Abstract

We tested the performance of a XeCl laser with unstable resonators using as an output coupler a phase unifying (PU) mirror, a super-Gaussian mirror, and a hard-edge mirror. The quantitative impact of the output coupler design on the energy extraction efficiency, near-field profile, far-field energy distribution, and spatial coherence time evolution has been investigated. Laser beams of larger brightness have been obtained with the PU unstable cavity. A faster growth of the laser beam spatial coherence has been observed with the PU cavity by time-resolved, far-field measurements.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 23, p. 913.
  2. S. De Silvestri, P. Laporta, V. Magni, O. Svelto, B. Majocchi, “Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 13, 201–203 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Lavigne, N. McCarthy, J-G. Demers, “Design and characterization of complementary Gaussian reflectivity mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2581–2586 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. R. Perrone, F. Mezzolla, C. Cali’, C. Pace, “Super Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator for excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1–3 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Fang, M. R. Perrone, “Numerical simulation of excimer lasers with unstable resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2369–2375 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the super-Gaussian unstable resonator for high-gain, short-pulse laser media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1423–1427 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. J. McKee, S. Fendrykowski, “Long-pulse excimer laser with variable reflectivity mirror resonators,” Appl. Opt. 32, 275–277 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Cali’, F. Mezzolla, C. Pace, M. R. Perrone, P. Rejfir, “Characterization of an unstable Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator in a XeCl Laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 301–305 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the peak reflectivity of super-Gaussian mirrors for unstable resonators applied to a XeCl laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 213–218 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, D. Flori, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Phase-unifying mirrors as output couplers of XeCl laser resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 655–658 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. B. Kaul, S. V. Melchenko, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, V. F. Tarasenko, “Near diffraction limited output from 100 ns XeCl laser fitted with a phase-unifying cavity,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2229–2237 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. E. Kovalenko, V. Losev, M. R. Perrone, “Super-Gaussian resonators for long-pulse XeCl lasers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4082–4086 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Yasui, M. Tanaka, S. Yagi, “Unstable resonator with phase-unifying coupler for high-power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 530–531 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Flori, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Graded reflectance mirrors and phase-unifying mirrors for XeCl lasers,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 417–426 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. R. Perrone, C. Palma, V. Bagini, A. Piegari, D. Flori, S. Scaglione, “Theoretical and experimental determination of single round-trip beam parameters in a XeCl laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 991–998 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Bagini, A. Mascello, C. Palma, M. R. Perrone, “Transient states analysis of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a Gaussian cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1572–1578 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Caprara, G. C. Reali, “Time varying M2 in Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1001–S1009 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (3)

V. B. Kaul, S. V. Melchenko, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, V. F. Tarasenko, “Near diffraction limited output from 100 ns XeCl laser fitted with a phase-unifying cavity,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2229–2237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagini, A. Mascello, C. Palma, M. R. Perrone, “Transient states analysis of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a Gaussian cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1572–1578 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, C. Palma, V. Bagini, A. Piegari, D. Flori, S. Scaglione, “Theoretical and experimental determination of single round-trip beam parameters in a XeCl laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 991–998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

S. E. Kovalenko, V. Losev, M. R. Perrone, “Super-Gaussian resonators for long-pulse XeCl lasers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4082–4086 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, D. Flori, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Phase-unifying mirrors as output couplers of XeCl laser resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 655–658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Flori, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Graded reflectance mirrors and phase-unifying mirrors for XeCl lasers,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 417–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, M. R. Perrone, “Numerical simulation of excimer lasers with unstable resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2369–2375 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the super-Gaussian unstable resonator for high-gain, short-pulse laser media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1423–1427 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the peak reflectivity of super-Gaussian mirrors for unstable resonators applied to a XeCl laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 213–218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McKee, S. Fendrykowski, “Long-pulse excimer laser with variable reflectivity mirror resonators,” Appl. Opt. 32, 275–277 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. Caprara, G. C. Reali, “Time varying M2 in Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1001–S1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. R. Perrone, F. Mezzolla, C. Cali’, C. Pace, “Super Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator for excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1–3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Cali’, F. Mezzolla, C. Pace, M. R. Perrone, P. Rejfir, “Characterization of an unstable Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator in a XeCl Laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 301–305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

K. Yasui, M. Tanaka, S. Yagi, “Unstable resonator with phase-unifying coupler for high-power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 530–531 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. De Silvestri, P. Laporta, V. Magni, O. Svelto, B. Majocchi, “Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 13, 201–203 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Bagini, V.

V. Bagini, A. Mascello, C. Palma, M. R. Perrone, “Transient states analysis of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a Gaussian cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1572–1578 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, C. Palma, V. Bagini, A. Piegari, D. Flori, S. Scaglione, “Theoretical and experimental determination of single round-trip beam parameters in a XeCl laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 991–998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cali’, C.

M. R. Perrone, F. Mezzolla, C. Cali’, C. Pace, “Super Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator for excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1–3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Cali’, F. Mezzolla, C. Pace, M. R. Perrone, P. Rejfir, “Characterization of an unstable Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator in a XeCl Laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 301–305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Caprara, A.

A. Caprara, G. C. Reali, “Time varying M2 in Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1001–S1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Demers, J-G.

Fang, H.

H. Fang, M. R. Perrone, “Numerical simulation of excimer lasers with unstable resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2369–2375 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fendrykowski, S.

Flori, D.

M. R. Perrone, C. Palma, V. Bagini, A. Piegari, D. Flori, S. Scaglione, “Theoretical and experimental determination of single round-trip beam parameters in a XeCl laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 991–998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Flori, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Graded reflectance mirrors and phase-unifying mirrors for XeCl lasers,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 417–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, D. Flori, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Phase-unifying mirrors as output couplers of XeCl laser resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 655–658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giuri, C.

C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, D. Flori, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Phase-unifying mirrors as output couplers of XeCl laser resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 655–658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaul, V. B.

V. B. Kaul, S. V. Melchenko, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, V. F. Tarasenko, “Near diffraction limited output from 100 ns XeCl laser fitted with a phase-unifying cavity,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2229–2237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kovalenko, S. E.

Laporta, P.

Lavigne, P.

Losev, V.

Magni, V.

Majocchi, B.

Mascello, A.

V. Bagini, A. Mascello, C. Palma, M. R. Perrone, “Transient states analysis of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a Gaussian cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1572–1578 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, N.

McKee, T. J.

Melchenko, S. V.

V. B. Kaul, S. V. Melchenko, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, V. F. Tarasenko, “Near diffraction limited output from 100 ns XeCl laser fitted with a phase-unifying cavity,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2229–2237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mezzolla, F.

C. Cali’, F. Mezzolla, C. Pace, M. R. Perrone, P. Rejfir, “Characterization of an unstable Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator in a XeCl Laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 301–305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, F. Mezzolla, C. Cali’, C. Pace, “Super Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator for excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1–3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pace, C.

C. Cali’, F. Mezzolla, C. Pace, M. R. Perrone, P. Rejfir, “Characterization of an unstable Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator in a XeCl Laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 301–305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, F. Mezzolla, C. Cali’, C. Pace, “Super Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator for excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1–3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Palma, C.

V. Bagini, A. Mascello, C. Palma, M. R. Perrone, “Transient states analysis of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a Gaussian cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1572–1578 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, C. Palma, V. Bagini, A. Piegari, D. Flori, S. Scaglione, “Theoretical and experimental determination of single round-trip beam parameters in a XeCl laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 991–998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, M. R.

M. R. Perrone, C. Palma, V. Bagini, A. Piegari, D. Flori, S. Scaglione, “Theoretical and experimental determination of single round-trip beam parameters in a XeCl laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 991–998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagini, A. Mascello, C. Palma, M. R. Perrone, “Transient states analysis of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a Gaussian cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1572–1578 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Kaul, S. V. Melchenko, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, V. F. Tarasenko, “Near diffraction limited output from 100 ns XeCl laser fitted with a phase-unifying cavity,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2229–2237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Flori, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Graded reflectance mirrors and phase-unifying mirrors for XeCl lasers,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 417–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, M. R. Perrone, “Numerical simulation of excimer lasers with unstable resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2369–2375 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, D. Flori, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Phase-unifying mirrors as output couplers of XeCl laser resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 655–658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kovalenko, V. Losev, M. R. Perrone, “Super-Gaussian resonators for long-pulse XeCl lasers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4082–4086 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the peak reflectivity of super-Gaussian mirrors for unstable resonators applied to a XeCl laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 213–218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the super-Gaussian unstable resonator for high-gain, short-pulse laser media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1423–1427 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, F. Mezzolla, C. Cali’, C. Pace, “Super Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator for excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1–3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Cali’, F. Mezzolla, C. Pace, M. R. Perrone, P. Rejfir, “Characterization of an unstable Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator in a XeCl Laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 301–305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Piegari, A.

V. B. Kaul, S. V. Melchenko, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, V. F. Tarasenko, “Near diffraction limited output from 100 ns XeCl laser fitted with a phase-unifying cavity,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2229–2237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, C. Palma, V. Bagini, A. Piegari, D. Flori, S. Scaglione, “Theoretical and experimental determination of single round-trip beam parameters in a XeCl laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 991–998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, D. Flori, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Phase-unifying mirrors as output couplers of XeCl laser resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 655–658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Flori, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Graded reflectance mirrors and phase-unifying mirrors for XeCl lasers,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 417–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the peak reflectivity of super-Gaussian mirrors for unstable resonators applied to a XeCl laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 213–218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the super-Gaussian unstable resonator for high-gain, short-pulse laser media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1423–1427 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G. C.

A. Caprara, G. C. Reali, “Time varying M2 in Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1001–S1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rejfir, P.

C. Cali’, F. Mezzolla, C. Pace, M. R. Perrone, P. Rejfir, “Characterization of an unstable Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator in a XeCl Laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 301–305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scaglione, S.

M. R. Perrone, C. Palma, V. Bagini, A. Piegari, D. Flori, S. Scaglione, “Theoretical and experimental determination of single round-trip beam parameters in a XeCl laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 991–998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Flori, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Graded reflectance mirrors and phase-unifying mirrors for XeCl lasers,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 417–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, D. Flori, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Phase-unifying mirrors as output couplers of XeCl laser resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 655–658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the peak reflectivity of super-Gaussian mirrors for unstable resonators applied to a XeCl laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 213–218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the super-Gaussian unstable resonator for high-gain, short-pulse laser media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1423–1427 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 23, p. 913.

Svelto, O.

Tanaka, M.

K. Yasui, M. Tanaka, S. Yagi, “Unstable resonator with phase-unifying coupler for high-power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 530–531 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tarasenko, V. F.

V. B. Kaul, S. V. Melchenko, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, V. F. Tarasenko, “Near diffraction limited output from 100 ns XeCl laser fitted with a phase-unifying cavity,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2229–2237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, S.

K. Yasui, M. Tanaka, S. Yagi, “Unstable resonator with phase-unifying coupler for high-power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 530–531 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, K.

K. Yasui, M. Tanaka, S. Yagi, “Unstable resonator with phase-unifying coupler for high-power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 530–531 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. R. Perrone, F. Mezzolla, C. Cali’, C. Pace, “Super Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator for excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1–3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, D. Flori, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Phase-unifying mirrors as output couplers of XeCl laser resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 655–658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Yasui, M. Tanaka, S. Yagi, “Unstable resonator with phase-unifying coupler for high-power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 530–531 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

H. Fang, M. R. Perrone, “Numerical simulation of excimer lasers with unstable resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2369–2375 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the super-Gaussian unstable resonator for high-gain, short-pulse laser media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1423–1427 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagini, A. Mascello, C. Palma, M. R. Perrone, “Transient states analysis of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a Gaussian cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1572–1578 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. B. Kaul, S. V. Melchenko, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, V. F. Tarasenko, “Near diffraction limited output from 100 ns XeCl laser fitted with a phase-unifying cavity,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2229–2237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. Cali’, F. Mezzolla, C. Pace, M. R. Perrone, P. Rejfir, “Characterization of an unstable Gaussian reflectivity unstable resonator in a XeCl Laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 301–305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “On the peak reflectivity of super-Gaussian mirrors for unstable resonators applied to a XeCl laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 213–218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Caprara, G. C. Reali, “Time varying M2 in Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1001–S1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Flori, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, “Graded reflectance mirrors and phase-unifying mirrors for XeCl lasers,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 417–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 23, p. 913.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup (a) of the variable reflectivity unstable cavity and (b) of the hard-edge unstable cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Single-graded layer coating and (b) intensity reflectivity profile of the super-Gaussian mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Coating structure, (b) phase variation, and (c) intensity reflectivity profile of the phase-unifying mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser energy versus the charging voltage of the main capacitor for the investigated unstable cavities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse width versus the charging voltage of the main capacitor for the investigated unstable cavities.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time evolution of the laser pulse at a charging voltage of 40 kV (a) for the PU cavity and (b) for the HE cavity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity distribution of the laser beam at a few centimeters from the output coupler and at different times Ti from the onset of the laser pulse (a) for the SG unstable cavity, (b) for the PU unstable cavity, and (c) for the HE unstable cavity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Energy within the divergence angle as a function of the far-field full angle for the △, SG cavity; ○, PU cavity; and □, HE cavity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized far-field intensity profiles at different times Ti from the onset of the laser pulse (a) for the SG unstable cavity, (b) the PU unstable cavity, and (c) the HE unstable cavity. The solid curves represent interpolating curves.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Output energy and pulse width versus the charging voltage for the XeCl laser fitted with a PP cavity.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of Different Cavity Configurations

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