Abstract

In cases in which the image-to-image spatial variability of the input pattern changes with the spatial location, a localized-filtering method should be used for pattern recognition. Localized space-invariant filtering is investigated, and its improved recognition abilities are demonstrated with the recognition of fingerprints. The motivation for the investigated implementation is related to the fact that a person never presses his finger on a surface with equal pressure. This variation results in different amounts of spatial shifting being required from the optical processor in different regions of the fingerprint. A two-region mathematical model for representing the human finger is presented and investigated by use of localized space-invariant filtering by means of a computer.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. L. B. Almeida, “An introduction to the angular Fourier transform,” paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 1993.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. E. U. Condon, “Immersion of the Fourier transform in a continuous group of functional transformations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 23, 158–164 (1937).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. D. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, J. P. Modde, P. Hariharan, “An interactive optical digital image processor,” Optical Pattern Recognition, H. Liu, ed., Proc. SPIE1053, 110–115 (1989).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. Mendlovic, Z. Zalevsky, A. W. Lohmann, R. G. Dorsch, “Signal spatial frequency using the localized fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 126, 14–18 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (6)

G. S. Agarwal, R. Simon, “A simple realization of the fractional Fourier transform and relation to harmonic oscillator Green’s function,” Opt. Commun. 110, 23–26 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Almeida, “The fractional Fourier transform and time-frequency representations,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 3084–3091 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Bernardo, O. D. D. Soares, “Fractional Fourier transforms and optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 110, 517–522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Ozaktas, B. Barshan, D. Mendlovic, L. Onural, “Convolution, filtering, and multiplexing in the fractional Fourier domain and their relation to chirp and wavelet transforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 547–559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Mendlovic, M. Ozaktas, A. W. Lohmann, “Graded index fibers, Wigner-distribution functions, and the fractional Fourier transform,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6188–6193 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Dorsch, A. W. Lohmann, Y. Bitran, D. Mendlovic, H. M. Ozaktas, “Chirp filtering in the fractional Fourier domain,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7599–7602 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1977 (1)

G. R. Mangassaryan, B. E. Khaikin, V. S. Khitrova, “Matched filtering on the basis of thick holograms for fingerprint identification,” Opt. Commun. 22, 169–172 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. H. McMahon, G. L. Johnson, S. L. Teeter, C. G. Whitney, “A hybrid optical computer processor technique for fingerprint identification,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-24, 358–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. Eleccion, “Automatic fingerprint identification,” IEEE Spectrum 10, 36–45 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

G. Broussaud, “Coherent optics holography and pattern recognition. Application to fingerprint identification,” Automatisme 15, 459–469 (1970).

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

1937 (1)

E. U. Condon, “Immersion of the Fourier transform in a continuous group of functional transformations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 23, 158–164 (1937).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, R. Simon, “A simple realization of the fractional Fourier transform and relation to harmonic oscillator Green’s function,” Opt. Commun. 110, 23–26 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, L. B.

L. B. Almeida, “The fractional Fourier transform and time-frequency representations,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 3084–3091 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Almeida, “An introduction to the angular Fourier transform,” paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 1993.

Barshan, B.

Bernardo, L. M.

L. M. Bernardo, O. D. D. Soares, “Fractional Fourier transforms and optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 110, 517–522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bitran, Y.

Broussaud, G.

G. Broussaud, “Coherent optics holography and pattern recognition. Application to fingerprint identification,” Automatisme 15, 459–469 (1970).

Chou, H. M.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Condon, E. U.

E. U. Condon, “Immersion of the Fourier transform in a continuous group of functional transformations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 23, 158–164 (1937).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorsch, R. G.

D. Mendlovic, Z. Zalevsky, A. W. Lohmann, R. G. Dorsch, “Signal spatial frequency using the localized fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 126, 14–18 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dorsch, A. W. Lohmann, Y. Bitran, D. Mendlovic, H. M. Ozaktas, “Chirp filtering in the fractional Fourier domain,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7599–7602 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eleccion, M.

M. Eleccion, “Automatic fingerprint identification,” IEEE Spectrum 10, 36–45 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Esch, V.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Farrant, D.

D. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, J. P. Modde, P. Hariharan, “An interactive optical digital image processor,” Optical Pattern Recognition, H. Liu, ed., Proc. SPIE1053, 110–115 (1989).

Feinleib, R.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Frye, L. M.

Gamble, F. T.

Gibbs, H. M.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Grieser, D. R.

Hariharan, P.

D. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, J. P. Modde, P. Hariharan, “An interactive optical digital image processor,” Optical Pattern Recognition, H. Liu, ed., Proc. SPIE1053, 110–115 (1989).

Johnson, G. L.

D. H. McMahon, G. L. Johnson, S. L. Teeter, C. G. Whitney, “A hybrid optical computer processor technique for fingerprint identification,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-24, 358–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Khaikin, B. E.

G. R. Mangassaryan, B. E. Khaikin, V. S. Khitrova, “Matched filtering on the basis of thick holograms for fingerprint identification,” Opt. Commun. 22, 169–172 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, V. S.

G. R. Mangassaryan, B. E. Khaikin, V. S. Khitrova, “Matched filtering on the basis of thick holograms for fingerprint identification,” Opt. Commun. 22, 169–172 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Khitrove, G.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Lohmann, A. W.

MacLeod, H. A.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Mangassaryan, G. R.

G. R. Mangassaryan, B. E. Khaikin, V. S. Khitrova, “Matched filtering on the basis of thick holograms for fingerprint identification,” Opt. Commun. 22, 169–172 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, D. H.

D. H. McMahon, G. L. Johnson, S. L. Teeter, C. G. Whitney, “A hybrid optical computer processor technique for fingerprint identification,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-24, 358–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mendlovic, D.

Modde, J. P.

D. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, J. P. Modde, P. Hariharan, “An interactive optical digital image processor,” Optical Pattern Recognition, H. Liu, ed., Proc. SPIE1053, 110–115 (1989).

Onural, L.

Oreb, B. F.

D. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, J. P. Modde, P. Hariharan, “An interactive optical digital image processor,” Optical Pattern Recognition, H. Liu, ed., Proc. SPIE1053, 110–115 (1989).

Ozaktas, H. M.

Ozaktas, M.

Psaltis, D.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Simon, R.

G. S. Agarwal, R. Simon, “A simple realization of the fractional Fourier transform and relation to harmonic oscillator Green’s function,” Opt. Commun. 110, 23–26 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soares, O. D. D.

L. M. Bernardo, O. D. D. Soares, “Fractional Fourier transforms and optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 110, 517–522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R. W.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Teeter, S. L.

D. H. McMahon, G. L. Johnson, S. L. Teeter, C. G. Whitney, “A hybrid optical computer processor technique for fingerprint identification,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-24, 358–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

Wagner, K.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Wang, L.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

Whitney, C. G.

D. H. McMahon, G. L. Johnson, S. L. Teeter, C. G. Whitney, “A hybrid optical computer processor technique for fingerprint identification,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-24, 358–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Zalevsky, Z.

D. Mendlovic, Z. Zalevsky, A. W. Lohmann, R. G. Dorsch, “Signal spatial frequency using the localized fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 126, 14–18 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Automatisme (1)

G. Broussaud, “Coherent optics holography and pattern recognition. Application to fingerprint identification,” Automatisme 15, 459–469 (1970).

IEEE Spectrum (1)

M. Eleccion, “Automatic fingerprint identification,” IEEE Spectrum 10, 36–45 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

D. H. McMahon, G. L. Johnson, S. L. Teeter, C. G. Whitney, “A hybrid optical computer processor technique for fingerprint identification,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-24, 358–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

L. B. Almeida, “The fractional Fourier transform and time-frequency representations,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 3084–3091 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Commun. (4)

D. Mendlovic, Z. Zalevsky, A. W. Lohmann, R. G. Dorsch, “Signal spatial frequency using the localized fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 126, 14–18 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Bernardo, O. D. D. Soares, “Fractional Fourier transforms and optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 110, 517–522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal, R. Simon, “A simple realization of the fractional Fourier transform and relation to harmonic oscillator Green’s function,” Opt. Commun. 110, 23–26 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Mangassaryan, B. E. Khaikin, V. S. Khitrova, “Matched filtering on the basis of thick holograms for fingerprint identification,” Opt. Commun. 22, 169–172 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

E. U. Condon, “Immersion of the Fourier transform in a continuous group of functional transformations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 23, 158–164 (1937).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

L. B. Almeida, “An introduction to the angular Fourier transform,” paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 1993.

G. Khitrove, L. Wang, V. Esch, R. Feinleib, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. MacLeod, H. M. Gibbs, K. Wagner, D. Psaltis, “Interference filters as nonlinear decision making elements for associative memories,” Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, N. Peyghambarian, ed., Proc. SPIE881, 60–66 (1988).

D. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, J. P. Modde, P. Hariharan, “An interactive optical digital image processor,” Optical Pattern Recognition, H. Liu, ed., Proc. SPIE1053, 110–115 (1989).

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