Abstract

We demonstrate that (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional waveguides can be induced by self-focused dark notches and crosses and stored in LiNbO3:Fe crystals. This is very valuable for information processing and integrated optics. The self-focused dark notches and crosses may be related to the formation of (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons in LiNbO3:Fe crystals.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Waveguides and Y junctions formed in bulk media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 496–498 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Guiding light by light using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 17 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923–926 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, “Self-trapping of optical beams in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446–453 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. D. Iturbe Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. C. Vally, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 629–631 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330–R4333 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, “Vector photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1764–1766 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, “Compression, self-bending, and collapse of Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1714–1716 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 716–718 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Y junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 943–945 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 931–933 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Z. Guoquan, L. Simin, X. Jingjun, Z. Guangyin, S. Qian, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. D. Maker, “Self-trapping of an optical vortex by use of the bulk photovoltaic effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948–2951 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, E. Diéguez, “Hydrogen in lithium niobate,” Adv. Phys. 45, 349–392 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. D. Maker, “Self-trapping of an optical vortex by use of the bulk photovoltaic effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948–2951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (7)

1995 (5)

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, “Vector photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1764–1766 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (7)

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, “Compression, self-bending, and collapse of Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1714–1716 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, “Self-trapping of optical beams in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446–453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Waveguides and Y junctions formed in bulk media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 496–498 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Guiding light by light using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Bashaw, M. C.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Y junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrera, J. M.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, E. Diéguez, “Hydrogen in lithium niobate,” Adv. Phys. 45, 349–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, E. Diéguez, “Hydrogen in lithium niobate,” Adv. Phys. 45, 349–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. I.

Chen, Z.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

Crosignani, B.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, “Self-trapping of optical beams in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446–453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Porto, P.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, “Self-trapping of optical beams in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446–453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diéguez, E.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, E. Diéguez, “Hydrogen in lithium niobate,” Adv. Phys. 45, 349–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Duree, G.

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engin, D.

Fang, Q.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Y junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M. H.

Guangyin, Z.

Z. Guoquan, L. Simin, X. Jingjun, Z. Guangyin, S. Qian, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guoquan, Z.

Z. Guoquan, L. Simin, X. Jingjun, Z. Guangyin, S. Qian, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iturbe Castillo, M. D.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jingjun, X.

Z. Guoquan, L. Simin, X. Jingjun, Z. Guangyin, S. Qian, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kos, K.

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330–R4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Waveguides and Y junctions formed in bulk media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 496–498 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Guiding light by light using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. D. Maker, “Self-trapping of an optical vortex by use of the bulk photovoltaic effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948–2951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marquez Aguilar, P. A.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330–R4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

Morin, M.

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. E.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. D. Maker, “Self-trapping of an optical vortex by use of the bulk photovoltaic effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948–2951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Müller, R.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, E. Diéguez, “Hydrogen in lithium niobate,” Adv. Phys. 45, 349–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivares, J.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, E. Diéguez, “Hydrogen in lithium niobate,” Adv. Phys. 45, 349–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S.

Z. Guoquan, L. Simin, X. Jingjun, Z. Guangyin, S. Qian, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, E. Diéguez, “Hydrogen in lithium niobate,” Adv. Phys. 45, 349–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 931–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330–R4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, “Self-trapping of optical beams in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446–453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. D. Maker, “Self-trapping of an optical vortex by use of the bulk photovoltaic effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948–2951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. C. Vally, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 931–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Y junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 716–718 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330–R4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, “Vector photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1764–1766 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, “Self-trapping of optical beams in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446–453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, E. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.-F.

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330–R4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 931–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. C. Vally, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, J.

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, J. L.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simin, L.

Z. Guoquan, L. Simin, X. Jingjun, Z. Guangyin, S. Qian, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. R.

Stepanov, S.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taya, M.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Y junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330–R4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Y junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, “Vector photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1764–1766 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vally, G. C.

Vysloukh, V.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. W.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. D. Maker, “Self-trapping of an optical vortex by use of the bulk photovoltaic effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948–2951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xiaoping, Y.

B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Waveguides and Y junctions formed in bulk media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 496–498 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Guiding light by light using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, “Self-trapping of optical beams in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446–453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, E. Diéguez, “Hydrogen in lithium niobate,” Adv. Phys. 45, 349–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Guoquan, L. Simin, X. Jingjun, Z. Guangyin, S. Qian, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, “Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Electron. Lett. 31, 826–827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (10)

B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Waveguides and Y junctions formed in bulk media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 496–498 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, “Stability of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1296–1298 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Dimensionality and size of photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1195–1197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. C. Vally, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, “Vector photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1764–1766 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, “Compression, self-bending, and collapse of Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1714–1716 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 716–718 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Y junctions arising from dark-soliton propagation in photovoltaic media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 943–945 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 931–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Photon, News (1)

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, “Photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon, News 4(12) , 9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (2)

B. Luther-Davies, Y. Xiaoping, “Guiding light by light using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Photorefractive dark and vortex solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 5(12) , 9–10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, “One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330–R4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533–536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978–1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. D. Maker, “Self-trapping of an optical vortex by use of the bulk photovoltaic effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948–2951 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, Mg crystals,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications, F. T. Yu, ed., Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the experimental arrangement: S, screen; LN:Fe, LiNbO3:Fe crystal; L1, L2, the two lenses; M, mask; Ar+, the Ar+ laser. (b) The relative orientations of dark notches that form the dark cross with respect to the crystalline c axis in the (2+1)-dimensional case: dashed line, the crystalline c axis; solid lines, the dark notches.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity distributions of the self-focused dark cross with (a) a (2+1)-dimensional amplitude mask and (b) with a (2+1)-dimensional phase mask on screen S; (c) and (d) that correspond to (a) and (b), respectively, are the intensity distributions of the probe beams on screen S when the masks are moved away.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Experimental results of split self-focused dark notches shown on screen S with a (1+1)-dimensional amplitude mask and a (1+1)-dimensional phase mask, respectively. The splitting occurs along the crystalline c axis when the dark notches are perpendicular to the crystalline c axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dynamic behavior of the splitting process of the self-focused dark notch with a (1+1)-dimensional phase mask when the incident power is 7 mW: (a) Light intensity distribution of a Gaussian beam perturbed by a (1+1)-dimensional phase mask, (b) increase in one pair of self-focused dark notches because of an increase in the refractive-index change with the development of time, (c) more than three pairs of self-focused dark notches increase because of the increase in the refractive-index change with the development of time, (d) the final steady state of the splitting process. Here the dark notches are perpendicular to the crystalline c axis.

Metrics