Abstract

We describe the design and construction of a high-precision laser writing machine for the direct generation of large-diameter rotationally symmetric diffractive optics with continuous profiles in photoresist. The photoresist profile can be used as a replication master surface or etched into a silica substrate. Machine design methodology, as well as qualification of performance, is provided. Test results for an f/2 100-mm clear-aperture diffractive lens directly etched into a silica substrate are presented. Diffraction efficiency as a function of zone spacing and wave-front performance are given.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. J. Shackleford, X. Ning, “Design of plastic diffractive/refractive hybrid lenses for CCD cameras,” in Design, Fabrication, and Applications of Precision Plastic Optics, X. Ning, R. T. Herber, eds., Proc. SPIE2600, 100–108 (1995); T. A. Fritz, D. B. Pledger, T. R. Werner, “Diffractive optics in an ultraviolet satellite attitude sensor,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 368–371; W. Knapp, B. Volk, B. Tatian, C. G. Blough, R. Michaels, “Optical design comparison of 60 degree eyepieces, one with aspherics and one with a diffractive surface,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 98–101.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. G. Blough, S. K. Mack, R. L. Michaels, M. Rossi, “Diamond turning and replication of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 342–345.
  3. L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements,” in Holographic Optics, Design and Applications, I. Cindrich, ed., Proc. SPIE883, 155–162 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Schwider, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, R. Burow, “Testing aspherics in reflected light using blazed synthetic holograms,” Opt. Acta 27, 683–698 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. Suleski, D. C. O’Shea, “Gray-scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: I. commercial slide imagers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7507–7517 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “The fabrication of fine lens arrays by laser beam writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. SPIE398, 347–353 (1983); M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Design of a blazed grating consisting of metallic subwavelength binary grooves,” Opt. Commun. 98, 5–10 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayashi, H. Mishihara, “Laser beam lithographed micro-Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5120–5126 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. K. Cohen, B. Little, F. S. Luecke, “Techniques for measuring 1-µm diam Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 23, 637–640 (1984); R. M. O’Connell, C.-H. Chen, “Ronchi ruling characterization of axially symmetric laser beams,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4441–4446 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. K. Cohen, W. H. Gee, M. Ludeke, J. Lewkowicz, “Automatic focus control: the astigmatic lens approach,” Appl. Opt. 23, 565–570 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Design of a blazed grating consisting of metallic subwavelength binary grooves,” Opt. Commun. 98, 5–10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1984 (2)

1980 (1)

J. Schwider, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, R. Burow, “Testing aspherics in reflected light using blazed synthetic holograms,” Opt. Acta 27, 683–698 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Blough, C. G.

C. G. Blough, S. K. Mack, R. L. Michaels, M. Rossi, “Diamond turning and replication of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 342–345.

Burow, R.

J. Schwider, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, R. Burow, “Testing aspherics in reflected light using blazed synthetic holograms,” Opt. Acta 27, 683–698 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. K.

d’Auria, L.

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “The fabrication of fine lens arrays by laser beam writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. SPIE398, 347–353 (1983); M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gee, W. H.

Grzanna, J.

J. Schwider, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, R. Burow, “Testing aspherics in reflected light using blazed synthetic holograms,” Opt. Acta 27, 683–698 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Haidner, H.

H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Design of a blazed grating consisting of metallic subwavelength binary grooves,” Opt. Commun. 98, 5–10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

Huignard, J. P.

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, K.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Knop, K.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “The fabrication of fine lens arrays by laser beam writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. SPIE398, 347–353 (1983); M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, F.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Lewkowicz, J.

Little, B.

Ludeke, M.

Luecke, F. S.

Mack, S. K.

C. G. Blough, S. K. Mack, R. L. Michaels, M. Rossi, “Diamond turning and replication of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 342–345.

Michaels, R. L.

C. G. Blough, S. K. Mack, R. L. Michaels, M. Rossi, “Diamond turning and replication of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 342–345.

Mishihara, H.

Miyashiro, H.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Ning, X.

C. J. Shackleford, X. Ning, “Design of plastic diffractive/refractive hybrid lenses for CCD cameras,” in Design, Fabrication, and Applications of Precision Plastic Optics, X. Ning, R. T. Herber, eds., Proc. SPIE2600, 100–108 (1995); T. A. Fritz, D. B. Pledger, T. R. Werner, “Diffractive optics in an ultraviolet satellite attitude sensor,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 368–371; W. Knapp, B. Volk, B. Tatian, C. G. Blough, R. Michaels, “Optical design comparison of 60 degree eyepieces, one with aspherics and one with a diffractive surface,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 98–101.
[CrossRef]

Nomura, T.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D. C.

Ozono, S.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M.

C. G. Blough, S. K. Mack, R. L. Michaels, M. Rossi, “Diamond turning and replication of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 342–345.

Roy, A. M.

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Design of a blazed grating consisting of metallic subwavelength binary grooves,” Opt. Commun. 98, 5–10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwider, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, R. Burow, “Testing aspherics in reflected light using blazed synthetic holograms,” Opt. Acta 27, 683–698 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shackleford, C. J.

C. J. Shackleford, X. Ning, “Design of plastic diffractive/refractive hybrid lenses for CCD cameras,” in Design, Fabrication, and Applications of Precision Plastic Optics, X. Ning, R. T. Herber, eds., Proc. SPIE2600, 100–108 (1995); T. A. Fritz, D. B. Pledger, T. R. Werner, “Diffractive optics in an ultraviolet satellite attitude sensor,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 368–371; W. Knapp, B. Volk, B. Tatian, C. G. Blough, R. Michaels, “Optical design comparison of 60 degree eyepieces, one with aspherics and one with a diffractive surface,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 98–101.
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, J. T.

H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Design of a blazed grating consisting of metallic subwavelength binary grooves,” Opt. Commun. 98, 5–10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spitz, E.

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Spolaczyk, R.

J. Schwider, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, R. Burow, “Testing aspherics in reflected light using blazed synthetic holograms,” Opt. Acta 27, 683–698 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Design of a blazed grating consisting of metallic subwavelength binary grooves,” Opt. Commun. 98, 5–10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suleski, T. J.

Suzuki, M.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements,” in Holographic Optics, Design and Applications, I. Cindrich, ed., Proc. SPIE883, 155–162 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

Tashiro, H.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Usuki, M.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements,” in Holographic Optics, Design and Applications, I. Cindrich, ed., Proc. SPIE883, 155–162 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wakahayashi, K.

Yoshikawa, K.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Opt. Acta (1)

J. Schwider, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, R. Burow, “Testing aspherics in reflected light using blazed synthetic holograms,” Opt. Acta 27, 683–698 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Design of a blazed grating consisting of metallic subwavelength binary grooves,” Opt. Commun. 98, 5–10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements,” in Holographic Optics, Design and Applications, I. Cindrich, ed., Proc. SPIE883, 155–162 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Shackleford, X. Ning, “Design of plastic diffractive/refractive hybrid lenses for CCD cameras,” in Design, Fabrication, and Applications of Precision Plastic Optics, X. Ning, R. T. Herber, eds., Proc. SPIE2600, 100–108 (1995); T. A. Fritz, D. B. Pledger, T. R. Werner, “Diffractive optics in an ultraviolet satellite attitude sensor,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 368–371; W. Knapp, B. Volk, B. Tatian, C. G. Blough, R. Michaels, “Optical design comparison of 60 degree eyepieces, one with aspherics and one with a diffractive surface,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 98–101.
[CrossRef]

C. G. Blough, S. K. Mack, R. L. Michaels, M. Rossi, “Diamond turning and replication of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 342–345.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “The fabrication of fine lens arrays by laser beam writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. SPIE398, 347–353 (1983); M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng.16, 290–295 (1994); W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser write for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 137–147 (1990); V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of rotational laser-writer system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser-writer system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fizeau interferogram of f/2 diffractive element after reactive-ion etching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency of f/2 diffractive element, measured after etching at a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Specifications for Laser-Writer Test Optic

Equations (1)

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ϕr=2πλc1r2+c2r4+c3r6+···,

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