Abstract

A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser was studied for gas-sensing applications. Properties of the 962-nm laser that were measured include side-mode suppression, wavelength tuning with temperature and current, power versus injection current, and the amplitude noise spectrum. With wavelength modulation spectroscopy, a rms noise level of 2 × 10-4 absorbance units was achieved. The large current tuning range (25 cm-1) and smaller amplitude modulation (11%/cm-1) of the vertical cavity laser compare favorably with Fabry–Perot and distributed feedback diode lasers for spectroscopic gas sensing, especially at atmospheric pressure.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Feher, P. A. Martin, “Tunable diode laser monitoring of atmospheric trace gas constituents,” Spectrochim. Acta. Part A 51, 1579–1599 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Bomse, “Diode lasers: finding trace gases in the lab and the plant,” Photon. Spectra88–94 (June1995).
  3. H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, L. W. Carr, D. E. Cooper, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Design of an open path near-infrared diode laser sensor: application to oxygen, water, and carbon dioxide vapor detection,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7059–7066 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. E. Cooper, R. U. Martinelli, “Near-infrared diode lasers monitor molecular species,” Laser Focus World133–146 (November1992).
  6. J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–717 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. S. Bomse, J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. L. Gourley, K. L. Lear, R. P. Schneider, “A different mirror …,” IEEE Spectrum 31, 31–37 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. C. Hovde, J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, D. B. Oh, A. C. Stanton, “Trace gas detection using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Environmental and Process Monitoring, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 296.
  11. N. P. R. Bhadri, S. GuptaR, K. Jain, D. A. Brinkman, W. S. Fu, S. E. Swirhun, “Use of vertical cavity lasers for spectroscopic applications,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Advanced Devices and Applications, Vol. 20 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  12. J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. S. Geels, S. W. Corzine, L. A. Coldren, “InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1359–1367 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Tanobe, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Spectral linewidth of AlGaAs/GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1444–1446 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1995

M. Feher, P. A. Martin, “Tunable diode laser monitoring of atmospheric trace gas constituents,” Spectrochim. Acta. Part A 51, 1579–1599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bomse, “Diode lasers: finding trace gases in the lab and the plant,” Photon. Spectra88–94 (June1995).

1994

P. L. Gourley, K. L. Lear, R. P. Schneider, “A different mirror …,” IEEE Spectrum 31, 31–37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, L. W. Carr, D. E. Cooper, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Design of an open path near-infrared diode laser sensor: application to oxygen, water, and carbon dioxide vapor detection,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7059–7066 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. E. Cooper, R. U. Martinelli, “Near-infrared diode lasers monitor molecular species,” Laser Focus World133–146 (November1992).

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–717 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Bomse, J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. S. Geels, S. W. Corzine, L. A. Coldren, “InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1359–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Tanobe, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Spectral linewidth of AlGaAs/GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1444–1446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bae, J. W.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bhadri, N. P. R.

N. P. R. Bhadri, S. GuptaR, K. Jain, D. A. Brinkman, W. S. Fu, S. E. Swirhun, “Use of vertical cavity lasers for spectroscopic applications,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Advanced Devices and Applications, Vol. 20 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Bomse, D. S.

D. S. Bomse, “Diode lasers: finding trace gases in the lab and the plant,” Photon. Spectra88–94 (June1995).

D. S. Bomse, J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hovde, J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, D. B. Oh, A. C. Stanton, “Trace gas detection using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Environmental and Process Monitoring, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 296.

Brinkman, D. A.

N. P. R. Bhadri, S. GuptaR, K. Jain, D. A. Brinkman, W. S. Fu, S. E. Swirhun, “Use of vertical cavity lasers for spectroscopic applications,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Advanced Devices and Applications, Vol. 20 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brusenbach, P.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carlisle, C. B.

Carr, L. W.

Coldren, L. A.

R. S. Geels, S. W. Corzine, L. A. Coldren, “InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1359–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. E.

Corzine, S. W.

R. S. Geels, S. W. Corzine, L. A. Coldren, “InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1359–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. Malathy

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feher, M.

M. Feher, P. A. Martin, “Tunable diode laser monitoring of atmospheric trace gas constituents,” Spectrochim. Acta. Part A 51, 1579–1599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fu, W. S.

N. P. R. Bhadri, S. GuptaR, K. Jain, D. A. Brinkman, W. S. Fu, S. E. Swirhun, “Use of vertical cavity lasers for spectroscopic applications,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Advanced Devices and Applications, Vol. 20 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geels, R. S.

R. S. Geels, S. W. Corzine, L. A. Coldren, “InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1359–1367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gourley, P. L.

P. L. Gourley, K. L. Lear, R. P. Schneider, “A different mirror …,” IEEE Spectrum 31, 31–37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

GuptaR, S.

N. P. R. Bhadri, S. GuptaR, K. Jain, D. A. Brinkman, W. S. Fu, S. E. Swirhun, “Use of vertical cavity lasers for spectroscopic applications,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Advanced Devices and Applications, Vol. 20 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Harbison, J. P.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hovde, D. C.

D. C. Hovde, J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, D. B. Oh, A. C. Stanton, “Trace gas detection using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Environmental and Process Monitoring, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 296.

Iga, K.

H. Tanobe, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Spectral linewidth of AlGaAs/GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1444–1446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jain, K.

N. P. R. Bhadri, S. GuptaR, K. Jain, D. A. Brinkman, W. S. Fu, S. E. Swirhun, “Use of vertical cavity lasers for spectroscopic applications,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Advanced Devices and Applications, Vol. 20 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Jewell, J. L.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

D. C. Hovde, J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, D. B. Oh, A. C. Stanton, “Trace gas detection using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Environmental and Process Monitoring, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 296.

Kim, M.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

H. Tanobe, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Spectral linewidth of AlGaAs/GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1444–1446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

P. L. Gourley, K. L. Lear, R. P. Schneider, “A different mirror …,” IEEE Spectrum 31, 31–37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. A.

M. Feher, P. A. Martin, “Tunable diode laser monitoring of atmospheric trace gas constituents,” Spectrochim. Acta. Part A 51, 1579–1599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Menna, R. J.

Oh, D. B.

D. C. Hovde, J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, D. B. Oh, A. C. Stanton, “Trace gas detection using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Environmental and Process Monitoring, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 296.

Paige, M. E.

D. C. Hovde, J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, D. B. Oh, A. C. Stanton, “Trace gas detection using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Environmental and Process Monitoring, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 296.

Parsons, C.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F. S.

F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, W. E.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Riris, H.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. P.

P. L. Gourley, K. L. Lear, R. P. Schneider, “A different mirror …,” IEEE Spectrum 31, 31–37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–717 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Bomse, J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hovde, J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, D. B. Oh, A. C. Stanton, “Trace gas detection using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Environmental and Process Monitoring, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 296.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

D. S. Bomse, J. A. Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hovde, J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, D. B. Oh, A. C. Stanton, “Trace gas detection using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Environmental and Process Monitoring, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 296.

Swirhun, S. E.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. P. R. Bhadri, S. GuptaR, K. Jain, D. A. Brinkman, W. S. Fu, S. E. Swirhun, “Use of vertical cavity lasers for spectroscopic applications,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Advanced Devices and Applications, Vol. 20 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Tanobe, H.

H. Tanobe, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Spectral linewidth of AlGaAs/GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1444–1446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, C. Parsons, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, M. Kim, T. Uchida, S. E. Swirhun, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of Bragg mirrors in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 400–402 (1994).
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[CrossRef]

J. W. Bae, H. Temkin, S. E. Swirhun, W. E. Quinn, P. Brusenbach, C. Parsons, M. Kim, T. Uchida, “Reflection noise in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1480–1482 (1993).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

VCSEL front surface output power (solid curve) and external applied voltage (dashed curve) versus injection current.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Noise spectrum at 12.5-mA injection current. The noise floor is essentially the quantum shot-noise limit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Water vapor spectrum from 10,381 to 10,389 cm-1 obtained by sweeping the injection current from 14.4 to 11.9 mA. Top panel: direct absorption spectrum. The strongest feature has an absorbance of 8.5% and an apparent linewidth (HWHM) of 870 MHz. Bottom panel: same current range recorded with WMS by modulating the injection current at 10 kHz and demodulating at 20 kHz.

Equations (1)

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νt=ν0+m sinωt.

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