Abstract

Current atmospheric correction and aerosol retrieval algorithms for ocean color sensors use measurements of the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance in the near infrared, where the contribution from the ocean is known for case 1 waters, to assess the aerosol optical properties. Such measurements are incapable of distinguishing between weakly and strongly absorbing aerosols, and the atmospheric correction and aerosol retrieval algorithms fail if the incorrect absorption properties of the aerosol are assumed. We present an algorithm that appears promising for the retrieval of in-water biophysical properties and aerosol optical properties in atmospheres containing both weakly and strongly absorbing aerosols. By using the entire spectrum available to most ocean color instruments (412–865 nm), we simultaneously recover the ocean’s bio-optical properties and a set of aerosol models that best describes the aerosol optical properties. The algorithm is applied to simulated situations that are likely to occur off the U.S. East Coast in summer when the aerosols could be of the locally generated weakly absorbing Maritime type or of the pollution-generated strongly absorbing urban-type transported over the ocean by the winds. The simulations show that the algorithm behaves well in an atmosphere with either weakly or strongly absorbing aerosol. The algorithm successfully identifies absorbing aerosols and provides close values for the aerosol optical thickness. It also provides excellent retrievals of the ocean bio-optical properties. The algorithm uses a bio-optical model of case 1 waters and a set of aerosol models for its operation. The relevant parameters of both the ocean and atmosphere are systematically varied to find the best (in a rms sense) fit to the measured top-of-the-atmosphere spectral reflectance. Examples are provided that show the algorithm’s performance in the presence of errors, e.g., error in the contribution from whitecaps and error in radiometric calibration.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1997

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,081–17,106 (1997).

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O Torres, C Hsu, C Seftor, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,911–16,922 (1997).

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of the water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on the atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Husar, L. L. Stowe, J. M. Prospero, “Satellite sensing of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with NOAA AVHRR,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,889–16,909 (1997).

W. A. Abdou, J. V. Martonchik, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, “A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,883–16,888 (1997).

1996

1995

A Morel, K. J. Voss, B Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Estimation of aerosol columnar size distribution and optical thickness from the angular distribution of radiance exiting the atmosphere: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6989–7001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

1992

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. André, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery, revisited,” Oceanolog. Acta 14, 3–22 (1991).

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II: models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).

1987

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanolog. Acta 7, 33–50 (1987).

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the oceans in the visible,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. A. Durkee, D. R. Jensen, E. E. Hindman, T. H. V. Haar, “The relationship between marine aerosol particles and satellite-detected radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 4063–4072 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

1983

1981

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite: calculation of optimum wavelength,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9801–9805 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite: calculation of optimum viewing geometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847–7856 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflectances, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

1977

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from Erts observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–970 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1975

M. Griggs, “Measurements of the aerosol optical thickness over water using ERTS-1 data,” J. Air Pollut. Control. Assoc. 25, 622–626 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abdou, W. A.

W. A. Abdou, J. V. Martonchik, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, “A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,883–16,888 (1997).

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

Ackerman, T. P.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

André, J.-M.

J.-M. André, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery, revisited,” Oceanolog. Acta 14, 3–22 (1991).

Arao, K.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II: models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Betzer, P. R.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O Torres, C Hsu, C Seftor, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,911–16,922 (1997).

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanolog. Acta 7, 33–50 (1987).

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruegge, C. J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costello, D. K.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

d’Almeida, G. A.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Daniels, J. A.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, E. D.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

de Leffe, A.

Deschamps, P. Y.

R Frouin, M Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in-situ measurements and implications for remote sensing of ocean color and aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflectances, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
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Diner, D. J.

W. A. Abdou, J. V. Martonchik, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, “A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,883–16,888 (1997).

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ditullio, G. R.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duce, R. A.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P. A.

P. A. Durkee, D. R. Jensen, E. E. Hindman, T. H. V. Haar, “The relationship between marine aerosol particles and satellite-detected radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 4063–4072 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Duval, V. G.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Volume 1, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “CZCS ‘system calibration:’ a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feeley, R. A.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Volume 1, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” , 1979 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.).

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1992).

Fraser, R. S.

Frouin, R

R Frouin, M Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in-situ measurements and implications for remote sensing of ocean color and aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

Gentili, B

A Morel, K. J. Voss, B Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

Gentili, B.

Gerstl, S. A. W.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of the water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on the atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
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H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,081–17,106 (1997).

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Estimation of aerosol columnar size distribution and optical thickness from the angular distribution of radiance exiting the atmosphere: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6989–7001 (1995).
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M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Estimating aerosol optical properties over the oceans with the multiangle imaging spectroradiometer: some preliminary studies,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4042–4057 (1994).
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R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “CZCS ‘system calibration:’ a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWIFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
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M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Radiance reflected from the ocean-atmosphere system: synthesis from individual components of the aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7088–7095 (1994).
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H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of SeaWIFS,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
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D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the oceans in the visible,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
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H. R. Gordon, “Removal of atmospheric effects from satellite imagery of the oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631–1636 (1978).
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H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
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H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

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S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Volume 1, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

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P. A. Durkee, D. R. Jensen, E. E. Hindman, T. H. V. Haar, “The relationship between marine aerosol particles and satellite-detected radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 4063–4072 (1986).
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Haigh, J. D.

Hales, J. M.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
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Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
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J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
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Hawes, S. K.

Herman, J. R.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O Torres, C Hsu, C Seftor, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,911–16,922 (1997).

Herman, M.

Hindman, E. E.

P. A. Durkee, D. R. Jensen, E. E. Hindman, T. H. V. Haar, “The relationship between marine aerosol particles and satellite-detected radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 4063–4072 (1986).
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Hofmann, D. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
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Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Volume 1, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hovis, W. A.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O Torres, C Hsu, C Seftor, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,911–16,922 (1997).

Husar, R. B.

R. B. Husar, L. L. Stowe, J. M. Prospero, “Satellite sensing of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with NOAA AVHRR,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,889–16,909 (1997).

Jensen, D. R.

P. A. Durkee, D. R. Jensen, E. E. Hindman, T. H. V. Haar, “The relationship between marine aerosol particles and satellite-detected radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 4063–4072 (1986).
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Kahn, R. A.

W. A. Abdou, J. V. Martonchik, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, “A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,883–16,888 (1997).

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Y. J. Kaufman, “Remote sensing of direct and indirect aerosol forcing,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. H. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 297–332.

Kenizys, F. X.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

Klaasen, K. P.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
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P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984).
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G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Land, P. E.

Laws, E. A.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
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Lee, Z. P.

Marcus, I.

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from Erts observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–970 (1977).
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Martonchik, J. V.

W. A. Abdou, J. V. Martonchik, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, “A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,883–16,888 (1997).

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
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Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
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McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Volume 1, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

McClain, E. P.

C. R. N. Rao, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, J. Sapper, “Development and application of aerosol remote sensing with AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. Hobbs, M. P. McCormick, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 69–80.

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Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from Erts observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–970 (1977).
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Merrill, J. T.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
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Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A

A Morel, K. J. Voss, B Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

A Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. André, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery, revisited,” Oceanolog. Acta 14, 3–22 (1991).

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanolog. Acta 7, 33–50 (1987).

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II: models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Nakamoto, G. W. L. A. D. I.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, Y.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II: models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Ohring, G.

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from Erts observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–970 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pagano, R.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1992).

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

R. B. Husar, L. L. Stowe, J. M. Prospero, “Satellite sensing of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with NOAA AVHRR,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,889–16,909 (1997).

Quenzel, H.

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite: calculation of optimum wavelength,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9801–9805 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite: calculation of optimum viewing geometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847–7856 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from Erts observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–970 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C. R. N.

C. R. N. Rao, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, J. Sapper, “Development and application of aerosol remote sensing with AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. Hobbs, M. P. McCormick, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 69–80.

Reilly, T. H.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sapper, J.

C. R. N. Rao, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, J. Sapper, “Development and application of aerosol remote sensing with AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. Hobbs, M. P. McCormick, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 69–80.

Sayed, S. Y. E.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, S. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwindling, M

R Frouin, M Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in-situ measurements and implications for remote sensing of ocean color and aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).

Seftor, C

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O Torres, C Hsu, C Seftor, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,911–16,922 (1997).

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

Sellers, P. J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” , 1979 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.).

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Shiobara, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II: models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).

Steward, R. G.

Stowe, L. L.

R. B. Husar, L. L. Stowe, J. M. Prospero, “Satellite sensing of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with NOAA AVHRR,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,889–16,909 (1997).

C. R. N. Rao, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, J. Sapper, “Development and application of aerosol remote sensing with AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. Hobbs, M. P. McCormick, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 69–80.

Strum, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II: models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Tanre, D.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1992).

Tindale, N. W.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Torres, O

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O Torres, C Hsu, C Seftor, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,911–16,922 (1997).

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Uematsu, M.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1992).

Voss, K. J.

A Morel, K. J. Voss, B Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

Wang, M.

West, R. A.

W. A. Abdou, J. V. Martonchik, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, “A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,883–16,888 (1997).

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamano, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II: models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Yang, H.

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, R. W.

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of atmospheric effects from satellite imagery of the oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631–1636 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWIFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Fraser, “Satellite measurement of mass of Sahara dust in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2471–2479 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Land, J. D. Haigh, “Atmospheric correction over case 2 waters with an iterative fitting algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5443–5451 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflectances, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of the water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on the atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Estimating aerosol optical properties over the oceans with the multiangle imaging spectroradiometer: some preliminary studies,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4042–4057 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Estimation of aerosol columnar size distribution and optical thickness from the angular distribution of radiance exiting the atmosphere: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6989–7001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of SeaWIFS,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Radiance reflected from the ocean-atmosphere system: synthesis from individual components of the aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7088–7095 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boundary Layer Meteorol.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles

R. W. Young, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. K. Costello, R. A. Duce, G. R. Ditullio, N. W. Tindale, E. A. Laws, M. Uematsu, J. T. Merrill, R. A. Feeley, “Atmospheric iron inputs and primary productivity: phytoplankton responses in the North Pacific,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5, 119–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. L. A. D. I. Nakamoto, R. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 200–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Pollut. Control. Assoc.

M. Griggs, “Measurements of the aerosol optical thickness over water using ERTS-1 data,” J. Air Pollut. Control. Assoc. 25, 622–626 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res.

Y. Mekler, H. Quenzel, G. Ohring, I. Marcus, “Relative atmospheric aerosol content from Erts observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 967–970 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O Torres, C Hsu, C Seftor, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,911–16,922 (1997).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “CZCS ‘system calibration:’ a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,081–17,106 (1997).

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite: calculation of optimum viewing geometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847–7856 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, “Turbidity of the atmosphere determined from satellite: calculation of optimum wavelength,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9801–9805 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Durkee, D. R. Jensen, E. E. Hindman, T. H. V. Haar, “The relationship between marine aerosol particles and satellite-detected radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 4063–4072 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Abdou, J. V. Martonchik, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, “A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,883–16,888 (1997).

R Frouin, M Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in-situ measurements and implications for remote sensing of ocean color and aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).

R. B. Husar, L. L. Stowe, J. M. Prospero, “Satellite sensing of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with NOAA AVHRR,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 16,889–16,909 (1997).

A Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).

A Morel, K. J. Voss, B Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II: models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Limnol. Oceanogr.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Oceanolog. Acta

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanolog. Acta 7, 33–50 (1987).

J.-M. André, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery, revisited,” Oceanolog. Acta 14, 3–22 (1991).

Remote Sensing Environ.

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the oceans in the visible,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” , 1979 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.).

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: the lowtran 6 model,” , 1983 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.)

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1992).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Volume 1, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: a Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, “Remote sensing of direct and indirect aerosol forcing,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. H. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 297–332.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

C. R. N. Rao, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, J. Sapper, “Development and application of aerosol remote sensing with AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. Hobbs, M. P. McCormick, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 69–80.

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrum of normalized water-leaving reflectance [ρw(λ)]N for pigment concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/m3. For each pigment concentration, from the top to the bottom curves, the values of coefficient b0 are 0.45, 0.30, and 0.12 m−1, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curve fits of [ρa(λ) + ρra(λ)] versus τa for aerosol models M70, C70, T70, and U70 with θ0 = 60.0°, θv = 45.92°, and ϕv = 93.49°: (a) 443 and (b) 865 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectrum matching for pigment concentration C = 0.50 mg/m3 with Sun-viewing geometry of θ0 = 20.0°, θv = 45.92°, and ϕv = 90.0°: (a) M80, (b) C80, (c) T80, and (d) U80.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the physical thickness of the aerosol layer on the spectrum of ρa + ρra. For U80 the aerosol is confined to a thin layer near the surface, whereas for U180, U280, U480, and UU80, the aerosol is uniformly mixed with air to heights of 1, 2, and 4 km, and the whole atmosphere, respectively.

Tables (16)

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Table 1 Values of ω0 at 865 nm for the Candidate and Test Aerosol Models

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Table 2 Mean Values of Retrieved ω0′ (865) for the Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries and Each of Four Aerosol Modelsa

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Table 3 Mean Values of Retrieved C′ for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries and Four Aerosol Modelsa

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Table 4 Mean Values of Retrieved C′ for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries and Three Aerosol Models (M80, C80, T80) derived with the Gordon and Wang11 Algorithma

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Table 5 Percentage of Retrieved Pigment Concentration C′ Within Certain Error Limits for Aerosol Models M80, C80, T80, and U80

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Table 6 Mean Values of Retrieved τa′(865) for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries and Four Aerosol Models (M80, C80, T80, U80)a

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Table 7 Mean Values of Retrieved C for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries and Three Aerosol Models (UU80, U280, U480)a

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Table 8 Percentage of Retrieved Pigment Concentration C Within Certain Error Limits for Aerosol Models UU80, U280, and U480

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Table 9 Mean Values of Retrieved ω0(865) for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries of Aerosol Model U180a

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Table 10 Mean Values of Retrieved C for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries of Aerosol Model U180a

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Table 11 Percentage of Retrieved Pigment Concentration C Within Certain Error Limits for the Aerosol Model U180

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Table 12 Mean Values of Retrieved τa(865) for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries of the Aerosol Model U180a

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Table 13 Values of the Residual Radiometric Calibration Uncertainty After Affecting an In-orbit Calibration Adjustment45

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Table 14 Mean Values of the Retrieved C for the Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries and Each of Four Aerosol Models (M80, C80, T80, U80) for the Indicated Calibration Error (Table 13)a

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Table 15 Mean Values of Retrieved C for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries and Four Aerosol Models (M80, C80, T80, U80) for Δ[ρwc] = +0.002a

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Table 16 Mean Values of Retrieved C for Seven Sun-Viewing Geometries and Four Aerosol Models (M80, C80, T80, U80) for Δ[ρwc] = −0.002a

Equations (9)

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ρ t ( λ ) = ρ r ( λ ) + ρ a ( λ ) + ρ r a ( λ ) + t ( λ ) ρ w c ( λ ) + t ( λ ) ρ w ( λ ) ,
[ ρ t ( λ ) - ρ r ( λ ) - t ( λ ) ρ w c ( λ ) ] = [ ρ a ( λ ) + ρ r a ( λ ) ] + [ t ( λ ) ρ w ( λ ) ] .
[ ρ t ( λ ) - ρ r ( λ ) - t ( λ ) ρ w c ( λ ) ] = [ ρ a ( λ ) + ρ r a ( λ ) ] + [ t ( λ ) ρ w ( λ ) ]
[ ρ w ( λ ) ] N ρ w exp [ + ( τ r / 2 + τ O z ) / cos θ 0 ] ,
t ( λ ) = exp { - [ τ r ( λ ) / 2 + τ O z ( λ ) ] / cos θ v } ,
t ( λ ) ρ w ( λ ) = [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N exp { - [ τ r ( λ ) / 2 + τ O z ( λ ) ] × ( 1 cos θ 0 + 1 cos θ v ) } .
[ ρ a ( λ ) + ρ r a ( λ ) ] = a ( λ ) τ a + b ( λ ) τ a 2 + c ( λ ) τ a 3 + d ( λ ) τ a 4
δ ( A , τ a , C , b 0 ) = 100 % ( 1 N - 1 i = 1 N { [ ρ t ( λ i ) - ρ r ( λ i ) - t ( λ i ) ρ w c ( λ i ) ] - [ ρ t ( λ i ) - ρ r ( λ i ) - t ( λ i ) ρ w c ( λ i ) ] [ ρ t ( λ i ) - ρ r ( λ i ) - t ( λ i ) ρ w c ( λ i ) ] } 2 ) 1 / 2 .
t ( λ ) ρ w c ( λ ) = [ ρ w c ( λ ) ] N t ( θ 0 , λ ) t ( θ v , λ ) ,

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