Abstract

We analyze the second-order sensitivity effects of a polarimetric temperature sensor and a strain sensor. Such effects are shown to be important for a larger temperature change or strain and are demonstrated by the analysis of the errors between the experimentally measured data and the curves of linear and second-order polynomial regressions, respectively. It is also shown that for a small temperature change or strain, higher accurate values of the two parameters can be obtained only from linear regression. The cross-sensitivity effect is also studied experimentally.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. B. Hocker, “Fiber-optic sensing of pressure and temperature,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1445–1448 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. M. Vengsarkar, W. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, R. O. Claus, “Fibre-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 170–177 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Farahi, D. J. W. Julian, D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: cross sensitivity consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payune, E. J. Tarbox, “Enhancement of birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber by thermal annealing,” Electron. Lett. 19, 143–144 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Wong, P. L. Chu, “Calculation of phase shift sensitivity in polarimetric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 26, 607–608 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Farahi, D. A. Jackson, “Temperature and strain sensing using monomode optical fiber,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 234–243 (1991).
  9. W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, R. Buczynski, A. W. Domanski, “Cross-sensitivity effect in temperature-compensated sensors based on highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6078–6083 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, “Temperature-hydrostatic pressure cross-sensitivity effect in elliptical-core, highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6267–6270 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (3)

W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, R. Buczynski, A. W. Domanski, “Cross-sensitivity effect in temperature-compensated sensors based on highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6078–6083 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, R. O. Claus, “Fibre-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 170–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

F. Farahi, D. J. W. Julian, D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: cross sensitivity consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Wong, P. L. Chu, “Calculation of phase shift sensitivity in polarimetric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 26, 607–608 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payune, E. J. Tarbox, “Enhancement of birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber by thermal annealing,” Electron. Lett. 19, 143–144 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Archambault, J.-L.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Birch, R. D.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payune, E. J. Tarbox, “Enhancement of birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber by thermal annealing,” Electron. Lett. 19, 143–144 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J. N.

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

Buczynski, R.

Chu, P. L.

D. Wong, P. L. Chu, “Calculation of phase shift sensitivity in polarimetric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 26, 607–608 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, R. O. Claus, “Fibre-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 170–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, R. O. Claus, “Fibre-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 170–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Domanski, A. W.

Farahi, F.

F. Farahi, D. J. W. Julian, D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: cross sensitivity consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Farahi, D. A. Jackson, “Temperature and strain sensing using monomode optical fiber,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 234–243 (1991).

Hocker, G. B.

Huang, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

F. Farahi, D. J. W. Julian, D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: cross sensitivity consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Farahi, D. A. Jackson, “Temperature and strain sensing using monomode optical fiber,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 234–243 (1991).

Jankovic, L.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, R. O. Claus, “Fibre-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 170–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. C.

F. Farahi, D. J. W. Julian, D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: cross sensitivity consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Julian, D. J. W.

F. Farahi, D. J. W. Julian, D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: cross sensitivity consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Michie, W.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, R. O. Claus, “Fibre-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 170–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ourmazd, A.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payune, E. J. Tarbox, “Enhancement of birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber by thermal annealing,” Electron. Lett. 19, 143–144 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Payune, D. N.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payune, E. J. Tarbox, “Enhancement of birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber by thermal annealing,” Electron. Lett. 19, 143–144 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tarbox, E. J.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payune, E. J. Tarbox, “Enhancement of birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber by thermal annealing,” Electron. Lett. 19, 143–144 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

Varnham, M. P.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payune, E. J. Tarbox, “Enhancement of birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber by thermal annealing,” Electron. Lett. 19, 143–144 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, R. O. Claus, “Fibre-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 170–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wong, D.

D. Wong, P. L. Chu, “Calculation of phase shift sensitivity in polarimetric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 26, 607–608 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payune, E. J. Tarbox, “Enhancement of birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber by thermal annealing,” Electron. Lett. 19, 143–144 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Wong, P. L. Chu, “Calculation of phase shift sensitivity in polarimetric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 26, 607–608 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

F. Farahi, D. J. W. Julian, D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: cross sensitivity consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, R. O. Claus, “Fibre-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 170–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Farahi, D. A. Jackson, “Temperature and strain sensing using monomode optical fiber,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 234–243 (1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear and second-order polynomial regression analysis results of experimentally measured data for temperature: (a) linear regression, (b) second-order polynomial regression.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear and second-order polynomial regression analysis results of experimentally measured data for strain: (a) linear regression, (b) second-order polynomial regression.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linear regression analysis of experimentally measured data for a small measured temperature region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linear regression analysis of experimentally measured data for a small measured strain region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental measured temperature sensitivity against axial strain.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Temperature Error Between Values of Approximation and Measured Values for Two Different Regression Methods

Tables Icon

Table 2 Strain Error Between Values of Approximation and Measured Values for Two Different Regression Methods

Equations (12)

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ΔΦ=ΦTΔTT=T0+122ΦT2ΔT2T=T0+the higher-order terms,
ΔΦ=ΦεΔεε=ε0+122Φε2Δε2ε=ε0+the higher-order terms,
ΛεT=2ΦεT.
ΛεT=εΦT=εΛT,
ΛεT=TΦε=TΛε.
ΛT=1.156 rad/°C.
ΛT|T=22.3 °C=1.425 rad/°C,
ΛT2=-0.00577 rad/°C2.
Λε=0.078 rad/µm.
Λε|ε0=0=0.0524 rad/µm,
Λε2=2.99×10-5 rad/µm2.
ΛεT|Δε0=0.T0=22.3 °C=-0.0237 rad/°C µm

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