Abstract

Unprejudiced logical analysis of the main available data, in the first instance, those collected in 1978 by the American interdisciplinary team known as STURP, suggests that the image of the dead man on the Shroud of Turin resulted from (a) the reflection by the anointed body of transmitted solar rays and their projection onto the inner side of the cloth and (b) the chemical registration of this reflex image by the topmost fibers of the linen, probably with a water or oil solution of aloes and myrrh acting as a catalyzer. This reflex radiation model requires the following: (1) action at the shortest possible distance (i.e., a maximum clinging of the Shroud to the body except for a narrow intervening liquid film), which explains the high resolution and the absence of serious distortions, and (2) double exposure—of both the face and the back—of the enveloped corpse to the sun, which accounts for the presence and optical symmetry of both the frontal and the dorsal images. An attempt is also made to reinterpret the so-called three-dimensional information encoded in the image. Although some chemical issues are also mentioned and a historical reconstruction of the burial procedure is suggested, first and foremost the optical aspect of this mechanism is addressed here.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1995 (1)

D. A. Kouznetsov, A. A. Ivanov, P. R. Veletsky, “Effects of fires and biofractionation of carbon isotopes on results of radiocarbon dating of old textiles: the Shroud of Turin,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 23, 109–121 (1995); M.-C. van Oosterwyck-Gastuche, “Le Saint-Suaire et le radiocarbone,” Sel de la Terre (Avrillé, France) (20), 31–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

L. A. Schwalbe, R. N. Rogers, “Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin, a summary of the 1978 investigation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 135, 3–49 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “A chemical investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 14 (3) , 81–103 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Miller, S. F. Pellicori, “Ultraviolet fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin,” J. Bio. Photogr. 49, 71–85 (1981).

S. F. Pellicori, M. S. Evans, “The Shroud of Turin through the microscope,” Archaeology 34, 34–43 (January/February 1981).

1980 (5)

Accetta, J. S.

Adler, A.

A. Adler, “Updating recent studies on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M. V. Orna, ed., ACS Symposium Series 625 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1996), Chap. 17.
[CrossRef]

Adler, A. D.

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “A chemical investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 14 (3) , 81–103 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2742–2744 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, J. R. Druzik. “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, J. B. Lambert, ed., ACS Advances in Chemistry205, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984), Chap. 22, pp. 447–476.

Ambers, J. C.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Barbet, P.

P. Barbet, La Passion de N.-S. Jésus-Christ selon le chirurgien (Médiaspaul, Paris, 1965) (1st print. 1950); English translation, A Doctor at Calvary (Image Books, Doubleday, New York, 1963), Chaps. 1E, 9.

Baumgart, J. S.

Bergeret, M.

M. Bergeret, “Linceul de Turin—le trou historique: 1204–1357,” in L’identification scientifique de l’homme du Linceul, Actes du Symposium scientifique international, Rome, 1993 (F.-X. de Guilbert, Paris, 1995), pp. 345–348.

Bonani, G.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Bowman, S. G. E.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Bronk, C. R.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Cervantes-Ibarrola, F.

A. Garza-Valdes, F. Cervantes-Ibarrola, “Biogenic varnish on the Shroud of Turin,” in L’identification scientifique de l’homme du Linceul, Actes du Symposium scientifique international, Rome, 1993 (F.-X. de Guibert, Paris, 1995), pp. 279–282.

Damon, P. E.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Donahue, D. J.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Druzik, J. R.

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, J. R. Druzik. “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, J. B. Lambert, ed., ACS Advances in Chemistry205, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984), Chap. 22, pp. 447–476.

Dubarle, A. M.

A. M. Dubarle, Histoire ancienne du Linceul de Turin (OEIL, Paris, 1985).

Ercoline, W. R.

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, W. R. Ercoline, “Correlation of image intensity on the Turin Shroud with the 3-D structure of a human body shape,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2244–2270 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, W. R. Ercoline, “Three-dimensional characteristic of the Shroud image,” in IEEE 1982 Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and Society (IEEE, New York, 1982), pp. 559–575.

Evans, M. S.

S. F. Pellicori, M. S. Evans, “The Shroud of Turin through the microscope,” Archaeology 34, 34–43 (January/February 1981).

Garza-Valdes, A.

A. Garza-Valdes, F. Cervantes-Ibarrola, “Biogenic varnish on the Shroud of Turin,” in L’identification scientifique de l’homme du Linceul, Actes du Symposium scientifique international, Rome, 1993 (F.-X. de Guibert, Paris, 1995), pp. 279–282.

Gilbert, M. M.

Gilbert, R.

Gore, B. H.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Gove, H. E.

H. E. Gove, Relic, Icon or Hoax? Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1996).

Hall, E. T.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Hatheway, A. L.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Hedges, R. E. M.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Heller, J. H.

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “A chemical investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 14 (3) , 81–103 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2742–2744 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, J. R. Druzik. “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, J. B. Lambert, ed., ACS Advances in Chemistry205, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984), Chap. 22, pp. 447–476.

Housley, R.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Ivanov, A. A.

D. A. Kouznetsov, A. A. Ivanov, P. R. Veletsky, “Effects of fires and biofractionation of carbon isotopes on results of radiocarbon dating of old textiles: the Shroud of Turin,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 23, 109–121 (1995); M.-C. van Oosterwyck-Gastuche, “Le Saint-Suaire et le radiocarbone,” Sel de la Terre (Avrillé, France) (20), 31–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. P.

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, W. R. Ercoline, “Correlation of image intensity on the Turin Shroud with the 3-D structure of a human body shape,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2244–2270 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, J. R. Druzik. “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, J. B. Lambert, ed., ACS Advances in Chemistry205, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984), Chap. 22, pp. 447–476.

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, W. R. Ercoline, “Three-dimensional characteristic of the Shroud image,” in IEEE 1982 Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and Society (IEEE, New York, 1982), pp. 559–575.

J. P. Jackson, The Vertical Alignment of the Frontal Image, Shroud Spectrum International 32-33 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1989), pp. 3–26.

Jull, A. J. T.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Jumper, E. J.

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, W. R. Ercoline, “Correlation of image intensity on the Turin Shroud with the 3-D structure of a human body shape,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2244–2270 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Jumper, R. W. Mottern, “Scientific investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1909–1912 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, J. R. Druzik. “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, J. B. Lambert, ed., ACS Advances in Chemistry205, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984), Chap. 22, pp. 447–476.

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, W. R. Ercoline, “Three-dimensional characteristic of the Shroud image,” in IEEE 1982 Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and Society (IEEE, New York, 1982), pp. 559–575.

Klutstein, D.

B. B. Lavoie, G. R. Lavoie, D. Klutstein, J. Regan, “In accordance with Jewish burial custom, the body of Jesus was not washed,” Shroud Spectrum International 3 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1982), pp. 8–16; see F. T. Zugibe, “The Man of the Shroud was washed” (Sindon, Centro Internazionale di Sindonology, Torino, Italy, 1989), Nuova Serie, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 171–177.

Kouznetsov, D. A.

D. A. Kouznetsov, A. A. Ivanov, P. R. Veletsky, “Effects of fires and biofractionation of carbon isotopes on results of radiocarbon dating of old textiles: the Shroud of Turin,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 23, 109–121 (1995); M.-C. van Oosterwyck-Gastuche, “Le Saint-Suaire et le radiocarbone,” Sel de la Terre (Avrillé, France) (20), 31–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lavoie, B. B.

B. B. Lavoie, G. R. Lavoie, D. Klutstein, J. Regan, “In accordance with Jewish burial custom, the body of Jesus was not washed,” Shroud Spectrum International 3 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1982), pp. 8–16; see F. T. Zugibe, “The Man of the Shroud was washed” (Sindon, Centro Internazionale di Sindonology, Torino, Italy, 1989), Nuova Serie, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 171–177.

Lavoie, G. R.

B. B. Lavoie, G. R. Lavoie, D. Klutstein, J. Regan, “In accordance with Jewish burial custom, the body of Jesus was not washed,” Shroud Spectrum International 3 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1982), pp. 8–16; see F. T. Zugibe, “The Man of the Shroud was washed” (Sindon, Centro Internazionale di Sindonology, Torino, Italy, 1989), Nuova Serie, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 171–177.

Law, I. A.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Leese, M. N.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Linick, T. W.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Marinelli, E.

O. Petrosillo, E. Marinelli, The Enigma of the Shroud, A Challenge to Science (Publishers Enterprises Group, La Valette, Malta, 1996), Introduction, Chaps. I–VII.

Meacham, W.

W. Meacham, “Radiocarbon measurement and the age of the Turin Shroud: possibilities and uncertainties,” presented at the 1986 Hong Kong Shroud Symposium; website httl://www.shroud.com .

Miller, V. D.

V. D. Miller, S. F. Pellicori, “Ultraviolet fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin,” J. Bio. Photogr. 49, 71–85 (1981).

Mottern, R. W.

Pellicori, S. F.

V. D. Miller, S. F. Pellicori, “Ultraviolet fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin,” J. Bio. Photogr. 49, 71–85 (1981).

S. F. Pellicori, M. S. Evans, “The Shroud of Turin through the microscope,” Archaeology 34, 34–43 (January/February 1981).

S. F. Pellicori, “Spectral properties of the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1913–1920 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, J. R. Druzik. “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, J. B. Lambert, ed., ACS Advances in Chemistry205, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984), Chap. 22, pp. 447–476.

Perry, C.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Petrosillo, O.

O. Petrosillo, E. Marinelli, The Enigma of the Shroud, A Challenge to Science (Publishers Enterprises Group, La Valette, Malta, 1996), Introduction, Chaps. I–VII.

Regan, J.

B. B. Lavoie, G. R. Lavoie, D. Klutstein, J. Regan, “In accordance with Jewish burial custom, the body of Jesus was not washed,” Shroud Spectrum International 3 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1982), pp. 8–16; see F. T. Zugibe, “The Man of the Shroud was washed” (Sindon, Centro Internazionale di Sindonology, Torino, Italy, 1989), Nuova Serie, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 171–177.

Rodante, S.

S. Rodante, “The imprints of the Shroud do not derive only from radiations of various wave-lengths,” Shroud Spectrum International 7 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1983), pp. 21–23.

S. Rodante, “Un lampo di luce sulla Sindone?,” in L’identification scientifique de l’homme du Linceul, Actes du Symposium scientifique international, Rome, 1993 (F.-X. de Guibert, Paris, 1995), pp. 259–264.

Rogers, R. N.

L. A. Schwalbe, R. N. Rogers, “Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin, a summary of the 1978 investigation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 135, 3–49 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schwalbe, L. A.

L. A. Schwalbe, R. N. Rogers, “Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin, a summary of the 1978 investigation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 135, 3–49 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. J.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Tite, M. S.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Toolin, L. J.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Trumbore, S.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Veletsky, P. R.

D. A. Kouznetsov, A. A. Ivanov, P. R. Veletsky, “Effects of fires and biofractionation of carbon isotopes on results of radiocarbon dating of old textiles: the Shroud of Turin,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 23, 109–121 (1995); M.-C. van Oosterwyck-Gastuche, “Le Saint-Suaire et le radiocarbone,” Sel de la Terre (Avrillé, France) (20), 31–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, I.

I. Wilson, The Shroud of Turin (Doubleday, New York, 1984).

Woelfli, W.

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

L. A. Schwalbe, R. N. Rogers, “Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin, a summary of the 1978 investigation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 135, 3–49 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Archaeology (1)

S. F. Pellicori, M. S. Evans, “The Shroud of Turin through the microscope,” Archaeology 34, 34–43 (January/February 1981).

Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. (1)

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “A chemical investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 14 (3) , 81–103 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Archaeol. Sci. (1)

D. A. Kouznetsov, A. A. Ivanov, P. R. Veletsky, “Effects of fires and biofractionation of carbon isotopes on results of radiocarbon dating of old textiles: the Shroud of Turin,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 23, 109–121 (1995); M.-C. van Oosterwyck-Gastuche, “Le Saint-Suaire et le radiocarbone,” Sel de la Terre (Avrillé, France) (20), 31–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bio. Photogr. (1)

V. D. Miller, S. F. Pellicori, “Ultraviolet fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin,” J. Bio. Photogr. 49, 71–85 (1981).

Nature (London) (1)

P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature (London) 337, (6208), 611–615 (1989).

Other (15)

A. M. Dubarle, Histoire ancienne du Linceul de Turin (OEIL, Paris, 1985).

M. Bergeret, “Linceul de Turin—le trou historique: 1204–1357,” in L’identification scientifique de l’homme du Linceul, Actes du Symposium scientifique international, Rome, 1993 (F.-X. de Guilbert, Paris, 1995), pp. 345–348.

W. Meacham, “Radiocarbon measurement and the age of the Turin Shroud: possibilities and uncertainties,” presented at the 1986 Hong Kong Shroud Symposium; website httl://www.shroud.com .

A. Garza-Valdes, F. Cervantes-Ibarrola, “Biogenic varnish on the Shroud of Turin,” in L’identification scientifique de l’homme du Linceul, Actes du Symposium scientifique international, Rome, 1993 (F.-X. de Guibert, Paris, 1995), pp. 279–282.

O. Petrosillo, E. Marinelli, The Enigma of the Shroud, A Challenge to Science (Publishers Enterprises Group, La Valette, Malta, 1996), Introduction, Chaps. I–VII.

H. E. Gove, Relic, Icon or Hoax? Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1996).

A. Adler, “Updating recent studies on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M. V. Orna, ed., ACS Symposium Series 625 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1996), Chap. 17.
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, J. R. Druzik. “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, J. B. Lambert, ed., ACS Advances in Chemistry205, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984), Chap. 22, pp. 447–476.

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, W. R. Ercoline, “Three-dimensional characteristic of the Shroud image,” in IEEE 1982 Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and Society (IEEE, New York, 1982), pp. 559–575.

J. P. Jackson, The Vertical Alignment of the Frontal Image, Shroud Spectrum International 32-33 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1989), pp. 3–26.

S. Rodante, “The imprints of the Shroud do not derive only from radiations of various wave-lengths,” Shroud Spectrum International 7 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1983), pp. 21–23.

S. Rodante, “Un lampo di luce sulla Sindone?,” in L’identification scientifique de l’homme du Linceul, Actes du Symposium scientifique international, Rome, 1993 (F.-X. de Guibert, Paris, 1995), pp. 259–264.

I. Wilson, The Shroud of Turin (Doubleday, New York, 1984).

P. Barbet, La Passion de N.-S. Jésus-Christ selon le chirurgien (Médiaspaul, Paris, 1965) (1st print. 1950); English translation, A Doctor at Calvary (Image Books, Doubleday, New York, 1963), Chaps. 1E, 9.

B. B. Lavoie, G. R. Lavoie, D. Klutstein, J. Regan, “In accordance with Jewish burial custom, the body of Jesus was not washed,” Shroud Spectrum International 3 (Indiana Center for Shroud Studies, Nashville, Ind., 1982), pp. 8–16; see F. T. Zugibe, “The Man of the Shroud was washed” (Sindon, Centro Internazionale di Sindonology, Torino, Italy, 1989), Nuova Serie, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 171–177.

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