. H. W. Siegmund, G. A. Gaines, “Photoelectron energy spectra of opaque photocathodes in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy, H. S. Hudson, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE1344, 217–227 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Garstow, M. A.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Garstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The soft x-ray detection efficiency of coated microchannel plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grechanik, L. A.

A. Y. Shashkov, V. N. Sigaev, L. A. Grechanik, V. B. Kalinin, “X-ray phase analysis and small-angle x-ray scattering study of the reduced layer of microchannel plates (glass structure),” Sov. J. Gl. Phys. Chem. 17, 385–389 (1991).

Henke, B. L.

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The stability of cesium iodide X-ray photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–469 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huheey, J. E.

J. E. Huheey, Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity (Harper & Row, New York, 1972).

Hull, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, D. E. Everman, J. Hull, “Long-term performance characteristics of the detectors for the extreme ultra-violet explorer,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. SPIE1140, 106–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, P.

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, P. Jelinsky, “Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy,” in X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources, and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 40–48 (1988).

Kalinin, V. B.

A. Y. Shashkov, V. N. Sigaev, L. A. Grechanik, V. B. Kalinin, “X-ray phase analysis and small-angle x-ray scattering study of the reduced layer of microchannel plates (glass structure),” Sov. J. Gl. Phys. Chem. 17, 385–389 (1991).

Kowalski, M. P.

Lampton, M.

Lettieri, J.

J. Lettieri, Philips Components, Slatersville, R.I. 02876 (personal communication, 1996).

Lewis, M.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Garstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The soft x-ray detection efficiency of coated microchannel plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Malina, R. F.

R. F. Malina, K. R. Coburn, “Comparative lifetesting results for microchannel plates in windowless EUV photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 404–407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Vallerga, M. Eckert, M. Sirk, O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, “Long-term orbital performance of the mcp detectors aboard the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 57–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C.

Pantano, C. G.

A. M. Then, C. G. Pantano, “Formation and behavior of surface layers on electron emission glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 178–187 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. F.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Garstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The soft x-ray detection efficiency of coated microchannel plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Whitely, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The stability of CsI coated microchannel plate array x-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pracek, B.

B. Pracek, “AES studies of the active surface in mcp channels,” Vacuum 40, 949–950 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Premaratne, K.

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The stability of cesium iodide X-ray photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–469 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shashkov, A. Y.

A. Y. Shashkov, V. N. Sigaev, L. A. Grechanik, V. B. Kalinin, “X-ray phase analysis and small-angle x-ray scattering study of the reduced layer of microchannel plates (glass structure),” Sov. J. Gl. Phys. Chem. 17, 385–389 (1991).

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, D. E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft-x-ray and extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide photocathode layers on microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1568–1573 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, G. A. Gaines, “Photoelectron energy spectra of opaque photocathodes in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy, H. S. Hudson, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE1344, 217–227 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme ultraviolet quantum efficiency of opaque alkali halide photocathodes on microchannel plates,” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 18–24 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, “Preconditioning of microchannel plate stacks,” in Image Intensification, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. SPIE1072, 111–118 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, D. E. Everman, J. Hull, “Long-term performance characteristics of the detectors for the extreme ultra-violet explorer,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. SPIE1140, 106–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Vallerga, M. Eckert, M. Sirk, O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, “Long-term orbital performance of the mcp detectors aboard the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 57–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, P. Jelinsky, “Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy,” in X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources, and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 40–48 (1988).

Sigaev, V. N.

A. Y. Shashkov, V. N. Sigaev, L. A. Grechanik, V. B. Kalinin, “X-ray phase analysis and small-angle x-ray scattering study of the reduced layer of microchannel plates (glass structure),” Sov. J. Gl. Phys. Chem. 17, 385–389 (1991).

Sirk, M.

J. V. Vallerga, M. Eckert, M. Sirk, O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, “Long-term orbital performance of the mcp detectors aboard the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 57–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski, J.

Swanson, N.

Then, A. M.

A. M. Then, C. G. Pantano, “Formation and behavior of surface layers on electron emission glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 178–187 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Unzicker, A. E.

Vallerga, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme ultraviolet quantum efficiency of opaque alkali halide photocathodes on microchannel plates,” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 18–24 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, P. Jelinsky, “Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy,” in X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources, and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 40–48 (1988).

Vallerga, J. V.

O. H. W. Siegmund, D. E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft-x-ray and extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide photocathode layers on microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1568–1573 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Vallerga, M. Eckert, M. Sirk, O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, “Long-term orbital performance of the mcp detectors aboard the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 57–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, D. E. Everman, J. Hull, “Long-term performance characteristics of the detectors for the extreme ultra-violet explorer,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. SPIE1140, 106–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whiteley, M. J.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Garstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The soft x-ray detection efficiency of coated microchannel plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Whitely, M. J.

M. J. Whitely, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The stability of CsI coated microchannel plate array x-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

R. F. Malina, K. R. Coburn, “Comparative lifetesting results for microchannel plates in windowless EUV photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 404–407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. M. Then, C. G. Pantano, “Formation and behavior of surface layers on electron emission glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 178–187 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (3)

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Garstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The soft x-ray detection efficiency of coated microchannel plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Whitely, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The stability of CsI coated microchannel plate array x-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The stability of cesium iodide X-ray photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–469 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Gl. Phys. Chem. (1)

A. Y. Shashkov, V. N. Sigaev, L. A. Grechanik, V. B. Kalinin, “X-ray phase analysis and small-angle x-ray scattering study of the reduced layer of microchannel plates (glass structure),” Sov. J. Gl. Phys. Chem. 17, 385–389 (1991).

Vacuum (1)

B. Pracek, “AES studies of the active surface in mcp channels,” Vacuum 40, 949–950 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme ultraviolet quantum efficiency of opaque alkali halide photocathodes on microchannel plates,” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 18–24 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, G. A. Gaines, “Photoelectron energy spectra of opaque photocathodes in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy, H. S. Hudson, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE1344, 217–227 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Edelstein, S. Bowyer, “The diffuse EUV spectrometer UCB,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 2–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, P. Jelinsky, “Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy,” in X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources, and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 40–48 (1988).

J. V. Vallerga, M. Eckert, M. Sirk, O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, “Long-term orbital performance of the mcp detectors aboard the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 57–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Philips Photonics Limited, Specification Sheet for Type G12-33DT/13-13-13 (Shortform G12-33DT/B), Spec. qs 93–109.

J. Lettieri, Philips Components, Slatersville, R.I. 02876 (personal communication, 1996).

O. H. W. Siegmund, “Preconditioning of microchannel plate stacks,” in Image Intensification, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. SPIE1072, 111–118 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, D. E. Everman, J. Hull, “Long-term performance characteristics of the detectors for the extreme ultra-violet explorer,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. SPIE1140, 106–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Huheey, Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity (Harper & Row, New York, 1972).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Channel QDE as a function of wavelength for a MCP before (dashed curve) and after (solid curve with asterisks) the chemical treatment process. The dotted curve shows the quantum efficiency of the chemically treated detector after the charge-extraction equivalent of a mission lifetime. The error bars shown, typically smaller than the plotting symbol size, apply to the comparison of results at a given wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Channel QDE as a function of wavelength for a chemically treated MCP (thick solid curve with asterisks) in comparison with previous measurements2 of the channel efficiency of photocathode-coated plates at a 15° incidence angle for MgF2 (thin solid curve), KBr (dashed curve), and CsI (dotted–dashed curve). The error bar shown applies to the comparison of our results with the previous measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Channel QDE as a function of wavelength of a MCP before (dotted line with diamonds) and after (thin solid line with diamonds) chemical treatment, and then after a KBr overcoat (thick curve with diamonds). The QDE for a CsI overcoated, treated plate is shown for one wavelength with a large triangle. A previously measured2 coated plate QDE at a 15° incidence angle is shown for KBr (dashed curve) and CsI (dotted–dashed curve). The error bar shown applies to the comparison of our results with the previous measurements.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 32-mm MCP Manufacturing Specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2 QDE of Untreated, Treated, and Life-Tested 32-mm MCP’s

Metrics