Abstract

We describe the optical design of a free-space interconnect system to be used for a 32 × 32 sorting system. The system uses 4f imaging relays to connect two hybrid optoelectronic–complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chips. These relays are used to implement a perfect-shuffle interconnect necessary for the sorting algorithm to be implemented. The relay lenses are also used with patterned mirrors and polarizing elements to combine read beams necessary for the optoelectronic chips. Issues relating to the basic system design and the detailed design of the lenses and optomechanics are given.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Interconnects for a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect-device cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1398–404 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. E. Batcher, “Sorting networks and their applications,” in Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference (American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Reston, Va., 1968), Vol. 32, pp. 307–314.
  7. M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free-space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. B. Dines “Smart pixel optoelectronic receiver based on a charge sensitive amplifier design,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 117–120 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Williams, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, F. Pottier, “A S-SEED on CMOS input/output memory array for optical sorting,” in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels, (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. vi, 78, 26–27.
  13. J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, “Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2519–2525 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering: The Design of Optical Systems, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 11, pp. 327–339.
  15. D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1240–1248 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. M. Sasian, “Symmetry and imaging potential in lens design,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 177–180.
  17. J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Wakelin, Optivision, Palo Alto, Calif. 94304 (personal communication, 1997).
  20. D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, “Optical design of a free-space photonics switching system,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4497–4504 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Brixner, M. Klein, “Optimization to create a four-element laser scan lens from a five-element design,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1257–1258 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. R. Shannon, “Spectral plots for optical glass selection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2995–3000 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering—The Design of Optical Systems, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 14, pp. 482–484.
  24. R. R. Willey, M. E. Durham, “Maximizing production yield and performance in optical instruments through effective design and tolerancing,” in Optomechanical Design, P. R. Yoder, ed., Vol. CR43 of SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 76–108.
  25. codev is an optical design package produced by Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif. 91107.
  26. P. R. Yoder, “Mounting multiple lenses,” in Opto-mechanical Systems Design, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), Chap. 5.
  27. R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Wakelin, F. A. P. Tooley, “The tolerance to spatial noise of differential logic gates,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 115–125 (1992).
  29. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, “Optical design of a free-space photonics switching system,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4497–4504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (5)

R. R. Shannon, “Spectral plots for optical glass selection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2995–3000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. B. Dines “Smart pixel optoelectronic receiver based on a charge sensitive amplifier design,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 117–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, “Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2519–2525 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (5)

R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wakelin, F. A. P. Tooley, “The tolerance to spatial noise of differential logic gates,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 115–125 (1992).

B. Brixner, M. Klein, “Optimization to create a four-element laser scan lens from a five-element design,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1257–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1971 (1)

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ashcroft, S.

Bacon, D. D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baillie, D. A.

Barrett, C. P.

Batcher, K. E.

K. E. Batcher, “Sorting networks and their applications,” in Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference (American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Reston, Va., 1968), Vol. 32, pp. 307–314.

Black, P.

Blair, P.

Brixner, B.

B. Brixner, M. Klein, “Optimization to create a four-element laser scan lens from a five-element design,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1257–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

Carr, N.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clewitt, D.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Crisci, R. J.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Desmulliez, M. P. Y.

Dines, J. A. B.

J. A. B. Dines “Smart pixel optoelectronic receiver based on a charge sensitive amplifier design,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 117–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Williams, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, F. Pottier, “A S-SEED on CMOS input/output memory array for optical sorting,” in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels, (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. vi, 78, 26–27.

Durham, M. E.

R. R. Willey, M. E. Durham, “Maximizing production yield and performance in optical instruments through effective design and tolerancing,” in Optomechanical Design, P. R. Yoder, ed., Vol. CR43 of SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 76–108.

Feldblum, A. Y.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Foulk, P. W.

Goodwill, D. J.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodwin, M. J.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grant, N. L.

Groves-Kirkby, C. J.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinterlong, S. J.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kearley, M. Q.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M.

B. Brixner, M. Klein, “Optimization to create a four-element laser scan lens from a five-element design,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1257–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Livescu, G.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maung, N.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free-space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McElhinney, M.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mersereau, K. O.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. M.

Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, A. J.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Williams, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, F. Pottier, “A S-SEED on CMOS input/output memory array for optical sorting,” in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels, (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. vi, 78, 26–27.

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pottier, F.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Williams, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, F. Pottier, “A S-SEED on CMOS input/output memory array for optical sorting,” in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels, (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. vi, 78, 26–27.

Prise, M. E.

Reiley, D. J.

Richards, G. W.

Robbins, D. J.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

Ross, N.

Sasian, J. M.

D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, “Optical design of a free-space photonics switching system,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4497–4504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sasian, “Symmetry and imaging potential in lens design,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 177–180.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, R. R.

R. R. Shannon, “Spectral plots for optical glass selection,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2995–3000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. C.

Smith, W.

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering—The Design of Optical Systems, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 14, pp. 482–484.

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering: The Design of Optical Systems, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 11, pp. 327–339.

Stanley, C. R.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stawicki, R. P.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
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Stone, H. S.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Thompson, J.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Interconnects for a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect-device cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1398–404 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S465–S477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wakelin, F. A. P. Tooley, “The tolerance to spatial noise of differential logic gates,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 115–125 (1992).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. J.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

Underwood, I.

R. Williams, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, F. Pottier, “A S-SEED on CMOS input/output memory array for optical sorting,” in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels, (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. vi, 78, 26–27.

Vass, D. G.

R. Williams, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, F. Pottier, “A S-SEED on CMOS input/output memory array for optical sorting,” in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels, (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. vi, 78, 26–27.

Vögele, B.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wakelin, S.

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Interconnects for a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect-device cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1398–404 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wakelin, F. A. P. Tooley, “The tolerance to spatial noise of differential logic gates,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 115–125 (1992).

S. Wakelin, Optivision, Palo Alto, Calif. 94304 (personal communication, 1997).

Walker, A. C.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Williams, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, F. Pottier, “A S-SEED on CMOS input/output memory array for optical sorting,” in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels, (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. vi, 78, 26–27.

Walker, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

Wilkinson, L. C.

D. T. Neilson, L. C. Wilkinson, D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, B. Vögele, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. R. Stanley, “Effects of lattice mismatch due to partially relaxed buffer layers in InGaAs/AlGaAs strain-balanced quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2031–2033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willey, R. R.

R. R. Willey, M. E. Durham, “Maximizing production yield and performance in optical instruments through effective design and tolerancing,” in Optomechanical Design, P. R. Yoder, ed., Vol. CR43 of SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 76–108.

Williams, R.

R. Williams, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, F. Pottier, “A S-SEED on CMOS input/output memory array for optical sorting,” in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels, (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. vi, 78, 26–27.

Wood, A. K.

A. J. Moseley, M. Q. Kearley, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirkby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/InP quantum well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator hybridised with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. R.

P. R. Yoder, “Mounting multiple lenses,” in Opto-mechanical Systems Design, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), Chap. 5.

Appl. Opt. (8)

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Interconnects for a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect-device cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1398–404 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free-space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, “Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2519–2525 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Neilson, C. P. Barrett, “Performance trade-offs for conventional lenses for free-space digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1240–1248 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Reiley, J. M. Sasian, “Optical design of a free-space photonics switching system,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4497–4504 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the sorter system with two-chip implementation. The data to be sorted are loaded electrically into the memory chip. The data are circulated through the perfect shuffle and the sorting chip, which performs exchange–bypass operations. When sorting is complete the data are electrically unloaded from the memory chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Operation of the two-stage perfect shuffle. The example shown is for a 4 × 4 array, numbered in hexadecimal. The part of the array delineated by the thick lines is selected. The magnification required for each direction is different. This space-variant selection is performed by the detector arrays and requires no additional masking stages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First-order layout of the optical system for the perfect-shuffle interconnect between the two chips. (a) Memory to sorting node, with unity magnification. (b) Times 2 magnification required to recover the original array size. The numbers correspond to the first row or column aligned with the interlace direction. Only the used orders are shown, and the rays shown are chief rays.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Layout of the pixels: Each pixel is 180m × 180m, and the channels are dual rail, as indicated by the S and R windows. The sorting node has two inputs (D) and two outputs (M) and forms a 32 × 16 array of pixels. The memory has only one input and output, forming a 32 × 32 array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Final design for the 30-mm effective focal-length lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ray-analysis curves for the 30-mm effective focal-length lens at f 4 at (a) 1047 nm and (b) 850 nm. The front and back working distances are different in each case. All units are in millimeters except for the distortion, which is given in the percent difference from the design target of the sine.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lens barrel design for the 30-mm lens. A thin spacer ring is used to adjust the axial position of the last element to control the focal length. The second element is adjusted and glued into its cell before insertion into the barrel.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Basic optical layout showing schematically the route of the light for each beam direction: (a) from the memory chip to the sorting node and (b) from the sorting node to the memory chip in the optical system. The aperture stop size in the system shown in (a) is 3.75 mm throughout. In the system shown in (b) it is 7.5 mm until after the relay lenses that act as the 2× telescope, when it is effectively reduced to 3.75 mm. Axial rays are shown.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top-plate layout: The hybrid optoelectronic chips are at each end (memory to the left and sorting to the right), supported from the lower plate. Light enters the system through the two holes marked A.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Picture of the assembled optical system showing the upper plate with the optical interconnection and the lower plate with the laser, beam-shaping, and viewing optics. PCB, printed circuit board.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Dispersion of Glasses in the Near IR (0.7–1.0 µm) Showing that the Lanthanum-Based Glasses Are Less Dispersive than Normal Glassesa

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Table 2 Final Design of the Five-Element Relay Lensa

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Table 3 Tolerances for the Surfaces, Elements, and Spacing of the 30-mm Focal-Length Lens

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Table 4 Results of a Tolerance Analysis for the Optical Paths Used in the System [Figs. 8(a) and 8(b)]a

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Table 5 Breakdown of Transmission and Losses of the Components in the Design of the Optical System

Equations (3)

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P=2fλdn2+m21/2,
dP=dP01+Δz/zR21/2.
dP=1.93λ f/#1+w/w021/2.

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