Abstract

The contrast of breast disease in an image produced by a time-domain, near-infrared laser, imaging system was calculated by use of a finite-difference method. The contrast was investigated for tumors of different sizes, in a range of positions within the breast, and in a range of breast thicknesses. Contrast is greatest for large tumors that are near the breast surfaces and that are measured at short times of flight. The contrast was shown to increase as the scattering and the absorption properties of the tumor increased. The scattering properties of the tumor were shown to make the biggest contribution to the contrast at short times of flight. Both pointlike and large extended source and detector configurations were investigated. The effect of the system size on the signal-to-noise ratio was investigated.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. Dadmarz, D. Schwartzentruber, R. F. Bonner, “Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumours within human breast in time-resolved images,” in Proceedings of Advances in Laser Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and other Diseases, R. R. Alfano ed., Proc. SPIE2387, 111–118 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

1994 (2)

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Resolution limits for optical transillumination of abnormalities deeply embedded in tissues,” Med. Phys. 21, 185–191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mitic, J. Kölzer, J. Otto, E. Piles, G. Sölkner, W. Zinth, “Time-gated transillumination of biological tissues and tissue-like phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6699–6710 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. Jarry, J. P. Lefebvre, S. Debray, J. Perez, “Laser tomography of heterogeneous scattering media using spatial and temporal resolution,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 31, 157–164 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, M. Schweiger, “Modelling of noise for near-infrared transillumination imaging,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 389–399 (1996).

Berg, R.

Bolin, F. P.

Bonner, R. F.

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, R. Nossal, G. H. Weiss, “Absorptivity contrast in transillumination imaging of tissue abnormalities,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1767–1774 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Resolution limits for optical transillumination of abnormalities deeply embedded in tissues,” Med. Phys. 21, 185–191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. Dadmarz, D. Schwartzentruber, R. F. Bonner, “Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumours within human breast in time-resolved images,” in Proceedings of Advances in Laser Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and other Diseases, R. R. Alfano ed., Proc. SPIE2387, 111–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

Dadmarz, R.

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. Dadmarz, D. Schwartzentruber, R. F. Bonner, “Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumours within human breast in time-resolved images,” in Proceedings of Advances in Laser Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and other Diseases, R. R. Alfano ed., Proc. SPIE2387, 111–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Debray, S.

G. Jarry, J. P. Lefebvre, S. Debray, J. Perez, “Laser tomography of heterogeneous scattering media using spatial and temporal resolution,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 31, 157–164 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ference, R. J.

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, R. Nossal, G. H. Weiss, “Absorptivity contrast in transillumination imaging of tissue abnormalities,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1767–1774 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Resolution limits for optical transillumination of abnormalities deeply embedded in tissues,” Med. Phys. 21, 185–191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. Dadmarz, D. Schwartzentruber, R. F. Bonner, “Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumours within human breast in time-resolved images,” in Proceedings of Advances in Laser Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and other Diseases, R. R. Alfano ed., Proc. SPIE2387, 111–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hiraoka, M.

S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, M. Schweiger, “Modelling of noise for near-infrared transillumination imaging,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 389–399 (1996).

Jarlman, O.

Jarry, G.

G. Jarry, J. P. Lefebvre, S. Debray, J. Perez, “Laser tomography of heterogeneous scattering media using spatial and temporal resolution,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 31, 157–164 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Joblin, A.

A. Joblin, “Resolution and contrast in time-domain transillumination breast imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (Queensland University of Technology, (Submitted June1997).

A. Joblin, “Contrast in time of flight, near infrared laser imaging through turbid media,” in Medical and Biomedical Applications, R. Cubeddu, ed., Vol. 6 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 36–40.

Kölzer, J.

Lefebvre, J. P.

G. Jarry, J. P. Lefebvre, S. Debray, J. Perez, “Laser tomography of heterogeneous scattering media using spatial and temporal resolution,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 31, 157–164 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mayers, D. F.

K. W. Morton, D. F. Mayers, Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

Mitic, G.

Morton, K. W.

K. W. Morton, D. F. Mayers, Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

Nossal, R.

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, R. Nossal, G. H. Weiss, “Absorptivity contrast in transillumination imaging of tissue abnormalities,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1767–1774 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Resolution limits for optical transillumination of abnormalities deeply embedded in tissues,” Med. Phys. 21, 185–191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. Dadmarz, D. Schwartzentruber, R. F. Bonner, “Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumours within human breast in time-resolved images,” in Proceedings of Advances in Laser Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and other Diseases, R. R. Alfano ed., Proc. SPIE2387, 111–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Otto, J.

Patterson, M. S.

Perez, J.

G. Jarry, J. P. Lefebvre, S. Debray, J. Perez, “Laser tomography of heterogeneous scattering media using spatial and temporal resolution,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 31, 157–164 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Piles, E.

Preuss, L. E.

Schwartzentruber, D.

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. Dadmarz, D. Schwartzentruber, R. F. Bonner, “Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumours within human breast in time-resolved images,” in Proceedings of Advances in Laser Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and other Diseases, R. R. Alfano ed., Proc. SPIE2387, 111–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schweiger, M.

S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, M. Schweiger, “Modelling of noise for near-infrared transillumination imaging,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 389–399 (1996).

Sölkner, G.

Svanberg, S.

Taylor, R. C.

Weiss, G. H.

Wilson, B. C.

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, “Diffusion coefficient in the photon diffusion equation,” in Proceedings of Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Human Studies and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 87–97 (1995).

Zinth, W.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. (1)

G. Jarry, J. P. Lefebvre, S. Debray, J. Perez, “Laser tomography of heterogeneous scattering media using spatial and temporal resolution,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 31, 157–164 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Resolution limits for optical transillumination of abnormalities deeply embedded in tissues,” Med. Phys. 21, 185–191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. Nossal, R. Dadmarz, D. Schwartzentruber, R. F. Bonner, “Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumours within human breast in time-resolved images,” in Proceedings of Advances in Laser Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and other Diseases, R. R. Alfano ed., Proc. SPIE2387, 111–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Joblin, “Contrast in time of flight, near infrared laser imaging through turbid media,” in Medical and Biomedical Applications, R. Cubeddu, ed., Vol. 6 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 36–40.

Y. Yamada, “Diffusion coefficient in the photon diffusion equation,” in Proceedings of Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Human Studies and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 87–97 (1995).

K. W. Morton, D. F. Mayers, Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

A. Joblin, “Resolution and contrast in time-domain transillumination breast imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (Queensland University of Technology, (Submitted June1997).

S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, M. Schweiger, “Modelling of noise for near-infrared transillumination imaging,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 389–399 (1996).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the time-domain, near-infrared laser breast-imaging system, simulated in the calculations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the finite-difference calculations (50 and 100 mesh nodes) to the method of Patterson et al.6 Graph of the detector signal amplitude as a function of time of flight.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Graph of the contrast of a pointlike system for 3-, 6-, and 9-mm diameter tumors as a function of the time of flight. The tumors are positioned at z = L/2 of a L = 50-mm-thick medium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graph of the contrast for a 6-mm diameter tumor at z = L/2 of media of thickness L = 30, 40, and 50 mm. The contrast is shown as a function of the time of flight. The detector and the laser are pointlike.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graphs of the contrast for a 6-mm diameter tumor at z = L/2 in media of thickness L = 30, 40, and 50 mm. The contrast is shown as a function of the detector signal. The detector and the laser are pointlike.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contrast of a 6-mm diameter tumor as a function of the tumor position in the medium for a time of flight of 510 ps. The medium thickness was L = 50 mm, and the detector and the laser are pointlike.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contrast of tumors with mean, increased, and depressed properties as a function of the time of flight. The tumors are positioned at the midplane z = L/2 of a L = 50-mm-thick breast medium.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contrast for a regular tumor, a scattering tumor, and an absorption tumor as a function of the time of flight. The tumor diameter is 6 mm; the tumor is positioned at z = L/2, and the medium thickness is L = 50 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Contrast as a function of the system size rlas/rdet. The tumor is positioned at z = L/2, and the medium thickness is L = 50 mm. The contrast is shown for times of flight 510 and 750 ps and 1.01 ns.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Detector signal amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the system size rlas/rdet for a time of flight of 510 ps. The tumor is positioned at z = L/2, and the breast thickness is L = 50 mm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Contrast of cw and Time-Domain Techniques

Equations (13)

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contrastT=1-Jr=0, TJr, T.
1vϕt=·Dϕ-μaϕ+Sr, t,
ϕz=0=ϕz=L=0,
ϕr=0,
Jr, T=-Dϕr, T.
1cδ+tϕΔt=δrϕΔrδrDΔr+δzϕΔzδzDΔz+D1rδrϕΔr+δr2ϕΔr2+δz2ϕΔz2-μaϕ,  r0,
1cδ+tϕΔt=δzϕΔzδzDΔz+D2δrϕΔr2+δz2ϕΔz2-μaϕ,  r=0,
Φn+1=Φ1-ω+14νΦj+1-Φj-1Dj+1-Dj-1+νD2Φi+1-Φi+Φj+1-2Φ+Φj-1,  r=0,
Φn+1=Φ1-ω+14νΦi+1-Φi-1Di+1-D1-1+14νΦj+1-Φj-1Dj+1-Dj-1+νD12iΦi+1-Φi-1+Φi+1-2Φ+Φi-1+Φj+1-2Φ+Φj-1,  r0
ω=μaυΔt,  ν=υΔtΔr2.
υΔtDΔr214.
C=-+CTJTdT-+JTdT.
SNR=CNpNp1-p1/2CNp1/2,

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