Abstract

We describe the characteristics of the wide-field, triply reflecting telescope adopted for the European Space Agency project STARS (seismic telescope for astrophysical research from space), operating in the visible and UV range.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Korsch, “Closed-form solution for three-mirror telescopes, corrected for spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, and field curvature,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2986–2987 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Frosch, D. G. Korsch, “Anastigmatic three-mirror telescope,” U.S. patent4,101,195 (29July1977).
  3. P. N. Robb, “Three-mirror telescopes: design and optimization,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2677–2685 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. Korsch, “Design and optimization technique for three-mirror telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3640–3645 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Iorio-Fili, G. Misuri, F. Scandone, “Theory of three-mirror telescopes with diffraction limited performances,” Opt. Acta, 27, 1035–1052 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, H. W. Epps, “Good imaging with very fast paraboloidal primaries: an optical solution and some applications,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 134–140 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. W. Epps, M. Takeda, “Optimization and practical designs for three-mirror telescopes,” Ann. Tokyo Astron. Obs., 2nd Ser.19, 410–412 (1983).
  8. R. V. Willstrop, “The Mersenne–Schmidt—a three-mirror survey telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 210, 597–609 (1984).
  9. M. Amoretti, M. Badiali, A. Preite-Martinez, “Three-reflection telescopes: two-mirror aplanatic solutions,” Astron. Astrophys. 211, 250–258 (1989).
  10. M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).
  11. D. O. Gough, “Comments on helioseismic inference,” in Progress of Seismology of the Sun and Stars, Y. Osaki, H. Shibahashi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 310–316.
  12. C. Catala, “Stellar activity: constraints expected from space experiments,” in Inside the Stars, W. W. Weiss, A. Baglin, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.40, 634–647 (1993).
  13. H. Bittner, M. Erdmann, “STARS Telescope Assembly Study, Final Presentation,” , 11December1995 (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands).
  14. E. Chavonet, G. Jones, M. Vacance, T. Viard, “STARS, Phase A final report,” (Aerospatiale Espace & Défense, Cannes, France, 1996).

1989

M. Amoretti, M. Badiali, A. Preite-Martinez, “Three-reflection telescopes: two-mirror aplanatic solutions,” Astron. Astrophys. 211, 250–258 (1989).

1984

R. V. Willstrop, “The Mersenne–Schmidt—a three-mirror survey telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 210, 597–609 (1984).

1980

D. Iorio-Fili, G. Misuri, F. Scandone, “Theory of three-mirror telescopes with diffraction limited performances,” Opt. Acta, 27, 1035–1052 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Korsch, “Design and optimization technique for three-mirror telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3640–3645 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

1972

Amoretti, M.

M. Amoretti, M. Badiali, A. Preite-Martinez, “Three-reflection telescopes: two-mirror aplanatic solutions,” Astron. Astrophys. 211, 250–258 (1989).

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, H. W. Epps, “Good imaging with very fast paraboloidal primaries: an optical solution and some applications,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 134–140 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Badiali, M.

M. Amoretti, M. Badiali, A. Preite-Martinez, “Three-reflection telescopes: two-mirror aplanatic solutions,” Astron. Astrophys. 211, 250–258 (1989).

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Bittner, H.

H. Bittner, M. Erdmann, “STARS Telescope Assembly Study, Final Presentation,” , 11December1995 (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

Catala, C.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

C. Catala, “Stellar activity: constraints expected from space experiments,” in Inside the Stars, W. W. Weiss, A. Baglin, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.40, 634–647 (1993).

Chavonet, E.

E. Chavonet, G. Jones, M. Vacance, T. Viard, “STARS, Phase A final report,” (Aerospatiale Espace & Défense, Cannes, France, 1996).

Epps, H. W.

J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, H. W. Epps, “Good imaging with very fast paraboloidal primaries: an optical solution and some applications,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 134–140 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Epps, M. Takeda, “Optimization and practical designs for three-mirror telescopes,” Ann. Tokyo Astron. Obs., 2nd Ser.19, 410–412 (1983).

Erdmann, M.

H. Bittner, M. Erdmann, “STARS Telescope Assembly Study, Final Presentation,” , 11December1995 (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

Favata, F.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Frandsen, S.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Fridlund, M.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Frosch, R.

R. Frosch, D. G. Korsch, “Anastigmatic three-mirror telescope,” U.S. patent4,101,195 (29July1977).

Gough, D. O.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

D. O. Gough, “Comments on helioseismic inference,” in Progress of Seismology of the Sun and Stars, Y. Osaki, H. Shibahashi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 310–316.

Hoyng, P.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Iorio-Fili, D.

D. Iorio-Fili, G. Misuri, F. Scandone, “Theory of three-mirror telescopes with diffraction limited performances,” Opt. Acta, 27, 1035–1052 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G.

E. Chavonet, G. Jones, M. Vacance, T. Viard, “STARS, Phase A final report,” (Aerospatiale Espace & Défense, Cannes, France, 1996).

Korsch, D.

Korsch, D. G.

D. G. Korsch, “Design and optimization technique for three-mirror telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3640–3645 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Frosch, D. G. Korsch, “Anastigmatic three-mirror telescope,” U.S. patent4,101,195 (29July1977).

Misuri, G.

D. Iorio-Fili, G. Misuri, F. Scandone, “Theory of three-mirror telescopes with diffraction limited performances,” Opt. Acta, 27, 1035–1052 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pace, O.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Preite-Martinez, A.

M. Amoretti, M. Badiali, A. Preite-Martinez, “Three-reflection telescopes: two-mirror aplanatic solutions,” Astron. Astrophys. 211, 250–258 (1989).

Robb, P. N.

Roca-Cortés, T.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Roxburg, I. W.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Scandone, F.

D. Iorio-Fili, G. Misuri, F. Scandone, “Theory of three-mirror telescopes with diffraction limited performances,” Opt. Acta, 27, 1035–1052 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sterken, C.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Takeda, M.

H. W. Epps, M. Takeda, “Optimization and practical designs for three-mirror telescopes,” Ann. Tokyo Astron. Obs., 2nd Ser.19, 410–412 (1983).

Vacance, M.

E. Chavonet, G. Jones, M. Vacance, T. Viard, “STARS, Phase A final report,” (Aerospatiale Espace & Défense, Cannes, France, 1996).

Viard, T.

E. Chavonet, G. Jones, M. Vacance, T. Viard, “STARS, Phase A final report,” (Aerospatiale Espace & Défense, Cannes, France, 1996).

Volonté, S.

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Willstrop, R. V.

R. V. Willstrop, “The Mersenne–Schmidt—a three-mirror survey telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 210, 597–609 (1984).

Woolf, N. J.

J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, H. W. Epps, “Good imaging with very fast paraboloidal primaries: an optical solution and some applications,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 134–140 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

M. Amoretti, M. Badiali, A. Preite-Martinez, “Three-reflection telescopes: two-mirror aplanatic solutions,” Astron. Astrophys. 211, 250–258 (1989).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

R. V. Willstrop, “The Mersenne–Schmidt—a three-mirror survey telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 210, 597–609 (1984).

Opt. Acta

D. Iorio-Fili, G. Misuri, F. Scandone, “Theory of three-mirror telescopes with diffraction limited performances,” Opt. Acta, 27, 1035–1052 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. P. Angel, N. J. Woolf, H. W. Epps, “Good imaging with very fast paraboloidal primaries: an optical solution and some applications,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 134–140 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Epps, M. Takeda, “Optimization and practical designs for three-mirror telescopes,” Ann. Tokyo Astron. Obs., 2nd Ser.19, 410–412 (1983).

M. Badiali, C. Catala, F. Favata, M. Fridlund, S. Frandsen, D. O. Gough, P. Hoyng, O. Pace, T. Roca-Cortés, I. W. Roxburg, C. Sterken, S. Volonté, “STARS, Seismic Telescope for Astrophysical Research from Space,” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

D. O. Gough, “Comments on helioseismic inference,” in Progress of Seismology of the Sun and Stars, Y. Osaki, H. Shibahashi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 310–316.

C. Catala, “Stellar activity: constraints expected from space experiments,” in Inside the Stars, W. W. Weiss, A. Baglin, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.40, 634–647 (1993).

H. Bittner, M. Erdmann, “STARS Telescope Assembly Study, Final Presentation,” , 11December1995 (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

E. Chavonet, G. Jones, M. Vacance, T. Viard, “STARS, Phase A final report,” (Aerospatiale Espace & Défense, Cannes, France, 1996).

R. Frosch, D. G. Korsch, “Anastigmatic three-mirror telescope,” U.S. patent4,101,195 (29July1977).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration of TRT adopted for STARS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration of equivalent RCT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Figuring profile of main mirror surface, for both first and third reflecting regions. The solid curve shows the amount of material to be removed from the basic spherical surface. The dotted curve shows the profile of the unoptimized configuration; it reaches 180 micrometers (out of scale) at the border of the mirror (500 mm from the axis). The horizontal straight line at zero level represents the surface of the basic sphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nominal PSF of the TRT computed with a wavelength of 0.5 micrometers, without taking into account the presence of the spider. The diameter encircling 80% of the energy is 0.55 arc sec over 1 deg2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image size of the Ritchey–Chrétien telescope (RC) and the TRT (TR) in a 1° FOV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Map of the CCD mosaic that forms the main detector. The thick line circumscribes the sensitive areas of the 12 buttable CCD plates (each plate is a 30 mm × 60 mm rectangle, in which one half is sensitive to the light and the second half is used for the readout).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Attenuation resulting from the vignetting effect as a function of the distance from the optical axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Regions of a FOV of 90 arc min (circles) compared with the size of the detector for different focal lengths of the TRT.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

STARS telescope. M1 and M2 are, respectively, the main mirror and the second mirror. D1 and D2 are the two detectors; BS is the beam splitter; and B1, B2, B3, and B4 are the baffles.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Triply-Reflecting Telescopes (TRT) Ritchey–Chrétien Telescopes (RCT)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Limits of Working Reflecting Zones of TRT

Tables Icon

Table 3 Figuring Coefficientsa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Definition of Basic Spherical Surfaces after Optimization

Tables Icon

Table 5 Various Solutions for TRT Configuration

Tables Icon

Table 6 Internal Bafflesa

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Table 7 Weight Budget of STARS Telescopea

Tables Icon

Table 8 Enlargement of PSFa

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

xr=ay2+by4+cy6+dy8+ey10,
xy=2ay21+1-4ay21/2+By4+Cy6+Dy8+Ey10.
xy=2ay21+1-4by2a1/2+Cy6+Dy8+Ey10.
K1=-1.600629  K2=-3.709390  K3=-6.550396

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