Abstract

An interferometric alignment technique developed for the assembly of microchannel relay systems is described. The method uses pairs of diffractive lenslets that are arranged to form compact in situ interferometers. The relative transverse, longitudinal, and rotational alignment of the two lenslet arrays can be quantitatively determined from the resulting interference patterns. The theoretical analysis is compared with the experimental performance.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. C. Lee, N. Basavanhally, “Solder engineering for optoelectronic packaging,” J. Metals 46, 46–50 (1994).
  4. G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. H. M. Chau, “Demonstration of white-light interference on two spaced parallel zone plates,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1722–1723 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. P. Koronkevich, G. A. Lenkova, “Diffractive interferometer,” Avtometriya3, 61–67 (1984) [Autom. Monit. Meas. 3, (1984)]
  7. R. F. Stevens, “Zone-plate interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 75–79 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.
  9. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Techical catalog, section 64-12, 1995/1996 (Melles Griot, U.S.A.).

1996

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lee, N. Basavanhally, “Solder engineering for optoelectronic packaging,” J. Metals 46, 46–50 (1994).

1992

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. F. Stevens, “Zone-plate interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 75–79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1970

Ayliffe, M. H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Baillie, D. A.

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Basavanhally, N.

Y. C. Lee, N. Basavanhally, “Solder engineering for optoelectronic packaging,” J. Metals 46, 46–50 (1994).

Boisset, G. C.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Chau, H. H. M.

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Hinton, H. S.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Hsiao, W. S.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Kabal, D. N.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Koronkevich, V. P.

V. P. Koronkevich, G. A. Lenkova, “Diffractive interferometer,” Avtometriya3, 61–67 (1984) [Autom. Monit. Meas. 3, (1984)]

Lee, S. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

Y. C. Lee, N. Basavanhally, “Solder engineering for optoelectronic packaging,” J. Metals 46, 46–50 (1994).

Lenkova, G. A.

V. P. Koronkevich, G. A. Lenkova, “Diffractive interferometer,” Avtometriya3, 61–67 (1984) [Autom. Monit. Meas. 3, (1984)]

Liu, Y. S.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Ma, J.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matin, M.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozguz, V. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patra, S. K.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Robertson, B.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Robertson, W. M.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Rolston, D. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Sasian, J. M.

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, R. F.

R. F. Stevens, “Zone-plate interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 75–79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

Thompson, D. A.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronic device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Metals

Y. C. Lee, N. Basavanhally, “Solder engineering for optoelectronic packaging,” J. Metals 46, 46–50 (1994).

J. Mod. Opt.

R. F. Stevens, “Zone-plate interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 75–79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 5465–5477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

Techical catalog, section 64-12, 1995/1996 (Melles Griot, U.S.A.).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multi-stage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstration system,” in International Conference on Optical Computing 96, Vol. 139 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 14–15.

V. P. Koronkevich, G. A. Lenkova, “Diffractive interferometer,” Avtometriya3, 61–67 (1984) [Autom. Monit. Meas. 3, (1984)]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic outline of lenslet array alignment with in situ interferometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Incident light diffracted by L A1 into m = +2, +1, 0, -1, -2 orders and subsequent diffraction of L(A1, 0) and L(A1, +1) orders at lenslet LA2. These beams overlap and produce an interference pattern dependent on the degree of misalignment between the lenslets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interference of plane wave and point source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference pattern caused by tilt of lenslet array L2 with respect to lenslet array L1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photographs of the two lenslet arrays, (a) L1 and (b) L2, used in the experiment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical interference pattern for a misalignment of Δ z = 0 µm and (a) Δ x = 1 µm, (b) Δ x = 2 µm, (c) Δ x = 5 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Theoretical interference pattern for a misalignment of Δ x = 0 µm and (a) Δ z = 25 µm, (b) Δ z = 50 µm, (c) Δ z = 75 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diagram of optical system used to align the two lenslet arrays.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photographs of fringe patterns obtained during alignment. (a) Severe rotational misalignment and misalignment in the x, y, and z directions. (b) Rotational misalignment corrected and misalignment in the y direction dominant. (c) Final alignment.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Performance of aligned lenslet arrays: (a) 4 × 8 array of beams relayed through the interconnect at the second lenslet array and (b) focused beams at the output focal plane.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of Fringes observed, N, for a Given Translational Misalignment Δ x and Relative Misalignment Δ x/D L

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1/v=1/fA-1/u.
u1=A/rexpikr-wt.
r2=R2+x2+y2.
u2=B expikR-wt+ψ,
uT=A/rexpikr+B expikR+ψexpiwt,
uT=A/R2+x2+y21/2 expikR2+x2+y21/2+B expikR+ψexpiwt.
Ix,y=A/r2+B2+2AB/R2+x2+y21/2×coskR2+x2+y21/2+ψ.
tanβ=Δx/fA.
u1=A/r expikr-wtexpikxsinβ
N=DL sin β/λ.
m=v2+DL/221/2-v/λ,
v=fAfA+Δz2/Δz2.
ITx,y=I1+I2+2I1I2×coskx sin 2α+kz cos 2α+ϕ,
T=λ/sin 2α.
P0=Pinc/21+cos kπ,
P+1=2Pinc/π21-cos kπ,
k=λe/λ0nsλ0-1/nsλe-1.

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