Abstract

An x-ray imaging system with a bent focusing crystal was used for time-resolved one-dimensional imaging of a long plasma column of highly ionized aluminum. This scheme uses a focusing geometry with a spherically bent crystal and a slit on the Rowland circle. Alternative schemes of x-ray monochromatic imaging are briefly discussed. The homogeneity of the up to 40-mm-long laser-generated plasma column was studied with a temporal resolution of 100 ps. The potential spatial resolution of the instrument is 90 µm or better. Monochromatic images taken on the resonance Heα line of Al xii characterize the homogeneity of a plasma generated to study a recombination x-ray laser scheme, giving an amplified spontaneous emission in Al xi.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for XUV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.
  5. R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, R. E. Strout, “Spectra—a model for K-shell spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91–104 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, D. M. Villeneuve, J. E. Bernard, H. A. Baldis, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging of a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4333–4336 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 539–546 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Renner, M. Kopecký, “Theoretical analysis of double-crystal spectrograph for high-resolution spectroscopy of laser-generated x-rays,” Laser Part. Beams 10, 841–847 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Zeitoun, “Etude experimentale et modelisation de lasers X-UV a grand facteur de gain autour de 100Å,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 1994).
  17. H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. S. Fraenkel, “Monochromatic x-ray images of x-ray emitting sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 341–343 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. A. Boiko, A. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Ya. Faenov, “X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas,” J. Sov. Laser Res. 6, 85–290 (1985) and references therein.
  20. H. H. Johann, “Die Erzeugung lichtstarker Röntgenspektren mit Hilfe von Konkavkristallen,” Z. Phys. 69, 185–206 (1931). See also M. A. Blokhin, Methods of X-Ray Spectroscopic Research (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Chap. 4, pp. 169–175.
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Johansson, “Uber ein neuartiges, genau fokussierendes Röontgenspektrometer,” Z. Phys. 82, 507–528 (1933). See also M. A. Blokhin, Ref. 20, pp. 175–178.
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Takagi, “Dynamical theory of diffraction applicable to crystals with any kind of small distortion,” Acta Crystallogr. 15, 1311–1315 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Taupin, “Théorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayons X par les cristaux déformés,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris, Paris, 1964).
  24. A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.
  26. A. Carillon, “Dispositif de lissage del’energie dans la ligne focale pour les expériences laser X,” in (LULI, Palaiseau, France, 1993), pp. 305–308.
  27. E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and their application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.
  30. A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Möller, J. Virmont, “Effective rates in Li-like ions; calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 153–164 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (3)

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

O. Renner, M. Kopecký, “Theoretical analysis of double-crystal spectrograph for high-resolution spectroscopy of laser-generated x-rays,” Laser Part. Beams 10, 841–847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and their application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for XUV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Möller, J. Virmont, “Effective rates in Li-like ions; calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, D. M. Villeneuve, J. E. Bernard, H. A. Baldis, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging of a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4333–4336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

V. A. Boiko, A. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Ya. Faenov, “X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas,” J. Sov. Laser Res. 6, 85–290 (1985) and references therein.

1984 (1)

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, R. E. Strout, “Spectra—a model for K-shell spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91–104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

B. S. Fraenkel, “Monochromatic x-ray images of x-ray emitting sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 341–343 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

S. Takagi, “Dynamical theory of diffraction applicable to crystals with any kind of small distortion,” Acta Crystallogr. 15, 1311–1315 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

T. Johansson, “Uber ein neuartiges, genau fokussierendes Röontgenspektrometer,” Z. Phys. 82, 507–528 (1933). See also M. A. Blokhin, Ref. 20, pp. 175–178.
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

H. H. Johann, “Die Erzeugung lichtstarker Röntgenspektren mit Hilfe von Konkavkristallen,” Z. Phys. 69, 185–206 (1931). See also M. A. Blokhin, Methods of X-Ray Spectroscopic Research (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Chap. 4, pp. 169–175.
[CrossRef]

Baldis, H. A.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, D. M. Villeneuve, J. E. Bernard, H. A. Baldis, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging of a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4333–4336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bann, R.

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J. E.

Blyth, W.

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, V. A.

V. A. Boiko, A. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Ya. Faenov, “X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas,” J. Sov. Laser Res. 6, 85–290 (1985) and references therein.

Carillon, A.

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for XUV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

A. Carillon, “Dispositif de lissage del’energie dans la ligne focale pour les expériences laser X,” in (LULI, Palaiseau, France, 1993), pp. 305–308.

Chaker, M.

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, D. M. Villeneuve, J. E. Bernard, H. A. Baldis, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging of a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4333–4336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-S.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chenais-Popovics, C.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Danson, C.

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dirksmöller, M.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Elton, R. C.

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 539–546 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Enright, G. D.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Faenov, A. Ya.

V. A. Boiko, A. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Ya. Faenov, “X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas,” J. Sov. Laser Res. 6, 85–290 (1985) and references therein.

Ford, J. L.

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Förster, E.

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and their application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fraenkel, B. S.

B. S. Fraenkel, “Monochromatic x-ray images of x-ray emitting sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 341–343 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gäbel, K.

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and their application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gauthé, B.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

Gauthier, J. C.

E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J.-C.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goedtkindt, P.

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

Guennou, H.

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Möller, J. Virmont, “Effective rates in Li-like ions; calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

He, H.

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hutcheon, R. J.

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

Jaeglé, P.

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for XUV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

Jamelot, G.

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for XUV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

Jiang, Z.-M.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johann, H. H.

H. H. Johann, “Die Erzeugung lichtstarker Röntgenspektren mit Hilfe von Konkavkristallen,” Z. Phys. 69, 185–206 (1931). See also M. A. Blokhin, Methods of X-Ray Spectroscopic Research (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Chap. 4, pp. 169–175.
[CrossRef]

Johansson, T.

T. Johansson, “Uber ein neuartiges, genau fokussierendes Röontgenspektrometer,” Z. Phys. 82, 507–528 (1933). See also M. A. Blokhin, Ref. 20, pp. 175–178.
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, D. M. Villeneuve, J. E. Bernard, H. A. Baldis, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging of a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4333–4336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klisnick, A.

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for XUV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Möller, J. Virmont, “Effective rates in Li-like ions; calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

Kopecký, M.

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Renner, M. Kopecký, “Theoretical analysis of double-crystal spectrograph for high-resolution spectroscopy of laser-generated x-rays,” Laser Part. Beams 10, 841–847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

La Fontaine, B.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lagron, J. C.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

Lee, R. W.

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, R. E. Strout, “Spectra—a model for K-shell spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91–104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. N.

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 539–546 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ling, L.-H.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maksimchuk, A. M.

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Molander, W. A.

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 539–546 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Möller, C.

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Möller, J. Virmont, “Effective rates in Li-like ions; calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

Nakai, S.

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nantel, M.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

Nishimura, H.

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Osterheld, A.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, D. M. Villeneuve, J. E. Bernard, H. A. Baldis, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging of a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4333–4336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyrusse, O.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, S. A.

V. A. Boiko, A. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Ya. Faenov, “X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas,” J. Sov. Laser Res. 6, 85–290 (1985) and references therein.

Qian, A.-D.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rancu, O.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Renaudin, P.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Renner, O.

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Renner, M. Kopecký, “Theoretical analysis of double-crystal spectrograph for high-resolution spectroscopy of laser-generated x-rays,” Laser Part. Beams 10, 841–847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

Ridgeley, A.

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rizvi, N.

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rodé, A. V.

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rus, B.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

Scott, H.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sklizkov, G. V.

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skobelev, I. Yu.

V. A. Boiko, A. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Ya. Faenov, “X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas,” J. Sov. Laser Res. 6, 85–290 (1985) and references therein.

Strout, R. E.

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, R. E. Strout, “Spectra—a model for K-shell spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91–104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sureau, A.

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Möller, J. Virmont, “Effective rates in Li-like ions; calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

Takagi, S.

S. Takagi, “Dynamical theory of diffraction applicable to crystals with any kind of small distortion,” Acta Crystallogr. 15, 1311–1315 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Taupin, D.

D. Taupin, “Théorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayons X par les cristaux déformés,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris, Paris, 1964).

Uschmann, I.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and their application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, D. M. Villeneuve, J. E. Bernard, H. A. Baldis, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging of a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4333–4336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, A. V.

V. A. Boiko, A. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Ya. Faenov, “X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas,” J. Sov. Laser Res. 6, 85–290 (1985) and references therein.

Vinsot, C.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

Virmont, J.

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Möller, J. Virmont, “Effective rates in Li-like ions; calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vollbrecht, M.

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

Walling, R. S.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wan, A. S.

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wark, J. S.

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, B. L.

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, R. E. Strout, “Spectra—a model for K-shell spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91–104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.-Z.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, P.

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

P. Zeitoun, “Etude experimentale et modelisation de lasers X-UV a grand facteur de gain autour de 100Å,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 1994).

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

Zhang, W.-Q.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Crystallogr. (1)

S. Takagi, “Dynamical theory of diffraction applicable to crystals with any kind of small distortion,” Acta Crystallogr. 15, 1311–1315 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for XUV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Möller, J. Virmont, “Effective rates in Li-like ions; calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. S. Fraenkel, “Monochromatic x-ray images of x-ray emitting sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 341–343 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, A. S. Wan, R. S. Walling, H. Scott, A. Osterheld, O. Peyrusse, “Spectroscopy and gain dynamics issues in homogeneous x-ray laser plasmas,” J. Phys. B 28, 2765–2780 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, R. E. Strout, “Spectra—a model for K-shell spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91–104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Sov. Laser Res. (1)

V. A. Boiko, A. V. Vinogradov, S. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Ya. Faenov, “X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas,” J. Sov. Laser Res. 6, 85–290 (1985) and references therein.

Laser Part. Beams (2)

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Renner, M. Kopecký, “Theoretical analysis of double-crystal spectrograph for high-resolution spectroscopy of laser-generated x-rays,” Laser Part. Beams 10, 841–847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J.-C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rodé, A. M. Maksimchuk, G. V. Sklizkov, A. Ridgeley, C. Danson, N. Rizvi, R. Bann, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, “Intensity measurements of a quasimonochromatic x-ray beam formed by a spherically bent crystal,” Opt. Commun. 77, 163–166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kieffer, M. Chaker, H. Pépin, M. Nantel, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, “Effects of irradiation nonuniformity on x-ray laser physics,” Opt. Commun. 84, 208–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids B (1)

M. Nantel, J. C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, H. Pépin, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, O. Peyrusse, “Dynamics of Ne-like populations in the germanium x-ray laser,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 4465–4472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Ling, Z.-M. Jiang, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-D. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

B. La Fontaine, J. Dunn, H. A. Baldis, G. D. Enright, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, M. Nantel, H. Pépin, “Electron-temperature inhomogeneities along an x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 583–590 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. He, J. S. Wark, E. Förster, I. Uschmann, O. Renner, M. Kopecký, W. Blyth, “Double-crystal high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 26–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “New crystal spectrograph designs and their application to plasma diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5012–5016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (2)

H. H. Johann, “Die Erzeugung lichtstarker Röntgenspektren mit Hilfe von Konkavkristallen,” Z. Phys. 69, 185–206 (1931). See also M. A. Blokhin, Methods of X-Ray Spectroscopic Research (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Chap. 4, pp. 169–175.
[CrossRef]

T. Johansson, “Uber ein neuartiges, genau fokussierendes Röontgenspektrometer,” Z. Phys. 82, 507–528 (1933). See also M. A. Blokhin, Ref. 20, pp. 175–178.
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

P. Zeitoun, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, P. Goedtkindt, H. Guennou, P. Jaeglé, A. Klisnick, C. Möller, B. Rus, A. Sureau, “Progress towards large gainlength products on the Li-like recombination scheme,” in X-Ray Lasers 1994, AIP Conf. Proc. 332, D. Matthews, D. Eder, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 55–59.

E. Förster, R. J. Hutcheon, O. Renner, I. Uschmann, M. Vollbrecht, M. Nantel, A. Klisnick, P. Jaeglé, “Homogeneity study of an 1-D extended x-ray laser working medium by x-ray imaging,” in Rapport d’Activité LULI 1994 (LULI, Paliseau, France, 1994), pp. 167–172.

B. Rus, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. C. Lagron, C. Vinsot, “A new versatile X-ray laser facility in Palaiseau,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, IOP Conf. Ser. 125, E. E. Fill, ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992), pp. 361–366.

A. Carillon, “Dispositif de lissage del’energie dans la ligne focale pour les expériences laser X,” in (LULI, Palaiseau, France, 1993), pp. 305–308.

E. Förster, I. Uschmann, M. Dirksmöller, C. Chenais-Popovics, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, “Monochromatic x-ray imaging with streak and framing cameras,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. SPIE2015, 78–85, (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeitoun, “Etude experimentale et modelisation de lasers X-UV a grand facteur de gain autour de 100Å,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 1994).

D. Taupin, “Théorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayons X par les cristaux déformés,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris, Paris, 1964).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the monochromatic x-ray imaging of a 40-mm-long plasma column with a spherically bent crystal and a beam aperture on the Rowland circle. The dimensions correspond to the experimental setup used for imaging the extended plasma column.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ray-tracing simulation of the spectral window (reflected intensity against wavelength) for three positions of the emitting point on the line plasma (1, -20 mm; 2, central point; 3, +20 mm) compared with the spectral line shape (Lorentzian, central wavelength λ = 0.77566 nm, ΔλFWHM = 0.00078 nm) and the reflection curve. The curves are normalized to 100 arbitrary units at peak and are shifted vertically for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray optical test of the spherically bent crystal with a Ta mesh (100-µm period, 33-µm bars) backlighted by x-rays from a W tube. (a) Image of the mesh on x-ray film and its densitometer traces, (b) simulated image of the same object produced by a ray-tracing program with the assumption of an extended uniform source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporally and 1-D spatially resolved demagnified images of the Al xii resonance line emission from 10-, 20-, and 30-mm-long plasma columns. The dotted lines show the relative position of the three images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Temporal profile of the emission near the intensity maximum of the 20-mm-long plasma line; (b) streaked spatial profiles corresponding to temporal positions 1–5 indicated in (a). Profiles 1–3 have a similar character; profiles 4 and 5 correspond to the period of plasma decay.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Main Parameters for Candidate X-Ray Imaging Schemes

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1/a+1/b=1/fh,v.
ΔλL/λ=k-1/k+1L/R tan ΘB.
Δλα/λ=2 cot ΘB tan-1q/2a=cot ΘBΔΘ,
L=q/sin ΘB2k/1-k.
ΔλC/λ=2k/k-1α cot ΘB,
ΔλJ/λ=L2/8R2 tan2 ΘB,

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