Abstract

An evanescent field-sensing configuration, based on a periodically segmented waveguide, is proposed and analyzed. It has advantages over existing configurations that relate to its simple realization (in single-step lithography). The sensitivity and operating point can be controlled easily with geometric parameters alone, which facilitates realization of more complex sensing arrays.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sensors Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Rehouma, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, “Optical waveguides for evanescent field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1477–1479 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Li, J. J. Burke, “Linear propagation characteristics of periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1195–1197 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1839 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Thyagarajan, C. W. Chien, R. V. Ramaswamy, H. S. Kim, H. C. Cheng, “Proton-exchanged periodically segmented waveguides in LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 880–882 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Nir, Z. Weissman, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, “Periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1732–1734 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. D. Bierlein, “Propagation is segmented waveguide structures,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), p. 42.
  9. Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, “Analysis of periodically segmented mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2053–2058 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1514–1516 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. I. Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Boston, 1992), Chap. 6.
  12. R. V. Ramaswamy, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, “Process optimization of buried Ag+-Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1814–1819 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. O. Parriaux, P. Dierauer, “Normalized expressions for the optical sensitivity of evanescent wave sensors,” Opt. Lett. 19, 508–510 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Sensitivity of grating couplers as integrated optical chemical sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 209–220 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516–518 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger, A. Shahna, “Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7519–7523 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1995 (2)

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, “Analysis of periodically segmented mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2053–2058 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (5)

1993 (1)

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1839 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (4)

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516–518 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sensors Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[Crossref]

L. Li, J. J. Burke, “Linear propagation characteristics of periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1195–1197 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1514–1516 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

Benech, P.

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bierlein, J. D.

J. D. Bierlein, “Propagation is segmented waveguide structures,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), p. 42.

Burke, J. J.

Cheng, H. C.

Chien, C. W.

Clauss, G.

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dierauer, P.

Eger, D.

M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger, A. Shahna, “Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7519–7523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Elflein, W.

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hardy, A.

D. Nir, Z. Weissman, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, “Periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1732–1734 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1839 (1993).
[Crossref]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1514–1516 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hendel, I.

Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, “Analysis of periodically segmented mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2053–2058 (1995).
[Crossref]

Katz, M.

M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger, A. Shahna, “Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7519–7523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kevorkian, A.

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Rehouma, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, “Optical waveguides for evanescent field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1477–1479 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

Lambeck, P. V.

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sensors Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Liu, K.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516–518 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lukosz, W.

Measures, R. M.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516–518 (1992).
[Crossref]

Melle, S. M.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516–518 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nir, D.

Oron, M.

M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger, A. Shahna, “Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7519–7523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

Persegol, D.

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Rehouma, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, “Optical waveguides for evanescent field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1477–1479 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

Rehouma, F.

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Rehouma, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, “Optical waveguides for evanescent field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1477–1479 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rimet, R.

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ruschin, S.

Shahna, A.

M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger, A. Shahna, “Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7519–7523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, R.

Thyagarajan, K.

Tiefenthaler, K.

Weissman, Z.

Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, “Analysis of periodically segmented mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2053–2058 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Nir, Z. Weissman, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, “Periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1732–1734 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1839 (1993).
[Crossref]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1514–1516 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zussman, A.

M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger, A. Shahna, “Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7519–7523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Rehouma, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, “Optical waveguides for evanescent field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1477–1479 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Rehouma, W. Elflein, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, G. Clauss, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Improved structures for evanescent wave sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1461–1462 (1995).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1514–1516 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516–518 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger, A. Shahna, “Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7519–7523 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, “Analysis of periodically segmented mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2053–2058 (1995).
[Crossref]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1839 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sensors Actuators B (1)

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sensors Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. D. Bierlein, “Propagation is segmented waveguide structures,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), p. 42.

S. I. Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Boston, 1992), Chap. 6.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the Mach–Zehnder-type evanescent field sensor based on a segmented waveguide: (a) layout and (b) cross section of the sensing arm (buried in this example).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sensing section and (b) the five-layer slab waveguide model used to represent it.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index sensitivity (∂neff/∂nsens) as a function of duty cycle η for three burying depths: solid curve, d = 0; dotted curve, d = 1 µm; dashed curve, d = 2 µm; a = (ng - nsens)/(ng - nsub) represents surface waveguide asymmetry. To include burying effects, w (d) = w(0)(1 + d/4), Δn (d) = Δn(0)/(1 + d/4). Other parameters are nsub = 1.5, λ = 0.85 µm, Δn(0) = 0.01, w(0) = 3.3 µm. In (d), nclad = 1.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

aout=uoutu0uoutu0=As expksLs+Ar expkrLrAs expksLs2+Ar expkrLr21/22.
k-α+iβ=-αb+αm+iβb+βm,
As exp-αsbLs=Ar exp-αrbLr,βsbLs=βrbLr+mπ, m=1,3,.
As exp-αsb+iβsbLs=-Ar exp-αrb+iβrbLrA
αm+iβmL1.
aoutexp-αsm+iβsmLs]-exp-αrm+iβrmLr2,
aoutαrmLr-αsmLs+iβsmLs-βrmLr2=-ΔαmL+iΔβmL2
Iout=aoutaout*=ΔαmL2+ΔβmL24=LrΔαm+αsmΔL2+LrΔβm+βsmΔL24.
Δβm=2πλneff,snsens-neff,rnsensnsensMinΔMin.

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