Abstract

The design and implementation of a robust, scalable, and modular optical power supply spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical backplane demonstrator is presented. Four arrays of 8 × 4 spots with 6.47-µm radii (at 1/e2 points) pitched at 125 µm in the vertical direction and 250 µm in the horizontal were required to provide the light for the optical interconnect. Tight system tolerances demanded careful optical design, robust optomechanics, and effective alignment techniques. Issues such as spot-array generation, polarization, power efficiency, and power uniformity are discussed. Characterization results are presented.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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1997

1996

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, K. Noguchi, “Three-dimensional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects and their application to the prototype multiprocessor system—COSINE-III,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1815–1822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Tsang, T. J. Goblick, “Free-space optical interconnection technology in parallel processing systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1524–1531 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Nordin, F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnections technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1989

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Araki, S.

Ayliffe, M. H.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

Bacon, D. D.

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beckman, M. G.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

Boisset, G. C.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Brubaker, J. L.

Buchholz, D. B.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, A. M. Goncharenko, F. V. Karpushko, G. V. Sinitsyn, S. P. Apanasevich, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 373–377.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craig, R. G. A.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, A. M. Goncharenko, F. V. Karpushko, G. V. Sinitsyn, S. P. Apanasevich, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 373–377.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Crisci, R. J.

Cunningham, J. C.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dames, M. P.

Desai, P.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, R. P.

Fischer, R. E.

R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design—A Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 221–238.

Goblick, T. J.

D. Z. Tsang, T. J. Goblick, “Free-space optical interconnection technology in parallel processing systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1524–1531 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

Goosen, K. W.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinton, H. S.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Hinton, An Introduction to Photonic Switching Fabrics (Plennum Press, New York, 1993).

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Hoel, P. G.

P. G. Hoel, Elementary Statistics (Wiley, New York, 1962), pp. 54–67.

Hsiao, W.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Hsiao, W. H.

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

Hsiao, W. S.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, R.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

Jan, W. Y.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kabal, D.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

Kabal, D. N.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

Kajita, M.

Kasahara, K.

Kim, N. H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Kirk, A. G.

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D.

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
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Kubota, K.

Kurihara, K.

Leibenguth, R.

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, F. J.

R. A. Nordin, F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnections technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Logan, R. A.

R. A. Nordin, F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnections technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
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Mackinnon, G.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Matsumoto, T.

McArdle, N.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
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F. B. McCormick, “Free-space interconnection techniques,” in Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993), pp. 185–189.

McKee, P.

McKnight, D. J.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, A. M. Goncharenko, F. V. Karpushko, G. V. Sinitsyn, S. P. Apanasevich, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 373–377.

Meredith, P.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, A. M. Goncharenko, F. V. Karpushko, G. V. Sinitsyn, S. P. Apanasevich, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 373–377.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Midwinter, J. E.

J. E. Midwinter, Photonics in Switching (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993), p. 200.

Miller, D. A. B.

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. M.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noguchi, K.

Nordin, R. A.

R. A. Nordin, F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnections technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nottenburg, R. N.

R. A. Nordin, F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnections technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

O’Gorman, J.

R. A. Nordin, F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnections technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Otazo, M. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Pavlasek, D.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

Plant, D. V.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Redmond, I.

Redmond, I. R.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, A. M. Goncharenko, F. V. Karpushko, G. V. Sinitsyn, S. P. Apanasevich, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 373–377.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Restall, E. J.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Robertson, B.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Robertson, W. M.

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Rolston, D. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

Sakano, T.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schenfeld, E.

Shang, A. Z.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Simmons, J.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

Smith, S. D.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Smith, W. J.

R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design—A Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 221–238.

Snowdon, J. F.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

Suzaki, T.

Szymanski, T. H.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, A. M. Goncharenko, F. V. Karpushko, G. V. Sinitsyn, S. P. Apanasevich, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 373–377.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

Tanbun-Ek, T.

R. A. Nordin, F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnections technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

Tsang, D. Z.

D. Z. Tsang, T. J. Goblick, “Free-space optical interconnection technology in parallel processing systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1524–1531 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Venditti, M. B.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wakelin, S.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Walker, A. C.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, A. M. Goncharenko, F. V. Karpushko, G. V. Sinitsyn, S. P. Apanasevich, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 373–377.

Walker, J. A.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

Wherrett, B. S.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Wilson, R. A.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

Wojcik, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

Wolfram, S.

S. Wolfram, Mathematica—A System for Doing Mathematics by Computer (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1991), pp. 587, 672.

Wood, D.

Appl. Opt.

M. P. Dames, R. P. Dowling, P. McKee, D. Wood, “Efficient optical elements to generate intensity weighted spot arrays: design and fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2685–2691 (1991).
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F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
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T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, K. Noguchi, “Three-dimensional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects and their application to the prototype multiprocessor system—COSINE-III,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1815–1822 (1995).
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S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
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Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron.

D. R. Rolston, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, W. S. Hsiao, M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, M. B. Venditti, P. Desai, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. C. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “A hybrid-SEED smart pixel array for a four-stage intelligent optical backplane demonstrator,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 97–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, “An optical backplane demonstrator system based on FET-SEED smart pixel arrays and diffractive lenslet arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1057–1059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “Free-space optical switching using FET-SEED smart-pixel arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 131–136 (1994).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, A. Z. Shang, L. Sun, “A FET-SEED smart pixel based optical backplane demonstrator,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, Part II, 145–148 (1994).

J. Lightwave Technol.

R. A. Nordin, F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnections technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
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J. Mod. Opt.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of binary computer generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
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Opt. Comput.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. N. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, W. M. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “A multistage CMOS-SEED optical backplane demonstrator system,” Opt. Comput. 96, 14–15 (1996).

Opt. Eng.

D. Z. Tsang, T. J. Goblick, “Free-space optical interconnection technology in parallel processing systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1524–1531 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, W. M. Robertson, “A 4 × 4 VCSEL/MSM optical backplane demonstrator system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting 1995 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Plata, Calif., 1995), Postdeadline paper PD2.4.

H. S. Hinton, An Introduction to Photonic Switching Fabrics (Plennum Press, New York, 1993).

B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, W. H. Hsiao, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, M. R. Taghizadeh, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Optical design and characterization of a compact free-space photonic backplane demonstrator,” paper presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996, paper MLL5.

F. B. McCormick, “Free-space interconnection techniques,” in Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993), pp. 185–189.

R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design—A Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 221–238.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, A. M. Goncharenko, F. V. Karpushko, G. V. Sinitsyn, S. P. Apanasevich, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 373–377.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. Mackinnon, S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE1505, 76–78.

J. E. Midwinter, Photonics in Switching (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993), p. 200.

Delrin is a trademarked name. The mention of this brand name in this paper is for information purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of the product by the authors or their institutions.

S. Wolfram, Mathematica—A System for Doing Mathematics by Computer (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1991), pp. 587, 672.

P. G. Hoel, Elementary Statistics (Wiley, New York, 1962), pp. 54–67.

ARPA–AT&T Cooperative Project, Hybrid-SEED Workshop, 18–21 July 1995, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va., 1995.

IEEE Standard 1014-1987 for a Versatile Backplane Bus: VMEbus, IEEE ref. [1-55937-674-0][SH11544-NYF] (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987).

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