Abstract

Optical channel waveguides have been obtained by electric-field-assisted diffusion of copper films on glass substrates. The mode indices of these channel waveguides were determined with the prism-coupling technique, and the refractive-index profile of the waveguide was reconstructed from measurements of the near-field intensity distribution.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+–Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides–fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, M. Leppihalme, “Control of ion-exchanged waveguides profiles with Ag thin films sources,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759–763 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Possng, R. Goring, C. Kaps, “Index gradient fabrication by ion exchange,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 2 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 74–77.
  4. S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Norwood, Mass. , 1992).
  5. S. Gevorgyan, “Single step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Saka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Marquéz, D. Salazar, A. Villalobos, G. Paez, J. M. Rincón, “Experimental study of Cu+–Na+ exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5817–5822 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Gonella, “Characterization of Cu-Na ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 314–315 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical waveguide refractive index profile determined from measurements of mode indices: a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151–155 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, “Determination of ion-exchanged channel waveguide profile parameters by mode index measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 455–458 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Moroshita, “Index profiling of three dimensional optical waveguides by the propagation-mode near-field method,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1120–1122 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. L. Yip, P. C. Noutsios, L. Chen, “Improved propagation-mode near-field method for refractive-index profiling of optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2060–2067 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1995

1990

S. Gevorgyan, “Single step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+–Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides–fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, M. Leppihalme, “Control of ion-exchanged waveguides profiles with Ag thin films sources,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

K. Moroshita, “Index profiling of three dimensional optical waveguides by the propagation-mode near-field method,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1120–1122 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

S. Saka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976

Chen, L.

Cheng, H. C.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+–Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides–fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gevorgyan, S.

S. Gevorgyan, “Single step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, F.

F. Gonella, “Characterization of Cu-Na ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 314–315 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goring, R.

T. Possng, R. Goring, C. Kaps, “Index gradient fabrication by ion exchange,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 2 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 74–77.

Heidrich, P. F.

Honkanen, S.

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, M. Leppihalme, “Control of ion-exchanged waveguides profiles with Ag thin films sources,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, K.

S. Saka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kaps, C.

T. Possng, R. Goring, C. Kaps, “Index gradient fabrication by ion exchange,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 2 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 74–77.

Kato, K.

S. Saka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Leppihalme, M.

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, M. Leppihalme, “Control of ion-exchanged waveguides profiles with Ag thin films sources,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Marquéz, H.

Miliou, A.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+–Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides–fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moroshita, K.

K. Moroshita, “Index profiling of three dimensional optical waveguides by the propagation-mode near-field method,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1120–1122 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Norwood, Mass. , 1992).

Noutsios, P. C.

Paez, G.

Possng, T.

T. Possng, R. Goring, C. Kaps, “Index gradient fabrication by ion exchange,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 2 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 74–77.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+–Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides–fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rincón, J. M.

Saka, S.

S. Saka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Salazar, D.

Srivastava, R.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, “Determination of ion-exchanged channel waveguide profile parameters by mode index measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 455–458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+–Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides–fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tervonen, A.

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, M. Leppihalme, “Control of ion-exchanged waveguides profiles with Ag thin films sources,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Villalobos, A.

Weiss, M. N.

White, J. M.

Yip, G. L.

Zhenguang, H.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+–Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides–fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Gonella, “Characterization of Cu-Na ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 314–315 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. Gevorgyan, “Single step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

K. Moroshita, “Index profiling of three dimensional optical waveguides by the propagation-mode near-field method,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1120–1122 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+–Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides–fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, M. Leppihalme, “Control of ion-exchanged waveguides profiles with Ag thin films sources,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

S. Saka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu–Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Possng, R. Goring, C. Kaps, “Index gradient fabrication by ion exchange,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 2 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 74–77.

S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Norwood, Mass. , 1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of copper ion-exchange process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerically calculated constant concentration contour of copper ion. Contour corresponds to a 0.1 change in concentration from 0.9 to 0.1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contours of output intensity of a typical channel waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field results: (a) width intensity smooth profile (normalized), (b) width profile index reconstruction, (c) depth intensity smooth profile (normalized), and(d) depth profile index reconstruction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive-index profile distribution of copper channel waveguides: (a) width direction and (b) depth direction.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effective Mode Indices of a Typical Cu-Diffused Channel Waveguides at 632.8 nm

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ct=D2CCM-1+1-DM-1C2+MJ0CCM-1+12,
nx, y=ns+Δnexp-x2dx2erfcydy,
t2Ex, y=k02n2x, y-β2Ex, y=0,
n2x, y=β2k02-t2Ix, y1/2k02Ix, y1/2

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